# Optimisation in proton scanning beams

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Optimisation in proton scanning beams
Optimization in proton scanning beams Optimisation in proton scanning beams First results… Copyright (c) Varian Medical Systems Evangelos Matsinos, May 2002

Basic steps Calculation of the dose-deposition coefficients (ddc’s)
Optimisation of the spot weights

Spots and beamlets Beam  beamlets or pencil beams (defined by the resolution of the calculation grid) The dose from each beamlet is evaluated (at the vertices of the calculation grid) The spot dose is calculated (as the sum of the dose contributions of the corresponding beamlets, weighted for the position of each beamlet within the spot)

Sx and Sy depend on z spot  depends on the density and on z beamlet

Optimisation: a closer look
Desired dose at point i: pi Dose delivered at point i: di =  aij xj (sum over all sources j) Objective function: Fobj =  (di - pi)2 (sum over target points) + contribution due to the violation of dose-limit constraints (for targets and organs) + contribution due to the violation of dose-volume constraints (for organs)

Optimisation methods Conjugate Gradient (CG) Simulated Annealing (SA)*
‘Simultaneous’ optimisation (PSI) Generalised Sampled Pattern Matching (GSPM)* (* = under development)

Strategy in the optimisation
Pre-optimisation  Reasonable initial ‘guess’ for the weights  Convergence  two consecutive iterations yield improvement below 5% Main optimisation  Full implementation of a method yield improvement below 0.1%

Toy example A phantom has been created with three important structures: one target and two organs; some inhomogeneity has been introduced (an additional structure simulating the presence of a bone) Pixel size: 2.5mm Spot advance in y (scanning direction): 2.5mm Spot advance in x: 5mm Cut-off for dose contributions: 3 standard deviations

Distal Organ: 2,166 points, 48.34 cm3
Target: 2,412 points, cm3 Distal Organ: 2,166 points, cm3 Proximal Organ: 683 points, cm3 Number of points: 5,261

Number of parameters: 4,798

ProtonHelios

Dose-Volume Histograms
Prescription dose: 50 Gy ( 2%) Organ constraints: 25 Gy in 10% of the distal organ;15 Gy in the proximal organ

Dose distribution (exclusive fit to the target)

Dose distribution (fit to all structures)

Comparison of a few numbers
Method Minimal Fobj Relative time Target dose (Gy) Maximal weight CG 36,902 3.87 49.6  2.3 16.03 SA 35,621 4.92 17.15 PSI 37,440 1.00 49.7  2.3 51.97 GSPM --- 1.33 49.9  1.9 6.74

Weight distribution PSI method

Weight distribution SA method