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DHS Science & Technology: Enabling Technology to Protect the Nation

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1 DHS Science & Technology: Enabling Technology to Protect the Nation
From Science….Security From Technology….Trust Dr. Starnes Walker Director of Research Science and Technology Directorate

2 S&T Goals Consistent with the Homeland Security Act of 2002
Accelerate delivery of enhanced technological capabilities to meet requirements and fill capability gaps to support DHS Agencies in accomplishing their mission Establish a lean and agile GS-manned, world-class S&T management team to deliver the technological advantage necessary to ensure DHS Agency mission success and prevent technology surprise Provide leadership, research and educational opportunities and resources to develop the necessary intellectual basis to enable a national S&T workforce to secure the homeland I joined the DHS Science & Technology directorate last August 10, the same day the plot for a liquid explosives attack on commercial airliners was exposed. Relate story about DHS S&T efforts to quickly pull together a rapid response team to address this threat – this effort led to the rule to relax the restrictions imposed immediately after the plot was exposed about what passengers could bring on board with them ASAP. This type of collaboration and unified response is indicative of the value that science and technology brings to the Department in terms of enabling solutions to better secure the nation. When I joined the S&T Directorate six months ago, I identified the three goals shown on this slide to guide our realignment efforts and provide the nation with a robust capability in science and technology for homeland security applications. These goals are focused on positioning S&T to succeed in its mission to enable integrated, innovative solutions to homeland security challenges. (Briefly re-cap each goal.)

3 S&T Realignment Getting the People, Organization, Books & Content Right In Place: Framework for a customer-focused, output-oriented S&T management organization Senior leadership team and key organizational components 6 Divisions and their Directors 3 Portfolio Directors: Research, Innovation and Transition Directors of Test, Evaluation & Standards and Special Programs S&T liaisons embedded in Europe, the Americas and Pacific/Asia Corporate Communications Department 340 employees re-located to new working groups First 180 days on the job: - Realigned Directorate supports broad and balanced range of activities aimed at identifying, enabling and transitioning new capabilities to our customers to better protect the Nation - Steady progress on getting the people, books, organization and the content of the program right. - A strong leadership team is in place with all key positions filled. - We have welcomed 20 new highly qualified subject matter experts and professionals - We are 66 percent staffed; plan to be 100 percent staffed by the end of 2007 - Six technical divisions are led by veteran S&T staff members. Divisions focus on enduring homeland security disciplines [Chem/bio; CCI; Borders/Maritime; Human Factors; and Infrastructure Protection/Geophysical Sciences] - Three R&D investment portfolio directors of Research, Innovation and Transition provide cross-cutting coordination within the six divisions 3 S&T Ambassadors help us reach across borders to find homeland security solutions In December, we saw the “physical manifestation” of the realignment plan spring to life with the relocation of 340 staff members. Those who work together are now physically located in the same work group. I am grateful for the support Secretary Chertoff and Deputy Secretary Jackson during this transitional period.

4 Customer Focused, Output Oriented
DHS S&T Investment Portfolio Balance of Risk, Cost, Impact, and Time to Delivery Product Transition (0-3 yrs) Focused on delivering near-term products/enhancements to acquisition Customer IPT controlled Cost, schedule, capability metrics Innovative Capabilities (1-5 yrs) High-risk/High payoff “Game changer/Leap ahead” Prototype, Test and Deploy HSARPA Basic Research (>8 yrs) Enables future paradigm changes University fundamental research Gov’t lab discovery and invention Other (0-8+ yrs) Test & Evaluation and Standards Laboratory Operations & Construction Required by Administration (HSPDs) Congressional direction/law NOTE: 4th Quad Renamed “Other” to match chart used in testimony The S&T Directorate develops and manages an integrated program of science and technology, from basic research through technology transition to customers that are the operating components of DHS, State and local governments, first responders and private sector entities. Scientists and engineers in the many disciplines relevant to Homeland Security manage the program. They are guided by a multi-tiered investment strategy and review process based on higher guidance, the stated needs of our customers, and technology opportunities S&T’s investment portfolio, balanced around risk, cost, impact and time to delivery, produces capabilities of high technical quality responsive to homeland security requirements. Customer Focused, Output Oriented

