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Chapter 1 Computer Technology: Your Need to Know.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Computer Technology: Your Need to Know."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 1 Computer Technology: Your Need to Know

3 2 Chapter Goals: Why studying H/W & S/W technology if you plan to work in IS? Describe the activities of information systems professionals. Describe the technical knowledge of computer hardware and systems software needed to develop and manage information systems. Identify additional sources of information for continuing education in computer hardware and systems software. INFO 225: Chapter 1

4 3 Technology and Knowledge Technical knowledge of computer hardware and systems software is required to develop information systems technical devices do not require detailed understanding of how they work to be able to use them every day. You dont need a 3 months training program to use a refrigerator. Although the design of computer systems have become more complex, computers have become easier to use. INFO 225: Chapter 1

5 4 Technology and Knowledge Since computer systems are easier to use, many computers are used in business and the home. If computers have become so easy to use, then why do you need to know anything about their inner technology? INFO 225: Chapter 1

6 5 The knowledge required to purchase and configure technically complex devices is greater than the knowledge needed to use them. To purchase a computer, you must: Know your hardware and software preferences. Know your hardware and software requirements. Have sufficient knowledge of the available alternatives. Understand related technical terms (e.g. megahertz, gigabyte, IDE-Integrated Device Electronics, PCI-Peripheral Component Interconnect). Acquiring and Configuring Technological Devices INFO 225: Chapter 1

7 6 An information systems professional will face computer acquisition, upgrade, and configuration choices that are significantly more complex. Acquiring and Configuring Technological Devices INFO 225: Chapter 1

8 7 Acquiring and Configuring Technological Devices Larger computer systems require: more complex technology more components more complex configuration more compatibility more administrative issues The stakes are higher INFO 225: Chapter 1

9 8 Employers and users will rely on the expertise of the IS professional and invest substantial sums of money based on their recommendations Acquiring and Configuring Technological Devices INFO 225: Chapter 1

10 9 Acquiring and Configuring Technological Devices Question Are you ready for the challenge? Answer YES YES Are you ready for this? INFO 225: Chapter 1

11 10 Information System Development The steps necessary to develop an information system are called the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) INFO 225: Chapter 1

12 11 Information System Development Steps used in System Development Life Cycle to develop large and complex information systems. SADIM INFO 225: Chapter 1

13 12 Information System Development: Survey The Systems Survey step examines: User information needs, Ways in which those needs are being addressed, and The feasibility of developing (or acquiring) an information system to address those needs. The Systems Survey step determines: the cost and benefits of alternative systems. whether it takes days or weeks to complete. whether the estimated benefit of the alternative solution justifies continuing the SDLC. INFO 225: Chapter 1

14 13 Information System Development: Survey What type of knowledge is needed for Systems Survey? Knowledge of hardware and systems software is required to assess the degree to which user needs are currently being met, and to estimate the resources required to address unmet needs. INFO 225: Chapter 1

15 14 Information System Development: Survey Typical questions asked during the Systems Survey step for a point of sale system: How much time is required to process a sale? Is the existing system easy for a salesperson to use? Is sufficient information being gathered for marketing purposes? Can the existing hardware handle peak sales volumes (for example, holidays)? Can the existing system be expanded easily? What are the current hardware operating costs? Are there cheaper hardware alternatives? INFO 225: Chapter 1

16 15 Information System Development: Analysis The systems analysis step examines in detail the user needs and the extent to which they are being met. Also called needs analysis or requirements analysis. INFO 225: Chapter 1

17 16 Information System Development: Analysis Systems analysis steps: Takes weeks or months to complete. Produces a requirements document. Re-examines and answers systems survey questions in more detail. Typical outcomes: Detailed descriptions of user interfaces and data access speed Detailed data-processing and storage requirements INFO 225: Chapter 1

18 17 Information System Development: Design Purpose: To determine structure of a specific information system that fulfills system requirements (information architecture) The systems design step determines the exact configuration of all hardware and software components. Technical knowledge required to: Select hardware and network components Evaluate compatibility INFO 225: Chapter 1

