Presentation on theme: "Human performance technology as part of Safety Science How to optimize human-machine (technology)-systems and their performance? Siegfried Radandt FSA/NEU."— Presentation transcript:
Human performance technology as part of Safety Science How to optimize human-machine (technology)-systems and their performance? Siegfried Radandt FSA/NEU
Safety Science intends to use these specific human resources who can contribute to realizing safe and secure society through the study of law, politics, economics, business administration, psychology, sociology, science, informatics, engineering and social medicine with the aim of combating issues threatening social safety.
Therefore In modern work life the strategies for safety and health at work, a safe work environment occupational health services and well-being at work are understood as resources and for the socio-economic development of countries as strategic tools, for the elimination of poverty and for the implementation of the missions of enterprises,
Why do we need risk management systems? In a modern world, safety and health are part of a complex system that involves innumerable interdependencies and interactions. These interactions elucidate the need for an integrated approach, and the modelling of the complex entity. Risks can be regarded as potential failures, which may decrease trust in realizing a companys goals. The aim of risk management is to identify these potential failures qualitatively and quantitatively, and to reduce them to the level of a non-hazardous and acceptable residual risk potential.
Basic concept of risk management Risk management is specific to the organization and its external and internal context: The process is tailored to suit the organization and its internal and external context, taking into accounts the organizations external and internal culture, needs, resources, criteria and objectives. The organizations risk management process may also need to change, if the organization changes. Risk management is dynamic, iterative and responsive to change.
Risk analysis procedure according to the type of information. Risk: Combination of the probability of an event and its consequences. Note 1 The term risk is generally used only when there is at least a possibility of negative consequences. Note 2 In some situation, risk arises from the possibility of deviation from the expected outcome or event.
Risk analysis process incorporating the use of a decision aid.
An example for a network of tasks in a system for a risk management process with the support of human performance technology.
Human performance is the valued result of the work of the people working within a system. And therefore Human Performance Technology consists of those principles and applications that are concerned with improving the impact of any and all factors that affect those results. The role of Human Performance Technology in this context:
Human performance technology is a set of methods and procedures, and a strategy for solving problems, for realizing opportunities related to the performance of people. It can be applied to individuals, small groups, and large organizations. It is, in reality, a systematic combination of three fundamental processes: performance analysis, cause analysis, and intervention selection.
1.Human Performance Technology emphasizes that we must look at performance within the context of a system, recognizing the interdependency of the various factors that affect performance.
2. Human Performance Technology recognizes the necessity of looking at people while determining those factors that impact the results that those people produce; in other words, people are at the heart of any analysis we do.
3. Human Performance Technology defines human performance in terms of results not activity.
Performance focuses on people working within a system: 1. The performer interacts with a physical and social environment that may consist of the necessary tools and equipment, relationships with other people and so on. We refer to these as the conditions of their environment. 2. To initiate any meaningful activity we also need some kind of input or direction. Performers need to know the assignment, the goals, and what is expected of them. 3. On an individual level, we must be sure the performer is able to act (assessing the extent of his skills, knowledge, and capacities). 4. The resulting output can be measured, and that information can be used as feedback to the performer about how to change their actions, if need be. 5. Finally, the assessment effort results in some kind of consequence., and the consequence may be the need to act to motivate or de-motivate people. We refer to this as the motivational or value feedback.
InputPerformersOutputs Corrective Feedback Motivational Feedbak Receiving System Environment/Conditions A Human Performance System
The performance of the biopsychosocial unit, i.e. the human being, plays an important role within the human performance structure
Dependencies in the structure of human performance.
The Elements of Physiological Fitness Strength – Is the ability of a muscle to produce force (power is strength + speed) Muscular endurance – Is the ability of amuscle to produce force repeatedly over a period of time Cardiovascular endurance – Is the capacity of the respiratory system and the circulatory system to supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscle cells so an activity can continue for along period of time Flexibility – Refers to the range of motion possible in the joints. This is controlled by muscles, tendons and ligaments
Psychological willingness and motivation are preconditions for human performance Motivation is a general term treating needs, goals and motivated behavior. It is an individual attribute, and is a function of the interplay between each workers needs and the incentives provided by the job and all other aspects of his life. Other aspects are social and non-job factors. Motivation, in a sense, covers all psychological aspects ( arousal, attention, monotony, fatigue )
Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals and is the precondition for human performance. Motivation is a general term treating needs, goals and motivated behavior. It is an individual attribute, and is a function of the interplay between each individuals needs and the incentives provided by the job and all other aspects of his life. Other aspects are social and non-job factors. Motivation, in a sense, covers all psychological aspects ( arousal, attention, monotony, fatigue ) The role of motivation
The two parts of motivation are: Intrinsic motivation are internal rewards that a person feels when performing a job and there is a direct connection between work and rewards. An employee in this situation is self-motivated Extrensic motivation are external rewards that occur apart from the nature of work, providing no direct satisfaction at the time the work is performed. Examples are retirement plans, health insurance, vacations.
Detailed aspects of psychological willingness and motivation: Intrinsic motivation – Interest – Inclination – Social integration – Mood – Level of pretention – Prestress Extrensic motivation – Opportunity for promotion – Work conditions – Working climate – Level of wage – Fear of dismissal – Room for disposition – Attitudes based on influence of family and other outside persons or agencies
A model of motivation Needs and drives TensionEffortPerformance Rewards Need satisfaction EnvironmentOpportunity Goals and incentives Ability
The performance-satisfaction-effort loop Performance Rewards Economic Sociological Psychological Perception of equity in rewards Fair Unfair Satisfaction or dissatisfaction Greater or lesser effort Greater or lesser commitment
Striving for performance contents inquisitiveness. This leads to creativity. Striving for performance is selfexploration. Motivation to performance has two components: 1.) hope on success 2.) fear about failure That means: optimization of positive aspects minimization of negative aspects
Body and Mind are one Unit! Treating both is the best way to be successful! Ideas, views, imaginations are pictures and forces: they influence our behavior and draw it in a certain direction ( mostly to higher performance )!
