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1 PowerPoint Presentations for
Technology By R. Thomas Wright The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

2 Technological System Components
Section 2 Technological System Components © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

3 Inputs to Technological Systems
Chapter 4 Inputs to Technological Systems © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

4 Learning Objectives Identify inputs to technological systems.
Describe the types of skills and knowledge various groups of people bring to technological systems. Identify the types of tools and machines used as inputs to technological systems. Describe the types and properties of materials that are inputs to technological systems. Identify the types of information that are inputs to technological systems. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

5 Learning Objectives Identify the major types and sources of energy as inputs in technological systems. List the sources of finances that are used as inputs to technological systems. Explain the importance of time with regard to technological systems. Explain why we need to use and conserve intelligently the resources that are inputs to technological systems. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

6 Inputs Inputs can be grouped into seven major categories: People.
Tools and machines. Materials. Information. Energy. Finances. Time. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

7 People Scientists develop knowledge.
People design, operate, and use technological systems. Engineers design. Production workers, technicians, mechanics, entrepreneurs, managers, and support staff operate. Consumers are the users of the systems. (Northern Telecom) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

8 Creativity Creativity is a key part to production and technology in general. A renowned example of a creative person is Art Fry, the developer of Post-it® notes. 3M has continued to make many useful and innovative products due to its creative production teams. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

9 Tools Every technology uses a common set of hand tools to produce, service, and maintain products and equipment. Specifically used for measuring, cutting, drilling, gripping, pounding, and polishing tools. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

10 Machines Machines can be simple or complex, with complex machines being comprised of simple machines. Simple machines operate on two basic principles: The principle of the lever: Machines such as the lever, wheel and axle, and pulley. The principle of the inclined plane: Machine such as the inclined plane, wedge, and the screw. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

11 Lever Mechanisms A lever has a lever arm that rests and turns on a fulcrum. Three categories: First-class levers like a pry bar. Second-class levers like a wheelbarrow. Third-class levers are like a person moving dirt with a shovel. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

12 Lever Usage Like all machines, either force multiplier or distance multiplier. Both wheel and axles and pulleys, second-class levers, can be used as force or distance multipliers. Pulleys can also change direction of force. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

13 Inclined Plane Mechanisms
Add a link from “inclined plane,” “wedge,” and “screw” to key terms. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

14 Discussion What are some simple machines you use daily?
See how machines work (http://www.flying-pig.com/mechanisms/index.html) Elements of Machines (http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/InventorsToolbox.html) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

15 Classification of Materials
Can we enlarge this image? Links for “natural materials,” “synthetic materials,” “composite materials,” “organic materials,” “exhaustible materials,” “genetic materials,” gases,” “liquids,” and “solids.” Could we possibly also create a link for metal and wood to a slide on solids (slide 13)? © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

16 Classification of Materials
Materials can be classified as natural, synthetic, or composite; organic or inorganic; exhaustible or genetic; gas, liquid, or solid. Solids can then be subdivided into metals, plastics, ceramics, or composites. Grouping the materials helps when choosing what materials to use for what purpose. All materials have different but similar properties. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

17 Solids © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

18 Properties of Materials
Seven properties: Physical: size, shape, density, moisture content, and porosity. Mechanical: strength, plasticity, elasticity, ductility, and hardness. Chemical: chemical activity and corrosion resistance. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

19 Properties of Materials
Seven properties (cont’d): Thermal: thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, and thermal expansion. Electrical and magnetic: electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability. Acoustical: acoustical transmission and acoustical reflectivity. Optical: color, optical transmission, and optical reflectivity. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

20 Information Facts and figures we call data can be organized.
When data is organized, it is then called information. Information includes scientific and technological information, as well as humanities. Knowledge is best described as learning and applying information. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

21 Types of Energy © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

22 Sources of Energy Sources of energy are grouped in terms of supply.
The sun is inexhaustible energy. Renewable energy would be living matter, like trees. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are all sources of exhaustible energy. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

23 Finances Money to develop and operate technological systems can be obtained in two ways: Equity financing: Sole proprietorship, individually financed businesses. Partnership, co-owned businesses. Corporation, shares. Debt financing: Borrowing money. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

24 Time Time was at first measured by the sun and then by harvesting and planting periods (months). New technological advances measure days, hours, seconds, and nanoseconds. (OutdoorDecor.com, National Institute of Standards and Technology Boulder Laboratories, U.S. Department of Commerce) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

25 Career Corner Construction laborers.
Perform wide range of tasks involving building and maintaining constructed works. Requires heavy lifting. Does not usually require experience or training. Job Search (http://www.careersinconstruction.com/) Construction Careers Information (http://www.constructmyfuture.com/choose.html) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

26 Review What are the seven inputs common to all technological systems?
People, tools and machines, materials, information, energy, finances, and time. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

