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Manufacturing technology Introduction Technology II – Jan Tomíček.

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1 Manufacturing technology Introduction Technology II – Jan Tomíček

2 Manufacturing Important part of World economy. Allmost all products are manufactured. Demands are increasing New issues – energy efficiency, waste, etical issues

3 Changes in the world of goods manufacturing 1.World wide competetion 2.New materials 3.Advanced technologies 4.New manufacturing systems 5.Enviromental issues

4 1. World Wide Competetion Global business Market = Whole world Everybody can make business – – knowledge vs. capital – customization vs. mass production – Product placement vs. variability

5 2. New materials Demands from customers – Smooth surface on plastic parts – Transparency of plastic – Shiny metal look etc. New developed materials with better properties – Heat resistant materials – High strength materials – Special materials

6 3. Advanced technologies Complex products Combined principles – Mechanical principles – Electrical – Electronical – Combination Water, steam, electricity,

7 4. New manufacturing systems Manufacturing system Manufacturing strategies Management

8 5. Enviromental issue Low energy and material consumption Utilization of human labor, heavy work Healt and security issues Ethical problems

9 Product Life Cycle Design Construction Manufacturing Sale Service and recycling

10 START-UPRAPID GROWTHMATURATIONCOMODITY or DECLINE Product varietyGreat variety, product innovation Increasing standartization Emergence of a dominant stadart design High standardization comodity characteristics Industry structureSmall competetiorsFallout and Consolidation Few large companiesSurvivors become comodities Form of competetionProduct characteristicsProduct Quality, Cost and availability Price and Quality and Reliability Price with consistent quality Cost Per unit Annual sales per model SATURATION TIME

11 Price of the product? What is the best price of the product? Smallest, affordable, highest, psychologically friendly, discounted?? Production costs!


13 Manufacturing costs Methods: – Casting, foundry, moulding – Forming of metalforming – Machining(material removal) – Surface treatments(finishing) – Heat treatment – Joining and assembling Machining is approx 40% of manufacturing costs TECHNOLOGY II

14 Machining Chip removal process – Material is removed in form of chips from a piece of raw material to archive the desired shape. Material(chips) are removed by a tool from the blank This process is called Chip forming

15 15 ADVANTAGES variety of work materials variety of part shapes and geometric features dimensional accuracy good surface finishes DISADVANTAGES wasteful of material time consuming

16 Material utilization

17 17 A CUTTING TOOL single-point tool(a) multiple cutting edge tool(b)

18 Chip forming principle Continuous vs. discontinuous chip Force stress work hardening saturation(fully hardened material) shear coninuous chip

19 19 CHIP FORMATION (orthogonal cutting schema) the tool is forced into the material plastic deformation hardening of the material shear deformation – shear plane (angle φ)


21 Secondary deformation zone

22 Chip breakers Preventing the built-up edge – Groove type - premanufactured – Obstruction type

23 Chip and Tool geometry Tool – rake & face angle

24 Chip thickness Chip thickness ratio

25 25 CUTTING CONDITIONS cutting speed v c [m.s -1 ]; [m.min -1 ] feed f [mm.rev -1 ]; [m.min -1 ] depth of cut d = a p [mm]

26 Chip types

27 Chip breaking diagramme


29 Chip volume ratio CalculationW = Value 3-400 Large volume of chips

30 Chips removal Chips must be removed – From the cut – gravity, liquid, air etc. – From the machine – liquid, automatic, manually – From the workshop – conveyors, carriages – From factory – recycling

31 What to think about? Next time – resistance of material, cutting forces, heat and temperature

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