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Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technology By R. Thomas Wright The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technology By R. Thomas Wright The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technology By R. Thomas Wright The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois PowerPoint Presentations for

2 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technological System Components Section 2

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Chapter 4 Inputs to Technological Systems

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Learning Objectives Identify inputs to technological systems. Describe the types of skills and knowledge various groups of people bring to technological systems. Identify the types of tools and machines used as inputs to technological systems. Describe the types and properties of materials that are inputs to technological systems. Identify the types of information that are inputs to technological systems.

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Learning Objectives Identify the major types and sources of energy as inputs in technological systems. List the sources of finances that are used as inputs to technological systems. Explain the importance of time with regard to technological systems. Explain why we need to use and conserve intelligently the resources that are inputs to technological systems.

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Inputs Inputs can be grouped into seven major categories: –People. –Tools and machines. –Materials. –Information. –Energy. –Finances. –Time.

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. People Scientists develop knowledge. People design, operate, and use technological systems. Engineers design. Production workers, technicians, mechanics, entrepreneurs, managers, and support staff operate. Consumers are the users of the systems. (Northern Telecom)

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Creativity Creativity is a key part to production and technology in general. A renowned example of a creative person is Art Fry, the developer of Post-it® notes. 3M has continued to make many useful and innovative products due to its creative production teams.

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tools Every technology uses a common set of hand tools to produce, service, and maintain products and equipment. –Specifically used for measuring, cutting, drilling, gripping, pounding, and polishing tools.

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Machines Machines can be simple or complex, with complex machines being comprised of simple machines. Simple machines operate on two basic principles: –The principle of the lever: Machines such as the lever, wheel and axle, and pulley. –The principle of the inclined plane: Machine such as the inclined plane, wedge, and the screw.

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lever Mechanisms A lever has a lever arm that rests and turns on a fulcrum. Three categories: –First-class levers like a pry bar. –Second-class levers like a wheelbarrow. –Third-class levers are like a person moving dirt with a shovel.

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lever Usage Like all machines, either force multiplier or distance multiplier. Both wheel and axles and pulleys, second- class levers, can be used as force or distance multipliers. Pulleys can also change direction of force.

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Inclined Plane Mechanisms

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Discussion What are some simple machines you use daily? See how machines work (http://www.flying- pig.com/mechanisms/index.html) Elements of Machines (http://www.mos.org/sln/Leonardo/InventorsT oolbox.html)

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Classification of Materials

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Classification of Materials Materials can be classified as natural, synthetic, or composite; organic or inorganic; exhaustible or genetic; gas, liquid, or solid. Solids can then be subdivided into metals, plastics, ceramics, or composites. Grouping the materials helps when choosing what materials to use for what purpose. All materials have different but similar properties.

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Solids

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Properties of Materials Seven properties: –Physical: size, shape, density, moisture content, and porosity. –Mechanical: strength, plasticity, elasticity, ductility, and hardness. –Chemical: chemical activity and corrosion resistance.

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Properties of Materials Seven properties (contd): –Thermal: thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, and thermal expansion. –Electrical and magnetic: electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability. –Acoustical: acoustical transmission and acoustical reflectivity. –Optical: color, optical transmission, and optical reflectivity.

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Information Facts and figures we call data can be organized. When data is organized, it is then called information. Information includes scientific and technological information, as well as humanities. Knowledge is best described as learning and applying information.

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Types of Energy

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sources of Energy Sources of energy are grouped in terms of supply. –The sun is inexhaustible energy. –Renewable energy would be living matter, like trees. –Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are all sources of exhaustible energy.

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Finances Money to develop and operate technological systems can be obtained in two ways: –Equity financing: Sole proprietorship, individually financed businesses. Partnership, co-owned businesses. Corporation, shares. –Debt financing: Borrowing money.

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Time Time was at first measured by the sun and then by harvesting and planting periods (months). New technological advances measure days, hours, seconds, and nanoseconds. (OutdoorDecor.com, National Institute of Standards and Technology Boulder Laboratories, U.S. Department of Commerce)

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Career Corner Construction laborers. –Perform wide range of tasks involving building and maintaining constructed works. –Requires heavy lifting. –Does not usually require experience or training. Job Search ( Construction Careers Information (

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What are the seven inputs common to all technological systems? People, tools and machines, materials, information, energy, finances, and time.