5 S&T Organization DHS U/S S&T Innovation Research Applications
Director of Research Starnes Walker Deputy Dave Masters Director of Innovation Roger McGinnis (Acting) Deputy Rolf Dietrich Director of Transition Bob Hooks Deputy Rich Kikla Innovation Explosives Jim Tuttle Chem/Bio John Vitko Command, Control & Interoperability Dave Boyd Borders/ Maritime Merv Leavitt Human Factors Sharla Rausch Infrastructure/ Geophysical Chris Doyle (Acting) Research Slide depicts the core functions of the newly aligned S&T Directorate. We are realigned and open for business. It shows our six technical divisions that are linked to three R&D investment portfolio directors in a “matrix management” structure. The portfolio directors — Directors of Research, Transition, and Innovation/Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA) — coordinate their respective aspects of the investment strategy within the technical divisions. Our new structure provides a foundation that allows us to focus on delivering products to our DHS customers as we execute our FY 2007 appropriations. We’re striving to be effective, cost-efficient, responsive, agile and flexible. Research George Zarur Research Chem/Bio: Keith Ward Threat Char/Attribution: Sandy Landsberg Jnt Agro Def: Tam Garland Research Intel: John Hoyt Futures: Joe Kielman Research Jeannie Lin Research Michelle Keeney (Acting) Research Mary E. Hynes Transition Herm Rediess Transition Jeff Stielfel Transition Trent DePersia Transition David Newton Transition Joe Kielman (Acting) Transition Chris Doyle Applications

6 DHS Goals: Secretary’s Priorities for FY 2008
Continue to protect our nation from dangerous people Continue to protect our nation from dangerous goods Protect critical infrastructure Build a nimble, effective emergency response system and culture of preparedness Strengthen and unify DHS operations and management Focus Areas for President’s FY 2008 budget request: Protect the nation from dangerous people – emphasis is on border security includes $1 billion for SBInet; fraud-resistent ID and biometric tools; interoperable architecture for the Transportation Worker ID Credential (TWIC) program; database interoperability between DHS, FBI and State Dept. Keeping dangerous goods out – improve maritime cargo security including container scanning; improve BioWatch technology (bioaerosol monitoring); includes advanced spectroscopic portal systems for screening 98% of containers entering U.S. by end of FY 2008 Protect critical infrastructure – focus on chemical plant security, protecting high risk rail shipments, partnerships with infrastructure owners and operators. Securing the Cities Implementation Initiative: Employ regional strategies for road networks, mass transit, maritime and rail vulnerabilities Nimble and effective emergency response – maintaining a state of readiness. Increase FEMA’s mission capacity in areas that include incident management, operational planning, continuity programs, pubic disaster communications, service to disaster victims Strengthen DHS Management – invest in critical areas to improve operations and prospects for mission success. (Mention appointment of Paul Schneider here)

7 Basic Research Portfolio
Discovery and Invention to Enable Future Capabilities Brings the capabilities, talent and resources of the Homeland Security Centers of Excellence, DOE National Laboratories and DHS Labs to bear to address the long-term R&D needs for DHS in sciences of enduring relevance This type of focused, protracted research investment has potential to lead to paradigm shifts in the nation’s homeland security capabilities S&T’s three R&D portfolios provide the foundation for much of the Directorate’s activities in support of the Secretary’s priorities and the missions of our customers -- the DHS components and their customers – the brave men and women on the front lines of homeland security Basic research is an essential component of a balanced S&T investment portfolio and we are looking to build on our efforts in this area. The basic research portfolio addresses the long-term R&D needs for the Department in sciences of enduring relevance to homeland security. This type of focused, protracted research investment has the potential to lead to paradigm shifts in the nation’s homeland security capabilities. For FY 2008, S&T plans to allocate approximately $86 million in funding for basic research (approximately 9% of budget).