Success needs: Preparedness for learning and readiness for performance Willingness to work and willingness to be successful Ambition Ability to be disciplined and persistent Flexibility and being full of ideas Ability of being creative Ability to observe the others and to learn from them Necessity to treat complicated realities in a society
Training models for traditional training and behavior modeling Learn new frameworks and theories......which lead to New attitudes and values...which lead to changed job behaviors......which lead to better results Learn new behaviors......which lead to better results...which lead to new attitudes and values...which lead to learning new framework and theories
To become successful means to pursue an aim consequently: By defining and making more precise the structure of the goal By going step by step By being patient By controlling the effectiveness of the results during the different steps By being flexible and able to modify or revise the existing or used methods if necessary By being always motivated If problems arising treat them!!
Elements of effective goal setting Goal setting Acceptance Monitoring and feedback SpecificityChallenge Goals need not only understood but also accepted Goals need to be as specific, clear and measurable as possible One works harder when one has difficult goals to accomplish rather than easy ones Information about how well one is performing
A model of the conflict resolution process Conflict outcome Lose-lose Lose-win Win-lose Win-win Perception of conflicts Constructive Destructive Resolution strategies Avoiding Smoothing Forcing Confronting Participant intentions Winning Losing Causes of conflict Organizational change Personality clashes Different sets of values Threats of status Contrasting perceptions
Resolution strategies Avoiding Physical or mental withdrawal from the conflict Smoothing Accommodating the other party`s interests Forcing Using power tactics to achieve a win Confronting Facing the conflict directly and working it through to a mutually satisfactory resolution
Four life postions I`m OK- You`re not OK I`m OK- You`re OK I`m not OK- You`re not OK I`m not OK- You`re OK Attitude toward myself Attitude toward others Negative Positive Negative Avoidance Smoothing Confronting Forcing
The stress (load) and strain are influencing human performance Causative stress generates an inter-individual or intra-individual strain. The effects and consequences are dependent on properties, capabilities, skills and regulation of actions, individual characteristics of the organ systems and similar factors. Within the performance structure, the performance of the biopsychosocial unit – human being – plays an important role, and this element, human being, is characterized by external and internal factors, which in turn are closely related to stress compatibility and thus to strain. Scientific based methods of training optimize and ensure performance and are tools to control stress and strain with the aim of preventing bionegative effects and facilitating and promoting biopositive responses.
The stress (load) and strain model An objectively identical stress (load) will not always cause the same strain in an individual. Due to action regulation and the individual characteristic values and curves of the organ systems (properties and capabilities), differences in strain may occur. Seemingly identical stress can cause differing strain due to the superposition of partial stress, combinations of partial stress can lead to compensatory differences (e.g. physiological stress can compensate psychological stress) or accumulation effects. Partial stress is determined by stress intensity and duration and can therefore appear in differing dimensions and have varying effects. For assessment of the overall stress, the composition of the partial stress according to type, intensity and course with regard to time is decisive. Partial stress can occur simultaneously and successively.
Model of the causes, types and consequences of stress.
As conclusion we can summarize the Principles of Human Performance Technology as followes: Human Performance Technology (HPT) has been described as the systematic and systemic identification and removal of barriers to individual and organizational performance.
HPT focuses on outcomes. Focusing on outcomes, that is results, allows for questioning, confirming, and reconfirming that people share the same vision and goals, the job procedures support productivity, efficiency, and quality, and that people have the knowledge, skills, and motivation they require.
HPT takes a systems view. Taking a systems view is vital, because organizations are very complex systems that affect the performance of the individuals that work within them.
HPT adds value. This is an assessment that clients will be asked to make. Clients should be offered a process that will help them fully understand the implications of their choices, set appropriate measures, identify barriers and tradeoffs, and take control.
HPT establishes partnerships. Performance improvement professionals work in partnership with clients and other specialists. A collaborative effort involves relevant stakeholders in the decision-making process and involves working with specialists in their areas of expertise.
Be systematic in the assessment of the need or opportunity. Analysis occurs in the beginning of the project. Needs or opportunity analysis is about examining the current situation at any level or levels (society, organizational, process, or work group) to identify the external and internal pressures affecting it.
Be systematic in the analysis of the work and workplace to identify the cause or factors that limit performance. Cause analysis is about determining why a gap in performance or expectations exists.
Be systematic in the evaluation of the process and the results. Evaluation is about measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of what was done, how it was done, and the degree to which the solution produced the desired results so that the cost incurred and the benefits gained can be compared.
To guarantee a high level of human performance we use The Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and improving the safety, efficiency, and robustness of work systems, such as healthcare delivery. Human Factors scientists and engineers study the intersection of people, technology, policy, and work across multiple domains, using an interdisciplinary approach that draws from cognitive psychology, organizational psychology, human performance, industrial engineering, systems engineering, and economic theory.
Human factors engineering focuses on how people interact with tasks, machines (or computers), and the environment with the consideration that humans have limitations and capabilities. Human factors engineers evaluate "Human to Human," "Human to Group," "Human to Organizational," and "Human to Machine (Computers)" interactions to better understand these interactions and to develop a framework for evaluation.