Presentation on theme: "DNA Technology and its Applications"— Presentation transcript:
1DNA Technology and its Applications S. Livingstone
2We are going to study the following DNA technologies and their real-world applications: DNA extractionGene Sequence AnalysisRecombinant DNACloningGel ElectrophoresisGene TherapyPolymerase Chain Reaction
4How is DNA extracted from living things? In class, we extracted DNA from our cheeks. Scientists and researchers use more elaborate techniques when extracting DNAClick on the following link to extract DNA from a human online./
5Recombinant (Re-com-bin-nint) DNA & Transgenic (Trans-jen-ic) Organisms
6What is recombinant DNA? Click on the following link to learn about recombinant DNA:Applications/GMOpkgJKloseGLampard2.swf
7Practical uses of recombinant DNA… Recombinant (Homemade) Vaccines (ie. Hepatitis B)Production of insulin (to help with diabetes)Production of recombinant (homemade) pharmaceuticalsPrevention and cure of sickle cell anemiaPrevention and cure of cystic fibrosisTo help with issues caused by bad genesProduction of clotting factors (to help stop bleeding)
8Another Major Application of Recombinant DNA Using the technology of recombinant DNA, we are able to introduce specific genes from one organism into another. A transgenic organism is an organism that has been genetically engineered to contain 1 or more genes
9Applications of Transgenic Organisms Transgenic LivestockFarm animals that are genetically altered to synthesize marketable proteins.Mice that urinate human growth hormone (HGH)Goats that produce the malaria antigen for use in vaccinesCows that produce a human protein in their milkPigs that are genetically altered so their organs can be transplanted into a human without rejection
10Applications of Transgenic Organisms Transgenic PlantsPlants that produce their own insecticidesCrops that have increased drought and heat resistance
12Genetic Engineering is… The technique of removing, changing, or adding genes (chunks of DNA) to a DNA molecule to change the information it contains. By changing this information, we can change the type or amount of proteins an organism is capable of producing.Then, if the proteins change, the TRAIT changes, like if the genes in your eye changed, then your eye color can change.Genetic Engineering we could do this.
13Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) Often, the label GMO and the term "transgenic" are used to call organisms that have received new genes from other organisms by lab "gene transfer" methods.
15What is Gel Electrophoresis? Click on the following link: DNA Interactive to answer questions about gel electrophoresis.
16What are the practical applications of gel electrophoresis? DNA pieces produced by the gel electrophoresis can be used in other technologies like PCR, cloning and DNA sequencingOr, the DNA fragments can be used by forensic scientists (to solve crimes), conservation biologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, etc.
17How is gel electrophoresis used by scientists? Human DNA can be analyzed toProvide evidence in criminal casesDiagnose genetic diseasesSolve paternity casesSamples of DNA can be obtained from tissue and body fluidCheek cellsSkinHairBloodSemen
18What are the practical applications of gel electrophoresis? Conservation biologists use DNA to determine genetic similarity among populations and individualsTaxonomists use DNA to help distinguish speciesEvolutionary biologists use DNA profiles to compare similarities and differences to construct family trees