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INTRODUCTION TO LASERS TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION SCARSDALE MIDDLE SCHOOL.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO LASERS TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION SCARSDALE MIDDLE SCHOOL."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION TO LASERS TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION SCARSDALE MIDDLE SCHOOL

2 LASER PRESENTATION2 Many of the pictures for this LASER presentation came from www.howstuffworks.com.

3 LASER PRESENTATION3 LASER Originally LASER was an acronym for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Now laser is a word used to identify this type of equipment or the light it produces.

4 LASER PRESENTATION4 The Atom Different electron orbits represent different energy levels.

5 LASER PRESENTATION5 The Electron Applying energy to an electron causes it to jump to a higher orbit.

6 LASER PRESENTATION6 The Photon When the electron drops back to its original orbit it releases a particle called a photon. Light is made up of photons.

7 LASER PRESENTATION7 Wavelength of Light Light moves in waves that are similar to ripples in water. Light is an example of electromagnetic radiation: It doesnt require a medium to pass through

8 LASER PRESENTATION8 Wavelength of Light 1 CYCLE Wavelength ( ): The distance the wave travels in one cycle. Frequency (f): The number of times a cycle repeats in one second (Hertz, formerley cycles/second). = c f

9 LASER PRESENTATION9 Wavelength of Light HERTZ ENERGY ~ 400 nanometers ~ 700 nanometers HIGHERFREQUENCYHIGHERFREQUENCY LESSENERGYLESSENERGY

10 LASER PRESENTATION10 1 NANOMETER IS ONE BILLIONTH OF A METER A human hair is about 80,000 nanometers in diameter. Thats about 115 times the wavelength ( ) of red light.

11 LASER PRESENTATION11 Light Bulb Light is not focused Light is made up of many colors (wavelengths) Light is not coherent

12 LASER PRESENTATION12 White Light Light From A Light Bulb All colors (wavelengths). More longer wavelengths. Light is not coherent. Light is not focused.

13 LASER PRESENTATION13 Laser Light Light is very focused Light is made up of one color (wavelength) Light is coherent

14 LASER PRESENTATION14 Laser Light Light From A Laser One color (wavelength). Light is coherent. Light is focused.

15 LASER PRESENTATION15 Theodore Maiman First Ruby Laser 1960

16 LASER PRESENTATION16 How a Laser Works

17 LASER PRESENTATION17 Ruby Laser

18 LASER PRESENTATION18 Types of Lasers Based on the Material Used in the Laser Classes of Lasers Based on the Biological Damage the Laser Can Cause

19 LASER PRESENTATION19 Laser Type Wavelength (nm) Argon fluoride (UV) 193 Krypton fluoride (UV) 248 Nitrogen (UV) 337 Argon (blue) 488 Argon (green) 514 Helium neon (green) 543 Helium neon (red) 633 Rhodamine 6G dye (tunable) 570 - 650 Ruby (CrAlO3) (red) 694 Nd:Yag (NIR) 1064 Carbon dioxide (FIR) 10600 Typical Lasers and Their Emission Wavelengths

20 LASER PRESENTATION20 Optical Damage Threshold Test NASA Research Center The Optical Damage Threshold test station at NASA Langley Research Center has three lasers: a high-energy pulsed ND:Yag laser, a Ti:sapphire laser and an alignment HeNe laser.

21 LASER PRESENTATION21 Classes of Lasers Based on the Biological Damage the Laser Can Cause Class I:Lasers that dont produce any harmful radiation. Class II: Lasers that are harmful if viewed for long periods of time. (The assumption is that people wouldnt let this happen.) Class III:Lasers that are dangerous for short exposure. (Many laser pointers are class III lasers!) Class IV:Lasers that can blind or burn after a very brief exposure. These can only be used under very controlled conditions.

22 LASER PRESENTATION22 LASER WEAPONS Do you expect me to talk Goldfinger? No Mr. Bond, I expect you to die.

23 LASER PRESENTATION23 Laser Gun Sights

24 LASER PRESENTATION24 Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System MILES (2000) Laser Tag for Soldiers

25 LASER PRESENTATION25 Laser Targeting System Aircraft Mounted

26 LASER PRESENTATION26 Laser Guided Bomb (Smart Bomb) Optical sensor Guidance system Control surfaces

27 LASER PRESENTATION27 Laser Targeting 1.Laser targeting system paints target. 2. Laser guided weapon tracks laser spot on target.