19 18 Information System Development: Design Design tasks during the systems design step: –Selecting computer hardware Processing, storage, I/O, Network components –Selecting Network hardware Transmission lines, routers, firewalls –Selecting computer software OS, database management system, network services, network protocols, security protocols and software –Selecting application program development tools Programming languages, component libraries, integrated development environments Databases INFO 225: Chapter 1

20 19 Information System Development: Design Other design decisions are of a more limited scope and depend on earlier decisions, e.g.: Files or database design Program design User interface design Design of system backup and recovery mechanisms INFO 225: Chapter 1

21 20 Information System Development: Design Fig1-2: Detailed Systems Design tasks in the systems Development Life Cycle, SDLC. System requirement (from Analysis Phase) Initial Design Detailed Design Top-level or architectural design constraints INFO 225: Chapter 1

22 21 Information System Development: Design Technical knowledge is most important during the early stages of the systems design, such as: System requirements and the capabilities of that hardware and operating system Development tool selection INFO 225: Chapter 1

23 22 Information System Development: Implementation The systems implementation step is constructed based on the blue prints created during systems design. INFO 225: Chapter 1

24 23 Information System Development: Implementation During the Systems Implementation step: Hardware and systems software are acquired, installed, configured and tested Application programs and files are developed, installed and tested The entire system is tested INFO 225: Chapter 1

25 24 Information System Development: Implementation Technical knowledge needed during System Implementation: Knowledge of hardware and systems software Installation and configuration of hardware and systems software Knowledge of how to format storage devices, set up security systems, install application programs and establish accounting and auditing systems INFO 225: Chapter 1

26 25 Information System Development: Maintenance During the Systems Maintenance and Evaluation step: The system is evaluated for errors that escaped undetected during installation and testing. Minor changes are made as maintenance changes. INFO 225: Chapter 1

27 26 Information System Development: Maintenance Technical knowledge needed during Maintenance: Knowledge is needed to classify the proposed change as minor or major Knowledge is needed about the hardware and software components that are affected by the change If systems evaluation and maintenance determines that a new system is needed, then a new SDLC will be initiated. INFO 225: Chapter 1

28 27 Information System Development – A modern approach Modern Systems development life cycle (SDLC) Unified Process (UP) Iterations Series of 4-6 week repeated steps Produce testable models or working software Disciplines Groups of related activities Disciplines and iterations of Unified Process INFO 225: Chapter 1

29 28 Information System Development: (Modern) Business Modeling and Requirements Disciplines Purpose: To understand the system environment and tasks the system must perform Typical models include: Narratives, organization charts, workflow diagrams, network diagrams, class diagrams, interaction diagrams Technical knowledge required to: Assess degree to which users needs are being met Estimate resources required to address unmet needs INFO 225: Chapter 1

30 29 Implementation and Testing Disciplines Purpose of implementation: To build, acquire, and integrate application software components Purpose of testing: To verify correct functioning of infrastructure and application software components and ensure they satisfy system requirements Requires specific knowledge of hardware, networks, and system software INFO 225: Chapter 1

31 30 Deployment Discipline Purpose To install and configure infrastructure and application software components and bring them into operation Technical knowledge required to: Format storage devices Set up system security Install and configure network services Establish accounting and auditing controls INFO 225: Chapter 1

32 31 Systems Evaluation and Maintenance Accounts for much of long range system cost Technical knowledge required to: Address maintenance changes Classify a proposed change as major or minor Modify an existing system INFO 225: Chapter 1

33 32 Management of Computer Resources Knowledge is needed to manage the computer resources within a large organization. The manager of a collection of information systems must contend with a great deal of technical complexity. INFO 225: Chapter 1

34 33 Management of Computer Resources Attention must be paid to two important technological issues: Compatibility Future trends INFO 225: Chapter 1

35 34 Management of Computer Resources Compatibility: The new system must not only operate correctly by itself, but also operates smoothly with all of the other systems in the organization. INFO 225: Chapter 1