8 Basic Research Advanced CTX Algorithm Research
Enhanced performance of deployed CTX equipment for checked bag screening Advanced algorithms for the enhanced interpretation of CTX images aims to: increase the probability of detection reduce the false alarm rate enhance throughput increase screener effectiveness Supports new requirement for integrated next generation checked baggage systems & technologies Improved detection/throughput of checked baggage to meet TSA policy requirements Planned Demos/Deliverables/Transitions: Evaluate CTX Algorithm Concepts – FY07 Algorithm Demonstrations – FY08 T&E of New System Capabilities – FY09 Transition to TSA – Q2 FY10

9 Transition Enabling Capabilities, Supporting Mission Critical Needs of DHS Integrated Product Teams (IPTs) 11 Capstone IPTs form the centerpiece of the S&T’s customer-driven approach to product transition Engage DHS customers, acquisition partners, S&T technical division heads, and end users in product research, development, transition and acquisition activities Identify our customers’ needs and enable and transition near-term capabilities for addressing them The transition portfolio provides mission-capability relevant technology to support the Department’s acquisition programs. Product transition refers to S&T’s process of identifying our customers’ needs and enabling and transitioning capabilities in the near-term for addressing customer requirements. S&T’s transition process is driven by customer-led Integrated Product Team process that bring stakeholders in the process to the table. Increasingly, our DHS customers are recognizing the substantial value that S&T’s technical expertise brings to their operations. We have engaged them, eliciting participation at the highest levels, to join us to work constructively on solutions for countering the formidable threats this nation faces. [Kip Hawley, TSA; Robert Aguilar, Customs and Border Protection, and others] S&T plans to allocate $343 million for this activity in FY 08 budget.

10 Information Sharing/Mgmt Infrastructure Protection
DHS Requirements/Capability Capstone IPTs DHS S&T Product – “Enabling Homeland Capabilities” (EHCs) Information Sharing/Mgmt Border Security Chem/Bio Defense OIA CBP/ICE CMO/IP Acquisition C2I Acquisition Borders/Maritime Acquisition Chem/Bio OOC/HITRAC Agents Policy Maritime Security Cyber Security Explosive Prevention Cargo Security USCG CS&T TSA/USSS CBP Acquisition Acquisition Acquisition Acquisition/Policy Borders/ Maritime C2I Explosives Borders/ Maritime Eleven Capstone IPTs engage DHS customers, acquisition partners, S&T technical division heads, and end users as appropriate in our product research, development, transition and acquisition activities. The IPT process enables our customers to identify and prioritize their operational capability gaps and requirements and make informed decisions about technology investments. S&T gathers the information it needs to respond with applicable technology solutions for closing these capability gaps. We refer to the solutions that are the outcome of this process as Enabling Homeland Capabilities that draw upon technologies that can be developed, matured, and delivered to our customer acquisition programs within three years. S&T’s Capstone IPTs address Information Sharing/Management; Cyber Security; People Screening; Border Security; Chem/Bio; Maritime Security; Explosive Prevention; Incident Management; Cargo Security; and Infrastructure Protection. We see the IPTs as an important mechanism for engaging our customers and we have elicited participation in the IPTs at the highest levels, including Kip Hawley of TSA and Robert Aguilar of CBP. The IPTs can provide an avenue for the National Guard and the Adjutant Generals to engage with S&T, e.g., Border Security, Incident Mgmt, Infrastructure Protection IPTs. Guardsmen Infrastructure Owners/Operators Agents Officers/Industry People Screening Infrastructure Protection Incident Management SCO/CIS IP FEMA Acquisition Acquisition Human Factors Acquisition Infrastructure/ Geophysical C2I Infrastructure/ Geophysical US VISIT/TSA Infrastructure Owners/Operators First Responders

11 Innovation Portfolio High Risk, High Gain, Game Changers for Leap-Ahead Results Promotes revolutionary changes in technology Focus on prototyping and deploying critical technologies Includes: HSARPA – Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency “Homeworks” – 1% of budget highest risk, highest pay-off Small Business Innovation Research program Visit and Our Innovation portfolio (includes the Small Business Innovation Research program) promotes revolutionary changes in technologies with a focus on prototyping and deploying technologies critical to homeland security. 1% of our budget is allocated to Homeworks – projects that present the highest risk and, if successful, yield the potential for the greatest gains. For FY 2008, the S&T budget calls for $73 million in funding for this activity (includes $60 million for Innovation/HSARPA and the remainder for the SBIR program.)

12 Innovation/HSARPA HIPS and HITS
Homeland Innovative Prototypical Solutions (HIPS) are designed to deliver prototype-level demonstrations of game-changing technologies in two to five years. Projects are moderate to high risk, with high payoff High Impact Technology Solutions (HITS) are designed to provide proof-of-concept answers within one to three years that could result in high-payoff technology breakthroughs. While these projects are at considerable risk for failure, they offer the potential for significant gains in capability All six divisions of S&T are involved HIPS projects, aimed at prototype development, and HITS projects, which focus on proof-of-concept solutions for pressing homeland security challenges.

