2 What is a mutation? A mutation is a change in DNA Two types of mutations are gene mutations and chromosome mutations.
3 Gene mutationsA POINT MUTATION is a mutation that affects one nucleotide or one base.Sometimes your cell catches it when proofreading.What will happen?The wrong amino acid may be put into place.Example: sickle cell anemiaYOU ARE FAT >>>> YOU ARE CATATA TAG CCA >>>>> AAA TAG CCA
4 A FRAMESHIFT mutation involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide or base. This causes a shift in the whole sequence.This usually causes something bad to happen.THE CAT ATE THE RAT. >>THC ATA TET HER ATATT CCA TAG >>>> ATC CAT AGEvery amino acid put in will be wrong.
5 Chromosomal mutations Occurs during meiosis.The resulting gamete will have the wrong number of chromosomes.These tend to increase as parents get older.
8 There is only one X chromosome on the 23rd pair. This is a female. (1/2500)She is underdeveloped.She is short . 4’7”May have webbed neck, low hairline on back of head, drooping eyelids, lower set ears, edema of hands and feet.Usually sterile.
9 What about a person with only one Y chromosome? (lacks an X) He will not live. Why?
23 the boys from brazil - rabbit cloning – YouTube GCSE Science Revision - Cloning Dolly The Sheep - YouTube
24 Genetic engineeringTaking DNA from one organism and inserting it into the DNA of another organisms. This is called recombinant DNA.The new organism is a transgenic organism.We do this to make insulin.We take an insulin gene from a person and put it into the DNA of a bacteria. What do we get? Bacteria that produce insulin.
25 We have created plants that are resistant to frost, diseases and insects. We can increase crop yields.We have developed animals for research.
26 Human genome project Sequence the human genome. Find all of the genes on all of the chromosomes.