36 35 Management of Computer Resources Future Trends: The manager must have a broad understanding of current technology, as well as future technology trends. Will the computer purchased today be compatible with the HW available 3 years from now? Will the communications network purchased today have the capacity to meet future need? Should company invest on tried & true or cutting edge technologies? INFO 225: Chapter 1

37 36 Roles and Job Titles A large number of people can be classified loosely as computer professionals, and an even larger number use computers in the workplace, school, or home. INFO 225: Chapter 1

38 37 Roles and Job Titles Classification of Computer Professional into Groups: Application Development Personnel Systems Software Personnel Hardware Personnel Systems Management Personnel Systems Analyst Systems Designer Application Programmer Systems Analyst Systems Designer Application Programmer Computer Operations Manager Network Administrator Database administrator Chief Information Officer Computer Operations Manager Network Administrator Database administrator Chief Information Officer INFO 225: Chapter 1

39 38 Roles and Job Titles Application Development Personnel Systems Analyst Systems Designer Application Programmer INFO 225: Chapter 1

40 39 Roles and Job Titles A systems analyst primarily is responsible for Conducting surveys, Determining feasibility, and Defining and documenting user requirements. A systems designer primarily is responsible for Procuring hardware, and Procuring or designing applications software. An application programmer primarily is responsible for Software implementation, and Testing. INFO 225: Chapter 1

41 40 Roles and Job Titles Systems Software Personnel Systems programmers are responsible for the development of systems software such as: Operating Systems Compilers Database Management Systems Network Security Monitors INFO 225: Chapter 1

42 41 Roles and Job Titles Hardware Personnel are responsible for: Hardware design, Installation, and Maintenance INFO 225: Chapter 1

43 42 Roles and Job Titles Systems Management Personnel Computer operations manager Network administrator Database administrator Chief Information Officer INFO 225: Chapter 1

44 43 Roles and Job Titles A computer operations manager is responsible for the day-to-day operation of a large information-processing facility. The operation can include: scheduling, staffing, security, system backups, maintenance and upgrades. INFO 225: Chapter 1

45 44 Roles and Job Titles A network administrator is responsible for the network infrastructure and the management of a local area network. INFO 225: Chapter 1

46 45 Roles and Job Titles A database administrator is responsible for the management and access to collections of data stored in databases. INFO 225: Chapter 1

47 46 Roles and Job Titles A Chief Information Officer (CIO) is responsible for: The management of the personnel and computer software and hardware. The management of the database administrator, network administrator and computer operations manager. The computers, networks and software owned and operated by an organization. INFO 225: Chapter 1

48 47 Computer Technology Information Sources Sources to keep you up-to-date in the field: Periodical literature Technology-oriented websites Vendor and manufacturer websites Professional societies INFO 225: Chapter 1

49 48 Computer Technology Information Sources Periodical Literature: ACM Computing Surveys Computerworld Communications of the ACM Computer INFO 225: Chapter 1

50 49 Computer Technology Information Sources INFO 225: Chapter 1

51 50 Computer Technology Information Sources Technology-Oriented Websites: There are many websites that are devoted to serving the information needs of computer professionals. INFO 225: Chapter 1

52 51 Computer Technology Information Sources INFO 225: Chapter 1

53 52 Computer Technology Information Sources Vendor and Manufacturer Websites: Vendor Web pages are oriented to sales, but they usually contain detailed information on products either directly or as links to manufacturer websites. INFO 225: Chapter 1

54 53 C omputer Technology Information Sources INFO 225: Chapter 1

55 54 Professional Societies Association for Information Technology Professionals (AITP) Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Computer Society INFO 225: Chapter 1

56 55 Summary Technical knowledge of computer hardware and systems software is required to develop information systems. Technical knowledge also is required to manage the computer resources of an organization. Technical knowledge constantly must be updated due to changes in hardware and software technology. INFO 225: Chapter 1

57 56 Summary Information about computer hardware and software is readily available on the World Wide Web. An understanding of computer technology is necessary. Computer knowledge can be updated through reading periodicals, using websites and joining professional societies. INFO 225: Chapter 1


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