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© Copyright 2001-2006, TopQuadrant Inc. How Enterprise Architecture can benefit from Semantic Technology" Irene Polikoff, TopQuadrant Presentation to the.

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Presentation on theme: "© Copyright 2001-2006, TopQuadrant Inc. How Enterprise Architecture can benefit from Semantic Technology" Irene Polikoff, TopQuadrant Presentation to the."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Copyright , TopQuadrant Inc. How Enterprise Architecture can benefit from Semantic Technology" Irene Polikoff, TopQuadrant Presentation to the Washington DC Metro Chapter of the Association of Enterprise Architects January 11, 2006

2 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 1 TopQuadrant is a Consulting Company specializing in Semantic Technology Solutions and Ontology Engineering Strategy and solution envisioning to explore the value of semantic technology. Services for business case development and technology selection. Assessments of markets, trends, technologies, vendors, and best practices. Support for building industrial strength semantic solutions. Services include architecture and planning as well as ontology development and system integration. Comprehensive program of briefings and workshops on semantic web technologies. Both public and private on- site training. Formed in November 2001 Offices in the US at Pittsburgh, PA; Alexandria, VA; NASA Research Park, CA Subsidiary in the UK

3 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 2 TopQuadrant Methods for Ontology Engineering and Solution Envisioning Clarity on the problem Appreciation of the solution Developing the blueprint TopSAIL Ontology Engineering

4 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 3 Enterprise Architecture is a model of an enterprise Expressing how: people in roles, performing activities, using capabilities, provided by systems and resources, overcome challenges and generate value with measurable results for realizing business goals This is a Knowledge Model – an Ontology. It captures knowledge, so that: Questions could be answered New insights could be generated

5 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 4 So What is An Ontology? It is a run time model of information Defined using constructs for: Concepts – classes Relationships – properties (object and data) Rules – axioms and constraints Instances of concepts – individuals (data)

6 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 5 This is an Ontology

7 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 6 W3C standards for ontologies Semantic web ontologies are defined using W3C standards: RDF/S and OWL Semantic Web is stimulating a whole new class of applications at individual, enterprise and web scales – Eric Miller, W3C, Semantic Technologies for eGOV2003

8 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 7 Example: the Capability Class in RDF/OWL

9 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 8 Ontologies are like and unlike other IT models Like databases ontologies are used by applications at run time (queried and reasoned over) Unlike databases, relationships are first-class constructs Like object models ontologies describe classes and attributes (properties) Unlike object models, ontologies are set-based Like business rules they encode rules Unlike business rules, ontologies organize rules using axioms Like XML schemas semantic web ontologies are native to the web (and are in fact serialized in XML) Unlike XML schemas, ontologies are graphs not trees and used for reasoning

10 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 9 Object models might look like ontologies, but they are not … Consider an example: A class definition in OO is a template specified at design time from which an instance of a class is created at run time THE class to which a thing belongs determines ALL the properties of that thing. This way we could have statements in a software program, such as, Create new Customer Ontologies describe characteristics of a class, so that when we learn about properties of a thing, we can determine what class it belongs to: The question Is this a VIP customer?, could be answered by comparing what we know about this particular customer with what we know about VIP customers A member of a class: Could have properties that have NOT been specified for the class Does not have to have ALL the properties associated with a class

11 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 10 An increasing number of vendors are adopting Semantic Web Standards Adobe BT Cisco IBM SAP Software AG Verio …

12 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 11 What are semantic web applications? Semantic Web applications use ontologies: Instead of a database As an intelligent search index As a classification system To hold business rules To integrate databases with disparate schemas To drive dynamic and personalized user interface To mediate between different systems As a metadata registry Semantic web services and semantic object are emerging areas They can be powered by inference engines They are native to the web (internet, intranet or extranet)

13 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 12 For people, it can answer questions like: Who is using what business systems to do what? Who is using what technologies and products to do what? What systems and business processes will be affected if we upgrade a software package? What technologies are supporting a given business process? Where components are being re-used or could be re-used? Who can we partner with at our agency and other agencies? How is our agency architecture aligned with the FEA? How new technologies (ie; XML, Web, Security) are being taken up at our agency and at other agencies? Are they mature enough for e-government? … For applications, using an SOA, it can provide An Active Enterprise Architecture, that is Consultable Executable What can a Semantic Enterprise Architecture do?

