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DNA Technology and its Applications S. Livingstone.

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Presentation on theme: "DNA Technology and its Applications S. Livingstone."— Presentation transcript:

1 DNA Technology and its Applications S. Livingstone

2 We are going to study the following DNA technologies and their real-world applications: DNA extraction DNA extraction Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA Gel Electrophoresis Gel Electrophoresis Polymerase Chain Reaction Polymerase Chain Reaction Gene Sequence Analysis Gene Sequence Analysis Cloning Cloning Gene Therapy Gene Therapy

3 DNA EXTRACTION

4 How is DNA extracted from living things? In class, we extracted DNA from our cheeks. Scientists and researchers use more elaborate techniques when extracting DNA In class, we extracted DNA from our cheeks. Scientists and researchers use more elaborate techniques when extracting DNA Click on the following link to extract DNA from a human online. Click on the following link to extract DNA from a human online. / / / /

5 Recombinant (Re-com-bin-nint) DNA & Transgenic (Trans-jen-ic) Organisms

6 What is recombinant DNA? Click on the following link to learn about recombinant DNA: Click on the following link to learn about recombinant DNA: Applications/GMOpkgJKloseGLampard2.swf Applications/GMOpkgJKloseGLampard2.swf Applications/GMOpkgJKloseGLampard2.swf Applications/GMOpkgJKloseGLampard2.swf

7 Practical uses of recombinant DNA… Recombinant (Homemade) Vaccines (ie. Hepatitis B) Recombinant (Homemade) Vaccines (ie. Hepatitis B) Prevention and cure of sickle cell anemia Prevention and cure of sickle cell anemia Prevention and cure of cystic fibrosis Prevention and cure of cystic fibrosis Production of clotting factors (to help stop bleeding) Production of clotting factors (to help stop bleeding) Production of insulin (to help with diabetes) Production of insulin (to help with diabetes) Production of recombinant (homemade) pharmaceuticals Production of recombinant (homemade) pharmaceuticals To help with issues caused by bad genes To help with issues caused by bad genes

8 Another Major Application of Recombinant DNA Using the technology of recombinant DNA, we are able to introduce specific genes from one organism into another. A transgenic organism is an organism that has been genetically engineered to contain 1 or more genes

9 Applications of Transgenic Organisms Transgenic Livestock Transgenic Livestock Farm animals that are genetically altered to synthesize marketable proteins. Farm animals that are genetically altered to synthesize marketable proteins. Mice that urinate human growth hormone (HGH) Mice that urinate human growth hormone (HGH) Goats that produce the malaria antigen for use in vaccines Goats that produce the malaria antigen for use in vaccines Cows that produce a human protein in their milk Cows that produce a human protein in their milk Pigs that are genetically altered so their organs can be transplanted into a human without rejection Pigs that are genetically altered so their organs can be transplanted into a human without rejection

10 Applications of Transgenic Organisms Transgenic Plants Transgenic Plants Plants that produce their own insecticides Plants that produce their own insecticides Crops that have increased drought and heat resistance Crops that have increased drought and heat resistance

11 Genetic Engineering & GMO

12 Genetic Engineering is… The technique of removing, changing, or adding genes (chunks of DNA) to a DNA molecule to change the information it contains. By changing this information, we can change the type or amount of proteins an organism is capable of producing. The technique of removing, changing, or adding genes (chunks of DNA) to a DNA molecule to change the information it contains. By changing this information, we can change the type or amount of proteins an organism is capable of producing. Then, if the proteins change, the TRAIT changes, like if the genes in your eye changed, then your eye color can change. Then, if the proteins change, the TRAIT changes, like if the genes in your eye changed, then your eye color can change. Genetic Engineering we could do this. Genetic Engineering we could do this.

13 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) Often, the label GMO and the term "transgenic" are used to call organisms that have received new genes from other organisms by lab "gene transfer" methods. Often, the label GMO and the term "transgenic" are used to call organisms that have received new genes from other organisms by lab "gene transfer" methods.

14 Gel Electrophoresis (Elec-tro-for-e-sis)

15 What is Gel Electrophoresis? Click on the following link: DNA Interactive to answer questions about gel electrophoresis. Click on the following link: DNA Interactive to answer questions about gel electrophoresis.DNA InteractiveDNA Interactive

16 What are the practical applications of gel electrophoresis? DNA pieces produced by the gel electrophoresis can be used in other technologies like PCR, cloning and DNA sequencing DNA pieces produced by the gel electrophoresis can be used in other technologies like PCR, cloning and DNA sequencing Or, the DNA fragments can be used by forensic scientists (to solve crimes), conservation biologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, etc. Or, the DNA fragments can be used by forensic scientists (to solve crimes), conservation biologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, etc.

17 How is gel electrophoresis used by scientists? Human DNA can be analyzed to Human DNA can be analyzed to Provide evidence in criminal cases Provide evidence in criminal cases Diagnose genetic diseases Diagnose genetic diseases Solve paternity cases Solve paternity cases Samples of DNA can be obtained from tissue and body fluid Samples of DNA can be obtained from tissue and body fluid Cheek cells Cheek cells Skin Skin Hair Hair Blood Blood Semen Semen

18 What are the practical applications of gel electrophoresis? Conservation biologists use DNA to determine genetic similarity among populations and individuals Conservation biologists use DNA to determine genetic similarity among populations and individuals Taxonomists use DNA to help distinguish species Taxonomists use DNA to help distinguish species Evolutionary biologists use DNA profiles to compare similarities and differences to construct family trees Evolutionary biologists use DNA profiles to compare similarities and differences to construct family trees

19 PCR

20 What is PCR? Click on the following link to learn about Polymerase (Puh-lim-er-ace) Chain Reactions, make sure you scroll down to see the information… Click on the following link to learn about Polymerase (Puh-lim-er-ace) Chain Reactions, make sure you scroll down to see the information…

21 What are the practical applications of PCR? PCR creates lots of pure DNA, so we can analyze DNA samples even from only a little bit to begin with. PCR creates lots of pure DNA, so we can analyze DNA samples even from only a little bit to begin with.

22 DNA/Gene Sequencing

23 What is Gene Sequence Analysis? Click on the following link to learn about gene sequencing: Click on the following link to learn about gene sequencing: enome/faq/seqfacts.shtml

24 Applications of DNA Sequencing DNA Fingerprinting DNA Fingerprinting naintro.html naintro.html naintro.html naintro.html If you have time, solve a crime: If you have time, solve a crime: html html html html

25 Cloning

26 What is cloning? Click on the following link to learn about cloning: Click on the following link to learn about cloning:

27 What are the practical applications of cloning? Click on the following link to look at the practical applications of cloning: Click on the following link to look at the practical applications of cloning: ne/

28 Gene Therapy

29 What is Gene Therapy? Click on the following link to learn about gene therapy Click on the following link to learn about gene therapy enome/medicine/genetherapy.shtml enome/medicine/genetherapy.shtml enome/medicine/genetherapy.shtml enome/medicine/genetherapy.shtml


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