# 8 th Grade Science EOG REVIEW. Goal 1 The designer will design and conduct investigations to demonstrate an understanding of scientific inquiry. The Scientific.

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8 th Grade Science EOG REVIEW

Goal 1 The designer will design and conduct investigations to demonstrate an understanding of scientific inquiry. The Scientific Method: The 6 Steps 1. Ask a question 2. Form a hypothesis 3. Test hypothesis 4. Analyze Data 5. Draw Conclusions 6. Communicate Results

Some terms that you need to remember that are part of the scientific method. Hypothesis: An educated guess Scientific method: a series or organized steps that scientists use as a guide for solving a problem or answering a question. Variable: any factor that can affect the results of an experiment. Control group: a standard set-up in which all variables remain constant and to which the experimental group is compared to.

Continued Experimental group: a set-up that is identical to the control group in every way, except for a change in the one variable you are testing. For example, If you have 3 beakers that you add water too and then you add 10 mL of salt to one, 20 mL to the second beaker, and no salt to the 3 rd. The beaker with no salt would be the control and the other two would be the experimentals.

Goal 1 continued Dependent and Independent Variables Remember that a variable as any factor that can affect the outcome of an experiment. We have two kinds. Independent Variable: It is the variable that is changed or manipulated during the experiment. Dependent variable: the factor that responds to changes in the independent variable. In the following hypothesis: Tomato plants treated with Fertilizer X will produce larger tomatoes than tomato plants provided only with water. Fertilizer X is the independent Tomato size is the dependent variable

Basic Units of Measurement LengthMeterM MassKilogramKg TimeSeconds TempKelvinK VolumeLiterL

Common SI Prefixes MegaM10^61,000,000 KiloK10^31000 Hectoh10^2100 Decada10^110 Decid10^-1.1 Centic10^-2.01 Millim10^-3.001

Models in Science Model: a visual representation of something that can be used to show or explain how things function. Models are used in science to represent an actual object that may to be too large or too small to examine closely.

Websites for further study Scientific Method 1. http://www.biology4kids.com/files/studies_ scimethod.html http://www.biology4kids.com/files/studies_ scimethod.html 2. http://cte.jhu.edu/techacademy/web/2000/ lehman/scientificmethod.html http://cte.jhu.edu/techacademy/web/2000/ lehman/scientificmethod.html Standard Units of Measurement 1. http://library.thinkquest.org/16600/referen ces/units.shtml

Standard Unit of Measurement continued 2. http://www.visionlearning.com/library/mod ule_viewer.php?mid=47 http://www.visionlearning.com/library/mod ule_viewer.php?mid=47

Goal 2 The learner will demonstrate an understanding of technological design. Technology is the application of science to everyday life. As our needs change, science is applied to technology to meet those needs. 1. Artifact: an object that is primitive (there is a newer technology to replace the old one. For example: An artifact would be the typewriter.

While the typewriter is a way to type text, a computer is better technology for the same job. Hardware: physical equipment that is used to carry out technological functions. Methodology: a set of procedures or a means of doing something. The scientific method is an example of methodology. System of production: technology to produce goods. Example: assembly line. Social-technical system: how society affects technology and how technology affects society.

Technological Design The stages in the design process of technology: 1. Problem identification: some realizes there is a problem that technology could fix. 2. Solution design: a layout of how the new technology will fix the problem 3. Implementation: Testing of the new technology 4. Evaluation: See if your original goals were met.

Links for Goal 2 for further study http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/trinity/relate.ht ml

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