14 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 13 The power of Semantic Technology for EA: Revealing Knowledge through Inferencing Application provides Capability Capability enables Capability Capability supports Activity Activity realizes Intent Intent isGoalOf Mission enables is a Transitive Property provides isSubPropertyOf enables supports isSubPropertyOf enables Given a capability and how it enables others, we can infer what activities it supports, how it realizes intent and the goals of the mission TivoliPolicyDirector provides Authentication Authentication enables SecureAccess SecureAccess supports MissionOperations TivoliPolicyDirector enables MissionOperations

15 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 14 The power of Semantic Technology for EA: Achieving Aggregation through Federation Enterprise Architecture is a System of Systems

16 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 15 The Evolution of the EA Solution Space

17 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 16 English (describe the model and how to extend it) Diagrams Case tool models XML (DTD, XSD, etc.) RDF/S OWL How are EA models expressed?

18 © Copyright , TopQuadrant Inc. The FEA-RMO Ontology Case Study

19 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 18 FEA-RMO: The FEA Reference Model Ontology In 2004, TopQuadrant was contracted by GSA to develop an ontology of the FEA FEA-RMO is a modular framework: FEA Core FEA BRM FEA PRM FEA SRM FEA TRM FEA DRM BRM – PRM Bridge Agency extensions: Agency template DoD extensions (connections to DODAF) FAA extensions

20 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 19 Ontology 101 Classes are Sets Sets can have Sub-Sets Relationships are Properties Properties are expressed as Subject-Property-Object Triples The From-End of the Property is the Domain and the To-End is the Range Properties can have qualifiers Domains and Ranges can be Set Expressions Class/Set Membership is based on Properties Classes can specify restrictions on property ranges BRM Business Area Line Of Business SubFunction LOB 1 LOB 2 LOB 4 LOB 3 isLineOfBusinessOf hasSubFunction

21 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 20 FEA Reference Models – PRM PRM Outcome Measurement Area Output Measurement Area Input Measurement Area receivesValue providesValue Measurement Category Measurement Indicator hasMeasurementCategory hasMeasurementIndicator

22 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 21 FEA Reference Models – BRM BRM Business Area Line Of Business SubFunction LOB 1 LOB 2 LOB 4 LOB 3 isLineOfBusinessOf hasSubFunction PRM subClassOf The PRMs Measurement Categories are the same as the BRMs Lines of Business

23 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 22 FEA Reference Models – SRM SRM Service Component Service Type Service Domain ST 1ST 2 ST 4 ST 3 isServiceComponentOf hasServiceComponent ST 5 hasServiceType Component accessedThrough TRM deliveredThrough exchangesDataThrough requiresProduct

24 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 23 FEA Reference Models – TRM TRM Service Area Service Category Service Specification Service Standard hasServiceCategory hasServiceSpecification hasServiceStandard SRM Product PRM prm:hasPerformanceMeasure srm:requiredProductFor categorizedIn

25 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 24 Using Ontologies, FEA-RMO delivers Line of Sight eGOV: Mission eGOV: intentOf eGOV: Agency eGOV:operates brm: SubFunction eGOV: hasIntent brm: allignedWith eGOV: Initiative srm: develops trm: Technology fea: ValuePoint srm: Component srm: allignedWith prm: providesValue prm: recivesValue prm: hasPerformance prm: Performance prm:measuredBy prm: OpMeasurementIndicator srm:accessedThrough srm: runsOn ………… rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:subPropertyOf eGOV: Customer eGOV: Process Other relationships fea: Value