13 Homeland Innovative Prototypical Solutions (HIPS)
Explosives Chem/Bio Command, Control & Interoperability Borders/ Maritime Human Factors Infrastructure/ Geophysical Project Chloe- High altitude aerial platform existing above civil aviation Counter-MANPADS SENSIT – System to identify numerous liquids in baggage IED Defeat / APE VBIED Defeat – Detection/prevention and mitigation technologies to counter IEDs SCOPE (Scalable Common Operational Picture Experiment) – Leverages Global Observer JCTD Patrol Craft Experimental (PCX-150) – Lightweight, composite material with high speed hull SAFECON – 90 second container screening device FAST M2 (Future Attribute Screening Technology Mobile Module) – Relocatable Lab capable of testing for behavioral/ physiological cues of “hostile intent” Double or triple wide trailer tested at various sites around the country Resilient Electric Grid – System that will prevent cascading effects of power surge on electrical grids Levee Strengthening and Rapid Repair - rapidly stop a breach in a levee Storm Surge and Hurricane Mitigation High Impact Technology Solutions (HITS) Real Time Bio Detection and Identify Cell-All - Ubiquitous Chem/Bio/agent detector First Net - First Responder Reliable Relay Link Phone Home – Inter-operative and inexpensive hand-held radios Tunnel Detect – Ability to detect, identify, and confirm illegal and clandestine underground border structures and activities Document Validator –High proficiency scanner that can identity fraudulent docs Leverage USSS system Biometric Detector – High proficiency small biometric scanner Wide Area Surveillance/ Change Detection for Critical Infrastructure Resilient Tunnel– Tunnel Protection/Blast Mitigation This slide aligns S&T divisions with their work on HIPS to develop technology prototypes and on HITS – high risk, high pay-off projects.

14 Improved Active/Passive Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) capability
HIPS – Homeland Innovative Prototypical Solutions SAFECON – Safe Container A multi-sensor supply chain security system that scans a container for CBRNE, contraband and human cargo during the crane transport operations Improved Active/Passive Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) capability Example of a HIP: Addresses a major capability gap – the ability to quickly and effectively screen cargo. Much of the cargo entering the U.S. is either unscreened or “under” screened. SAFECON is designed to help fill this gap: a screening device for containers that will screen cargo for suspect materials FY 07 – investigate technologies including probe systems to be installed on cranes that on load and offload ship carried containers, sensors and container materials to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening cargo containers FY 08 – focus on reducing time required for screening to enable significantly more cargo to be cleared. Demo of improved technologies to be underway in FY 09. Triggered CANARY System (Lincoln Lab) Detects and identifies: Anthrax, Plague, …

15 Explosive Resistant Coating
HITS - High Impact Technology Solutions Improvised Explosive Devices Defeat Puffers for explosives trace material detection on people, bags/parcels, and vehicles Walk-through/whole-body imaging (e.g., backscatter) Advanced Protection Explosive (APE): cancellation methods for explosive shock waves Drive-through imaging technology (x-ray, neutron) Masonry Walls Explosive Resistant Coating Active Armor S&T is pursuing the development of detection and mitigation technologies to counter IEDs. Levreaging the counter IED efforts underway at DHS, DOD and other agencies, IED Defeat will attempt extremely high risk technologies to locate IED’s prior to detonation and to mitigate the damage caused by a successful IED attack. FY 2007 – focus will be on systems for detecting vehicle-borne IEDs and technology to negate the blast and shock waves from explosions. Efforts will continue through FY 2012. Reactive & Shaping Walls APE Project Predict, Detect, Defeat and Destroy IED/VBIED at range (100 yards) to change the calculus of the bomber versus the defender