27 Review What kind of people are involved with technological advancements? Creative scientists, engineers, production workers, managers, support staff, technicians, and consumers. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

28 Review Name the six simple machines.
Lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, and screw. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

29 Review What are the seven properties of materials?
Physical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical and magnetic, acoustical, and optical properties. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

30 Review How is information grouped?
Information is categorized by scientific, technological, or humanities information. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

31 Review What are the six major types of energy?
Chemical, electrical, thermal (heat), radiant (light), mechanical, and nuclear. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

32 Review What two sources of finance are there?
Equity or debt financing. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

33 Review Why is time important to technological advances?
We judge things on how fast they are, how much time they take. Time is essential so we don’t like to “waste” it. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

34 Review Why do we need to use our resources carefully?
Many inputs have a limited supply. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

35 Key Terms Composite materials Consumer Corporation
combinations of natural and synthetic materials that are used to create items with other desirable properties. Consumer a person who financially supports a technological system by spending money on products or services. Corporation a legal entity people form to own an operation. It is a business in which investors have purchased partial ownership in the form of shares of stock. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

36 Key Terms Creativity Data Debt financing
the ability to see a need or a way of making life easier and design systems and products to meet the need or desire. Data the raw, unorganized facts and figures collected by people and machines. Debt financing raising money by borrowing money from a financial institution or private investors. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

37 Key Terms Distance multiplier Engineer Entrepreneurs
a simple machine that increases the amount of movement applied to the work at hand. Engineer a person who conducts research and applies scientific and technological knowledge to the design and development of products, structures, and systems. Entrepreneurs people with very special talents who look beyond present practices and products and create businesses. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

38 Key Terms Equity financing Exhaustible Exhaustible materials
raising money by selling a portion of ownership in a company. Exhaustible capable of being entirely used up. Exhaustible materials materials that, once depleted, cannot be replaced by human action or nature. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

39 Key Terms First-class levers Force multiplier Fulcrum
the class of levers in which the fulcrum is between the load and the effort. Force multiplier a simple machine that increases the force applied to the work at hand. Fulcrum the support on a lever on which the lever arm rests and turns. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

40 Key Terms Gases Genetic materials Hand tools
materials that easily disperse and expand to fill any space. Genetic materials organic materials that have life cycles and can be regenerated. They are obtained during the normal life cycles of plants or animals. Hand tools simple, handheld artifacts that require human muscle power, air, or electric power to make them work. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

41 Key Terms Inclined plane Inexhaustible Information
an application of the principle that it is easier to move up a slope than a vertical surface. Inexhaustible unable to be entirely used up or consumed. Information facts and figures, called data, that have been sorted and arranged for human use. It is vital to taking an active part in society. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

42 Key Terms Inorganic materials Knowledge Lever
materials that do not come from living organisms. Knowledge information learned and applied to a task. Lever a simple machine that multiplies the force applied to it. It changes the direction of a linear force. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

43 Key Terms Lever arm Liquids Machines
a rod or bar on a lever that rests and turns on the fulcrum. Liquids visible, fluid materials that will not normally hold their size and shape. Machines artifacts that amplify the speed, amount, or direction of a force. They transmit or change the application of power, force, or motion. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

44 Key Terms Manager Mechanics Natural material
a person who organizes and directs the work of others in a business, by setting goals, structuring tasks to be completed, assigning work, and monitoring results. Mechanics skilled workers in service operations. Natural material a material that occurs naturally on earth. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

45 Key Terms Organic materials Partnership Production workers
materials that come from living organisms. Partnership a form of private ownership in which businesses are owned and operated by two or more people. Production workers people who process materials, build structures, operate transportation vehicles, service products, or produce and deliver communication products. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

46 Key Terms Pulleys Renewable
grooved wheels attached to an axle that can be used to change the direction of a force, multiply force, or multiply distance. Renewable capable of being used up, but replaceable with the normal life cycle of the energy source. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

47 Key Terms Scientists Screw Second-class levers
people who generally develop a basic knowledge of physics, materials science, geology, or chemistry to help create products and processes. Screw an inclined plane wrapped around a shaft. Second-class levers levers in which the load is between the effort and the fulcrum. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

48 Key Terms Sole proprietorship Solids Support staff
a business or operation owned by one person. Solids materials that hold their size and shape and can support loads. Support staff nonmanagerial workers who carry out such tasks as keeping financial records, maintaining sales documents, and developing personnel systems. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

49 Key Terms Synthetic materials Technicians Third-class levers
human-made materials. Technicians skilled workers in laboratories and product-testing facilities. They work closely with production workers, but do more specialized jobs. Third-class levers levers in which the effort is placed between the load and the fulcrum. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

50 Key Terms Tools Wedge Wheel and axle
artifacts humans use to expand their capabilities. Wedge a device used to split and separate materials and to grip parts. Wheel and axle a shaft attached to a disk. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.


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