26 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 25 Why use RDF for an Reference Model? Flexible, expressive models Extensible in different ways Federated General graph modeling Incremental evolution is supported through granularity of statements and innate support for distribution Graph merging and aggregation is a primitive operation Reference Model Requirements RDF Features

27 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 26 The proof - a semantic application powered by the FEA-RMO Ontologies - 1 Demonstration at SICoP Demonstrator – FEA Explorer

28 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 27 The proof - a semantic application powered by the FEA-RMO Ontologies - 2 Select either FEA Ontology or Agency- Specific Ontologies Service specifications with links to more details Search over all models for concepts Demonstration at SICoP Demonstrator – FEA Explorer

29 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 28 The proof - a semantic application powered by the FEA-RMO Ontologies - 3 Select either FEA Ontology or Agency- Specific Ontologies Service specifications with links to more details Search over all models for concepts Demonstration at SICoP Demonstrator – FEA Explorer

30 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 29 Using FEA models to define agency specific EA Adding a new sub-function SICoP Demonstrator – FEA Editor

31 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 30 DoD TRM Agency-specific extensions shown green Hot links to TRM areas Demonstration at SICoP Demonstrator

32 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 31 Using FEA Model to describe a component - 1 Available elements from merged reference models Demonstration at SICoP Demonstrator – FEA Editor

33 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 32 Using FEA Model to describe a component - 2 Demonstration at SICoP Demonstrator – FEA Editor

34 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 33 Using the FEA-RMO Ontologies to generate Agency-specific extension reports Demonstration at SICoP Demonstrator

35 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 34 Using the FEA-RMO Ontologies to generate Agency-specific comparison reports Demonstration at SICoP Demonstrator

36 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 35 Using the FEA-RMO Ontologies to generate Agency-specific initiatives reports Demonstration at SICoP Demonstrator

37 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 36 Building on the FEA-RMO GSA OSERA project DoDAF ontologies FAA EA project SPAWAR project

38 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 37 What becomes possible with a semantic foundation? FIND: Capability and Services Directory Context-aware retrieval INTERPRET: Compliance Checker Dependency Discoverer Capability-Centric Communities of Practice DECIDE: Impact Analyzer What-If Analyzer ACT: Interest-Based Information Provider Capability Configurator

39 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 38 Ontology-based Partnership Advisor

40 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 39 Semantic FEA Solutions: OMB and Agency Budget Proposal System Proposed Business Case Scope Validate Assess FEA Reference Models feedback re. quality feedback re. use feedback re. relevance for strategic planning, capital planning, & risk management Metrics Recommendations for improvement and partnering Ontology- Based Budget Proposal Repository Validate Value Proposition C. Potential for reuse of Technologies and Components A. Business Area and LOB supported? B. Number of proposals with same capabilities? Budget Proposal Assessment FEA Ontology-Based Import D. Synergies for partnering Assessment period could go down from 3 months to 7 weeks Re-submit period could go up from 1 week to 6 weeks - allowing time for collaborations to be negotiated Adapted from: Dr. Michael J. Kurtz, The Role of Electronic Records Management in Implementing eGovernment: Electronic Records and the Federal Enterprise Architecture, NARA, 4/15/04

41 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide Connections between different systems and tools are established. Enterprise Architecture Maturity Levels Ad hoc Standardized Formal Federated Executable 1. No common reference framework. Possible use of case tools. Little commonality between descriptions produced by different people and/or groups. 2. Established methodology for describing architectures. Use of industry standard/custom framework. Methodology not fully supported and enforced by tools. 3. Methodology enforced by tools based on a Reference architecture. Multiple tools in use, but from different vendors with low levels of interoperability. Reference framework and architectural models cannot be readily queried. 5. Models are consultable by applications at run time. Knowledge about enterprise activities, systems & capabilities becomes a real time resource.