16 HITS - High Impact Technology Solutions Counter-MANPADS / Persistent Surveillance
65K Feet Project Chloe Counter-MANPADS Functions MWS Detect & Declare Slew and Hand-off Track Jam Border Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) High-Altitude Stand-Off Counter-MANPADS High Altitude – Wide-Area Coverage Long Endurance – Persistent Surveillance Large Payload – Multi-Sensor HITS Example Project Chloe – goal is to develop prototypes for detecting and disabling MANPADS (Man Portable Air Defense Systems) Project investigates the use of high altitude platforms and ground-based systems for detecting and engaging MANPADS as an alternative to installing detect-to-engage systems on every aircraft. FY 2007 – Project Chloe will demonstrate the ability of sensors on a high altitude platform to detect a MANPADS launch. FY 2008 – will test and evaluate air or land-based disabling technologies that can work effectively at a high altitude to detect an attempted MANPADS attack MANPADS Operational Characteristics Real-time sensor fusion/dissemination Multi-user / border surveillance requirements Commercial Aircraft MANPADS protection Automatic target detection/recognition Persistence (24/7, all-weather coverage)

17 Innovation/HSARPA BAAs
Broad Agency Announcements Released February 1: Tunnel Detection Technologies -develop and demonstrate a capability for rapidly detecting tunnels SAFE Container (SAFECON) – develop the capability to detect and identify WMD, explosives and contraband cargo and to detect humans in shipping containers Future Attribute Screening Technology (FAST) Demonstration Laboratory – provide efficient, rapid and accurate security screening of people and their credentials and belongings S&T issues open competitive solicitations seeking expertise from many corners, both domestically and globally, to find solutions for addressing some of the most pressing challenges in homeland security. We posted three Broad Agency Announcements on the Web sites shown here earlier this month. [refer to text on slide] Visit or for more information

18 Visit (soon to be .gov)
DHS SBIR Program Increases participation of innovative and creative small businesses in Federal research and development programs Challenges small businesses to bring innovative homeland security solutions to reality Focuses on near-term commercialization and delivery of operational prototypes Over 324 contracts awarded Funded by S&T Directorate and DNDO Implemented Cost Match to motivate commercialization Twice a year, S&T, through our Small Business Innovation Research program, posts a batch of solicitations covering a variety of technical topic areas on the Web at Visit (soon to be .gov)

19 Homeland Security Centers of Excellence
Seven university-based research centers established to date, each focused on a specific homeland security challenge Planning for four new Centers underway to address: explosives detection, mitigation, and response border security and immigration maritime, island, and extreme/remote environment security natural disasters, coastal infrastructure and emergency management Broad Agency Announcements Released Feb. 5 Visit for more information Our university-based Homeland Security Centers of Excellence Centers are focused on a critical area of homeland security [e.g. risk and economic analysis, food and agriculture defense, high-consequence event preparedness, and the study of terrorism through the lens of the social and behavioral sciences.] Today, seven Centers of Excellence are linked to research efforts at more than 80 colleges and universities, including several MSIs. Industry, laboratories, think tanks, nonprofit organizations, and other agencies participate as partners in these Centers. BAA Announcement – Centers of Excellence We continue to build our network of Centers of Excellence. In fact on Feb. 5, the Science & Technology Directorate issued Broad Agency Announcements seeking candidate universities to establish four new Homeland Security Centers of Excellence in these areas: explosives detection, mitigation, and response; border security and immigration; maritime, island, and extreme/remote environment security; and natural disasters, coastal infrastructure and emergency management. [the These open, competitive solicitations are posted at and universities and other U.S.-based institutions of higher learning are encouraged to apply.

20 S&T Stakeholders Conference

21 21

22 Back-Up Slides

23 S&T Points of Contact Division Email Jim Tuttle S&
John Vitko David Boyd Merv Leavitt Sharla Rausch Chris Doyle Bob Hooks Starnes Walker Roger McGinnis

24 Product Transition Border Detection Grid
Provides: Advanced sensors (radar, EO/IR cameras, unattended ground sensors and fiber optic tripwires) Advanced signal processing and communications systems State-of-the-art power sources for persistent border surveillance Technology transition into SBInet acquisition Force multiplier - improved effectiveness, fewer required personnel, and low cost sensors while reducing overall operational, acquisition, and maintenance costs Increases detection, tracking and apprehension rate Example of an S&T Enhanced Homeland Capability that is going through the IPT and product transition process with our Customs & Border Patrol customers. Planned Demos/Deliverables/Transitions: Southern and Northern Border Technology Assessment and Roadmap - FY07 Fiber Optic Tripwire Pilot - FY 07/08 Southern Border Integrated Concept Test - FY08 Advanced Signal Processing prototype - FY08 Advanced UGS prototype - FY09 Northern Border Integrated Concept Test – FY09 Northern and Southern Border Pilots and technology transition to SBInet– FY10/FY11