28 LASER PRESENTATION28 Laser Targeting System Ground Based

29 LASER PRESENTATION29 Laser Targeting Countermeasures AN/VVR-1 Laser Warning Receiver System System detects the targeting laser. Countermeasures include smoke, brighter laser beam, maneuvering, etc.

30 LASER PRESENTATION30 Laser Guided Missile Hellfire laser guided missiles mounted on a US Army Apache helicopter gunship. Newer variation (Hellfire II) replaces laser guidance with radar guidance to penetrate smoke and cloud cover.

31 LASER PRESENTATION31 ABL Airborne Laser Antimissile Weapon United States Air Force

32 LASER PRESENTATION32 ABL Nose Turret CO 2 Targeting Laser

33 LASERS IN MANUFACTURING

34 LASER PRESENTATION34 Punch Press Punch Press Problems Dangerous to operate. Required long runs to be profitable. Typical Stamped Parts

35 LASER PRESENTATION35 Laser Cutter

36 LASER PRESENTATION36 Computer Control of Laser Cutter Equipment No human contact with the part during operation. Computer program can be loaded quickly. Shorter runs are now profitable.

37 LASER PRESENTATION37 Laser Welding Welded Parts

38 LASER PRESENTATION38 Laser Welding Welded car door panel made from three types of steel.

39 LASER PRESENTATION39 Laser Stereolithography (SLA)

40 LASER PRESENTATION40 Part Produced by SLA

41 LASER PRESENTATION41 LASERS IN MEDICINE

42 LASER PRESENTATION42 Laser Eye Surgery LAser in SItu Keratomileusis (Lasik) 1. Tiny flap of outer cornea folded back. 2. Laser removes tissue from remaining cornea to change its shape. 3. Flap of outer cornea then reattached.

43 LASER PRESENTATION43 Laser Tattoo Removal (Doesnt always work!) The laser beam breaks up the pigments in the tattoo into small particles. Then the bodys immune system attacks and destroys them.

44 LASER PRESENTATION44 Laser Dentistry Laser Water jet Major advantage is no drilling sound. Cant be used on existing metal fillings.

45 LASER PRESENTATION45 LASER TESTING AND MEASURING

46 LASER PRESENTATION46 Laser Bar Code Scanning Universal Product Code (UPC) Label

47 LASER PRESENTATION47 Barcode on a UPS Label

48 LASER PRESENTATION48 Barcode Scanner

49 LASER PRESENTATION49 Railroad Car Sorting Using Barcode Scanning Labels were often too dirty for the scanners to read.

50 LASER PRESENTATION50 Laser Surface Roughness Tester

51 LASER PRESENTATION51 Laser Level

52 LASER PRESENTATION52 Laser Speed Measurement New York State Police

53 LASER PRESENTATION53 Telescope Calibration Lick Observatory The adaptive optics system at the Shane 3 meter telescope utilizes a 20-watt sodium laser to put a false star in the sky. The system uses the star to compensate for atmospheric disturbances, creating sharper, clearer images of the objects observed.

54 LASER PRESENTATION54 LASER COMMUNICATION

55 LASER PRESENTATION55 Laser Printer Corona Wire Discharge Lamp

56 LASER PRESENTATION56 Laser Disk Pit Land Beam reflects: logical 1. Beam doesnt reflect: logical 0.

57 LASER PRESENTATION57 Laser Disk Drive

58 LASER PRESENTATION58 MODULATION Superimposing a weak signal on a strong one MODULATOR: Combines audio signal and laser beam. DEMODULATOR: Removes audio signal from the modulated laser beam. MODULATED LASER BEAM: Changes in the beam represent information in the audio signal. Audio Laser Carrier

59 LASER PRESENTATION59 FIBER OPTICS Transparent Pipe for Light to Travel Through Advantages: Very high capacity. Cant be tapped into. Not affected by electromagnetic (EM) interference. Allows light to travel around corners. Disadvantages: Expensive. Can be difficult to install.

60 LASER PRESENTATION60 Fiber Optics Center fiber optic cable has greater capacity than any of these bundles of cable.


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