42 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 41 Enterprise Architecture Capabilities Ad hoc Standardized Formal Federated Executable Some sharing of architectural ideas. Document provisioning Architectural models produced by different groups can be understood more easily. Linkages can be described. EA framework compliance Architects can adhere to the framework. Improved productivity of architects as well as improved fidelity of models. What-If analysis, reports. Centralized IT governance Architectural models are accessible across organizational contexts. Information can be independently constructed, aggregated and made accessible to wide audiences. Aggregation and exchange of data and metadata. Federated IT governance Improved enterprise agility. Real-time decision support and re-configuration of capabilities. Models stay in-sync with the real world. Adaptive enterprise capability management and service provisioning Benefits Capabilities

43 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 42 Enterprise Architecture Technologies Ad hoc Standardized Formal Federated Executable Personal computers and office tools Templates,spreadsheets Case tools, taxonomies XML data exchange, web-based repositories, RDF/S OWL, Web Services, SWRL, agents

44 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 43 References Irene Polikoff and Robert Coyne, Towards Executable Enterprise Models: Ontology and Semantic Web Meet Enterprise Architecture, Journal of Enterprise Architecture, Fawcette Publications, August 2005 Dean Allemang, Irene Polikoff, Ralph Hodgson, Enterprise Architecture Reference Modeling in OWL/RDF, ISWC, International Semantic Web Conference, Ireland, 2005 TopQuadrant White Paper on FEA-RMO, 2/21/2005 FEA Ontology Models FEA - FEAhttp://www.osera.gov/owl/2004/11/fea/FEA.owl BRM2PRM - BRM2PRMhttp://www.osera.gov/owl/2004/11/fea/BRM2PRM.owl PRM - PRMhttp://www.osera.gov/owl/2004/11/fea/prm.owl BRM - BRMhttp://www.osera.gov/owl/2004/11/fea/brm.owl SRM - SRMhttp://www.osera.gov/owl/2004/11/fea/srm.owl TRM - TRMhttp://www.osera.gov/owl/2004/11/fea/trm.owl Merged Ontology - Merged Ontologyhttp://www.osera.gov/owl/2004/11/fea/feac.owl

45 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 44 Books on Semantic Technology - 1 Dieter Fensel, Wolfgang Wahlster, Henry Lieberman, James Hendler (Eds.): Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential, MIT Press, 2002 John Davies, Dieter Fensel & Frank van Harmelen:, Towards the Semantic WEB – Ontology Driven Knowledge Management, John Wiley, 2002 Johan Hjelm, Creating the Semantic Web with RDF, John Wiley, 2001 Dieter Fensel: Ontologies: A Silver Bullet for Knowledge Management and Electronic Commerce, Springer Verlag, 2001 Sheller Powers, Practical RDF, OReilly, 2003 Michael C. Daconta, Leo J. Obrst, Kevin T. Smith: The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML, Web Services, and Knowledge Management, John Wiley, 2003 Vladimir Geroimenko (Editor), Chaomei Chen (Editor),Visualizing the Semantic Web, Springer-Verlag, 2003 M. Klein and B. Omelayenko (eds.),Knowledge Transformation for the Semantic Web, Vol. 95, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, IOS Press, 2003Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications

46 TopQuadrant © Copyright TopQuadrant Inc., Semantic Technology and EA, slide 45 Books on Semantic Technology - 2 Thomas B. Passin, "Explorer's Guide to the Semantic Web", ISBN , June 2004 Jeff Pollock and Ralph Hodgson, "Adaptive Information: Improving Business Through Semantic Interoperability, Grid Computing, and Enterprise Integration, John Wiley, September 2004 Grigoris Antoniou and Frank van Harmelen, A Semantic Web Primer, The MIT Press, April 2004 Munindar P. Singh, Michael N. Huhns, Service-Oriented Computing : Semantics, Processes, Agents, John Wiley & Sons, 2005 Irene Polikoff et al, Capability Cases – A Solution Envisioning Approach, Addison-Wesley, 2005


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