25 Mobile FAST Laboratory
Homeland Innovative Prototype Solutions Future Attribute Screening Technology (FAST) Counter-MANPADS Functions MWS Detect & Declare Slew and Hand-off Track Jam Mobile FAST Laboratory Systems Queue management Behavioral recognition Rapid risk assessment Screening methodologies Functions Attribute measurement Risk determination Behavior focused screening Operational Characteristics Discover screening methods for intent Privacy protection for all participants Simple to operate and use

26 High Impact Technology Solutions Tunnel Detection
Two Part Plan Silver Fox UAV for fast detection of suspect sites Ground based system for slow but extremely sensitive validation of potential tunnels and simple long term deterrence In FY 2007, S&T will demonstrate the capability of using an unmanned aircraft system to detect tunnels while traveling at relatively high speed and for extended periods. Will provide a method for the monitoring the entire southern U.S. border in a timely manner FY plan to demonstrate an improved airborne system combined with ground-based technologies to increase the accuracy of detecting tunnels.

27 High Impact Technology Solutions First Net
A rapidly deployable, self contained, mobile or portable radio communications solution that temporarily or permanently restores capabilities for legacy first response communications networks damaged or destroyed by natural disasters, major incidents, and acts of terror.

28 Command Control Interoperability
S&T Division Command Control Interoperability Major Thrust Areas Communications, Interoperability, and Compatibility Knowledge Tools Surveillance, Reconnaissance, and Investigative Technologies Threat Assessment Cyber Security Research & Development Communications, interoperability and compatibility programs within Command, Control and Interoperability strengthen interoperable wireless communications, improve information sharing, and develop tools for better coordination and planning at all levels of government. The nation’s capacity for interoperable communications is hindered by sub-optimized planning and coordination. S&T’s Office for Interoperability and Compatibility, and Integrated Federal, State and local information sharing efforts help by strengthening and integrating interoperability and compatibility. S&T is developing knowledge management tools to reduce the risk of terrorist attacks and to better prepare for and respond to all types of disasters. This will provide new capabilities for the DHS Intelligence & Analysis Directorate and the DHS information enterprise for the integration, management, analysis, and dissemination of actionable information. Knowledge management research provides tools and methods for handling massive amounts of information dispersed in many forms. Finding, understanding and using this information to assess an actual threat and determine the level of risk before a high-consequence event occurs is the best way to save lives and preserve our way of life. Cyber security research, development, testing and evaluation is focused on improving the security of the existing cyber infrastructure and providing a foundation for a more secure infrastructure through coordinated efforts with other Government agencies and private industry. $63.6 million requested for Command, Control and Interoperability for FY 2008 will fund programs focused on cyber security; communications, compatibility and interoperability; and knowledge management.

29 Infrastructure/Geophysical
S&T Division Infrastructure/Geophysical Major Thrust Areas Critical Infrastructure Protection Modeling, Simulation and Analysis National Critical Infrastructure Protection R&D Plan Risk reduction technologies Incident Management & Decision Support Preparedness & response technologies and advanced concepts and systems Regional Technology Integration S&T’s Infrastructure and Geophysical Division develops technical solutions and reach-back capabilities to improve State, local, tribal, and private sector All Hazards preparedness and response impacting population and critical infrastructure. Focus is on identifying and mitigating the vulnerabilities of 17 critical infrastructure sectors and key assets that keep our society functional The Division: models and simulates nation’s critical infrastructures to determine the impact of various scenarios on each sector provides tools to help decision makers identify gaps and vulnerabilities and make informed investment decisions supports tools for incident commanders and emerg. responders to use daily and during major events that demand a more highly coordinated response. risk reduction technologies – developing capability to enable infrastructure owners and operators to implement affordable and reliable blast and projectile mitigation measures – developing suite of advanced materials, design procedures and protective and innovative construction methods Regional Technology Integration – aimed at transitioning innovative technologies and concepts from local to national level using (4) urban pilot sites – Anaheim, CA – T&E of integrated technologies to counter chem/bio/explosives. 2008 – Cincinnati pilot – develop a leave-behind capability to enhance multi-State preparedness and response operations.




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