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Copyright, Curtis D. Edmonds, 2002. This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright, Curtis D. Edmonds, 2002. This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright, Curtis D. Edmonds, This work is the intellectual property of the author. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the author. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the author.

2 Making Web Pages Accessible for Everyone

3 Your One Stop Center on the ADA and Accessible E & IT Southeast Disability and Business Technical Assistance Center (DBTAC)

4 Southeast DBTAC serves 8 states Network of 10 Regional Centers with over 2,200 affiliates at the local, state and regional level

5 National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) U.S. Department of Education Grant Number H133D Who Funds Us?

6 DBTAC Mission Facilitate voluntary compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) Facilitate widespread use of accessible education-based electronic and information technology (EduIT)

7 Individuals with disabilities and their family/friends Business Entities Service Providers Government Entities Educational Entities Who Do We Serve?

8 History In the last thirty years, there has been revolutionary change in both the development of information technology and the rights of people with disabilities.

9 History Unfortunately, advances in access for people with disabilities have not always kept pace with advances in information technology.

10 History In 1973, Congress passed the Rehabilitation Act, which protected the rights of individuals with disabilities in the federal sector and in federally funded programs.

11 History In 1973, ARPANET, the predecessor to the Internet, established connections to Great Britain and Norway.

12 History In 1990, President George Bush signs the Americans with Disabilities Act.

13 History In 1990, there are approximately 300,000 computers hosting sites on the Internet. Scientists begin work on the World Wide Web.

14 History In 1993, the standards for new construction under the ADA take effect.

15 History In 1993, Mosaic, a graphical browser that was a predecessor to Netscape Navigator, was launched. Previously, most Internet traffic was text-based.

16 History In 1998, the Supreme Court heard its first two ADA cases, Yeskey v. Pennsylvania and Bragdon v. Abbott.

17 History In 1998, Congress amended Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, guaranteeing access to information technology for persons with disabilities in the federal sector.

18 Legal Environment Section 508 applies in three areas (absent undue burden): –Federal government entities (limited by national security) –Vendors that sell information technology to the federal government –State entities in states that receive funding under the Assistive Technology Act

19 Legal Environment Section 508 applies to information technology products, including: –Copiers –Fax Machines –Information Kiosks

20 Legal Environment –Computers; –Software and operating systems; –Websites; and –Telecommunication products.

21 In 2001, standards implementing Section 508 went into effect. Legal Environment

22 The Access Board, the federal agency that drafted the ADA standards for architectural barriers, drafted the Section 508 standards.

23 Legal Environment The Department of Justice has stated that entities covered by the ADA that provide information over the Internet should make that information accessible.

24 Legal Environment Currently, there are no comparable standards under the ADA for covered entities that want to provide access to information technology.

25 Legal Environment However, ADA-covered entities that follow the Section 508 standards will more than likely be able to show that they are providing access for people with disabilities.

26 Legal Environment Pennsylvania and Washington have adopted the Section 508 standards. Connecticut adopted the industry-based W3C Standards, which are more stringent.

27 Legal Environment Several other states, such as Texas and Kentucky, have passed laws requiring state agencies to provide access to information technology for people with disabilities.

28 The Bottom Line Organizations that value and promote development of accessible EduIT environments create systems that, as a whole, are more accessible and usable by all.

29 Reasons for Accessible IT Providing access to EduIT affirms the values of diversity and inclusion held by many educational institutions.

30 Reasons for Accessible IT Increasing numbers of people are accessing the Web through alternative means such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), cell phones, and other devices that are not what we usually think of as computers.

31 Reasons for Accessible IT Accessible websites work better and faster in this context. Forward thinking web masters design websites that work for all visitors.

32 Reasons for Accessible IT When the EduIT environment is not accessible, the educational entity may lose qualified current and potential faculty, staff, students with disabilities, and participation by the general public.

33 Assistive Technology Barriers to access generally occur when information technology is not designed to take advantage of assistive technology devices.

34 Assistive Technology Assistive technology is any technology that assists persons with disabilities in performing tasks that most people can do without such technology.

35 Assistive Technology Voice-activated software allows people who cannot use a keyboard to enter in text.

36 Assistive Technology Trackballs allow people who do not have the dexterity to use a mouse to move around on a computer screen.

37 Assistive Technology Screen readers translate the text of a computer screen into speech for persons who are blind.

38 Assistive Technology Magnification software allows people with low vision to read computer screens at a comfortable level of print.

39 Assistive Technology Television sets with captioning provide accommodations for persons with hearing loss.

40 Common Barriers When information technology is designed so that it does not work with assistive technology, it creates barriers to people with disabilities.

41 Common Barriers Software that requires the use of a mouse to perform commands is inaccessible to people with disabilities that cannot use a mouse.

42 Common Barriers A copier that has controls outside of accessible reach ranges is inaccessible for some persons who use wheelchairs.

43 Common Barriers A computer laboratory that is located in an inaccessible building cannot be accessed by people with disabilities.

44 Common Barriers Some of the barriers listed above are primarily the responsibility of IT vendors, but educational entities should take these barriers into account in the procurement process.

45 Internet Barriers Barriers to Internet access or facilities, however, should be addressed by educational entities directly.

46 Internet Barriers Educational entities should take affirmative steps to evaluate their Internet sites for accessibility to visitors with disabilities.

47 Internet Barriers Internet pages are constructed using a special code called HyperText Markup Language, or HTML.

48 Internet Barriers This code indicates where text and images appear on an Internet page. Metro Weather 47°F M/sunny

49 Internet Barriers Most Internet sites use images to convey information.

50 Internet Barriers However, if these images are not labeled, users who use screen readers cannot access them. Google

51 Internet Barriers If these images are mislabeled, then users who use screen readers cannot understand them. kwajex.gif (45k) mailbox

52 Internet Barriers If these images are flashing at a high rate, they can cause seizures in people with photosensitive epilepsy.

53 Internet Barriers If the site uses color to portray information, people with visual impairments like color blindness may not be able to access that information.

54 Internet Barriers If the colors used in a site have poor contrast, it may be difficult for some users to read.

55 Internet Barriers If the colors used in a site have poor contrast, it may be difficult for some users to read.

56 Internet Barriers If the site has multiple navigation links, it may be repetitive for users who use the keyboard to navigate the site.

57 Internet Barriers Online tools are available to evaluate and test Internet sites for access.

58 Internet Barriers The Bobby website is the most widely used validator: –http://www.cast.org/bobbyhttp://www.cast.org/bobby

59 Internet Barriers The WAVE validator shows where text labels are missing or mislabeled: –http://www.temple.edu/inst_disabi lities/piat/wave/http://www.temple.edu/inst_disabi lities/piat/wave/

60 Internet Barriers The Lynx Viewer lets you see your site as a screen reader sees it: –http://www.delorie.com/web/lynxv iew.htmlhttp://www.delorie.com/web/lynxv iew.html

61 Internet Barriers For other information and resources about access to information technology, visit the Southeast DBTAC website at: –http://www.sedbtac.org/ed/index.cfm

62 Internet Barriers The National Center on Accessible Information Technology in Education provides guidance on accessible information technology: –http://www.washington.edu/ accessit/index.php

63 Internet Barriers The Information Technology Technical Assistance and Training Center is another valuable resource for information on accessible IT: –http://www.ittatc.org

64 Have Questions? By telephone (v/tty) Southeast region only (v/tty) 711 (relay) By fax By By internet


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