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What kind of people are involved with technological advancements? Creative scientists, engineers, production workers, managers, support staff, technicians, and consumers.

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Name the six simple machines. Lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, and screw.

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What are the seven properties of materials? Physical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, electrical and magnetic, acoustical, and optical properties.

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review How is information grouped? Information is categorized by scientific, technological, or humanities information.

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What are the six major types of energy? Chemical, electrical, thermal (heat), radiant (light), mechanical, and nuclear.

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What two sources of finance are there? Equity or debt financing.

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Why is time important to technological advances? We judge things on how fast they are, how much time they take. Time is essential so we dont like to waste it.

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Why do we need to use our resources carefully? Many inputs have a limited supply.

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Composite materials –combinations of natural and synthetic materials that are used to create items with other desirable properties. Consumer –a person who financially supports a technological system by spending money on products or services. Corporation –a legal entity people form to own an operation. It is a business in which investors have purchased partial ownership in the form of shares of stock.

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Creativity –the ability to see a need or a way of making life easier and design systems and products to meet the need or desire. Data –the raw, unorganized facts and figures collected by people and machines. Debt financing –raising money by borrowing money from a financial institution or private investors.

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Distance multiplier –a simple machine that increases the amount of movement applied to the work at hand. Engineer –a person who conducts research and applies scientific and technological knowledge to the design and development of products, structures, and systems. Entrepreneurs –people with very special talents who look beyond present practices and products and create businesses.

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Equity financing –raising money by selling a portion of ownership in a company. Exhaustible –capable of being entirely used up. Exhaustible materials –materials that, once depleted, cannot be replaced by human action or nature.

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms First-class levers –the class of levers in which the fulcrum is between the load and the effort. Force multiplier –a simple machine that increases the force applied to the work at hand. Fulcrum –the support on a lever on which the lever arm rests and turns.

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Gases –materials that easily disperse and expand to fill any space. Genetic materials –organic materials that have life cycles and can be regenerated. They are obtained during the normal life cycles of plants or animals. Hand tools –simple, handheld artifacts that require human muscle power, air, or electric power to make them work.

41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Inclined plane –an application of the principle that it is easier to move up a slope than a vertical surface. Inexhaustible –unable to be entirely used up or consumed. Information –facts and figures, called data, that have been sorted and arranged for human use. It is vital to taking an active part in society.

42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Inorganic materials –materials that do not come from living organisms. Knowledge –information learned and applied to a task. Lever –a simple machine that multiplies the force applied to it. It changes the direction of a linear force.

43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Lever arm –a rod or bar on a lever that rests and turns on the fulcrum. Liquids –visible, fluid materials that will not normally hold their size and shape. Machines –artifacts that amplify the speed, amount, or direction of a force. They transmit or change the application of power, force, or motion.

44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Manager –a person who organizes and directs the work of others in a business, by setting goals, structuring tasks to be completed, assigning work, and monitoring results. Mechanics –skilled workers in service operations. Natural material –a material that occurs naturally on earth.

45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Organic materials –materials that come from living organisms. Partnership –a form of private ownership in which businesses are owned and operated by two or more people. Production workers –people who process materials, build structures, operate transportation vehicles, service products, or produce and deliver communication products.

46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Pulleys –grooved wheels attached to an axle that can be used to change the direction of a force, multiply force, or multiply distance. Renewable –capable of being used up, but replaceable with the normal life cycle of the energy source.

47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Scientists –people who generally develop a basic knowledge of physics, materials science, geology, or chemistry to help create products and processes. Screw –an inclined plane wrapped around a shaft. Second-class levers –levers in which the load is between the effort and the fulcrum.

48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Sole proprietorship –a business or operation owned by one person. Solids –materials that hold their size and shape and can support loads. Support staff –nonmanagerial workers who carry out such tasks as keeping financial records, maintaining sales documents, and developing personnel systems.

49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Synthetic materials –human-made materials. Technicians –skilled workers in laboratories and product-testing facilities. They work closely with production workers, but do more specialized jobs. Third-class levers –levers in which the effort is placed between the load and the fulcrum.

50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Tools –artifacts humans use to expand their capabilities. Wedge –a device used to split and separate materials and to grip parts. Wheel and axle –a shaft attached to a disk.


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