CCTV: Closed circuit TV Street Lighting Personal Protection devices: guns, tasors, knives, mace, etc. Home protection devices: locks, surveillance,monitoring,private security Neighborhood protection systems: walled neighborhoods
CCTV and street lighting strategies often used in conjunction More common in England than US Evidence of Effectiveness is mixed Some Evidence of crime reduction for property crimes such as auto theft No Evidence of crime reduction for violent crime
CCTV and Facial Recognition Software linked to National ID Data Base CCTV and Behavior Monitoring Software tested at John Hopkins University Future Shock: Beyond Orwells 1984 scenario CCTV and the Public: Allowing the Public to Monitor CCTV footage and be CRIME SPOTTERS In England, there are 4 million cameras, but only 1000 are being monitored real time
Imagine the scenario: lamp post is triggered by technology to spot you walking strangely begins recording your conversation, scans your face to match your details in the national database, X-rays you to check for weapons shouts "stand still citizen" and scans your brain to check whether you intend to commit a crime sees you're a bit depressed, sections you under mental health act, cops pick you up, hand you in to doctors who lock you up and microchip you.
The Public can monitor cyberspace and report illegal activities to the police Social Network Monitoring to Identify Underage Drinking, Drug Use, Bullying, Evidence of physical abuse, sexual solicitation. The Public can also potentially monitor public spaces via direct access to CCTV feeds. Police can offer rewards for the identification of BOTH cyber and public crimes
Extent of Use: 1 in 2 homes have a gun, but we dont have data on the use of other personal protection devices. Evidence of Effectiveness is debated Gun-related injuries from accidents are a serious problem Tasers are used both to commit crime and prevent crime
Home security systems are more popular in urban areas. Last years murder in Mount Vernon New Hampshire involved the targeting of a home in an isolated, semi-rural area. Case is very similar to the Zantop Murders of two Professors at Dartmouth a few years ago. Judgment Ridge is an excellent book on this crime
There are a variety of hard technology applications being used today. Private, gated communities are one strategy. Private Security systems monitored by private security firms are another strategy. Evidence of effectiveness?
A Case Study: Witness Intimidation and the No Snitching Culture
110 new surveillance cameras & a gunshot detection system planned for Newark Sparked by the death of 3 college students in Summer 07 Plan financed with private money raised by Newark Community Foundation, $3.2 million
In 8 months 44 cameras in a 7 square mile area The area represents the location on 80% of all Newark gun violence in last 3 years
The cameras are on lamp posts, above intersections and on public & private buildings Footage streams real-time to a police communications center
Clerks monitor footage and can adjust camera focus and field of vision Footage is stored for 30 days
Dr. Byrne says NO Research on CCTV in London, England says NO Or Does it Simply displace crime?..
The video surveillance unit has detected 289 criminal incidents for first quarter of 2008 Another 799 incidents were either called in to 911 or officers on patrol
Should the government be able to monitor our public behavior, identify potential offenders, and control the publics access to information that challenges government authority and decisions?
Since 2006 over 200,000 cameras installed in a single Chinese city, Shenzhen. Cameras appear in public places sometimes disguised as lampposts In next 3 years 2 million more CCTVs expected to be installed in Shenzhen
"Since the surveillance cameras came in, we have seen a very dramatic decrease in crime in Shenzhen."
The Chinese surveillance camera market saw revenues of $4.1 billion in 2007, up 24% from 2006 New Technology is being field tested in China today that will be available in the United States in a few years, depending on how civil liberties are viewed in the context of crime prevention
One Chinese company has created software for CCTVs that has the ability to alert police when inordinate numbers of people begin to gather in one location
The future is that Chinese citizens will be watched on CCTV, listened to on their cell phones, monitored on digital voice recognition, internet access limited via The Great Firewall, and movements tracked via national ID card
The Golden Shield is the Chinese government attempt to maintain power and complete control over its citizens The govt has been documented to have limited internet access of foreign news outlets, block cell phone calls and or text messages
Tibetan monks have proclaimed that cameras have been introduced, unwillingly, to prayer rooms and monasteries Of Course, one unintended consequence of these new technologies is that the public can potentially monitor the police and public officials U.S. Examples: from Rodney King to U-tube videos of police and govt officials
New software, that should be out within a year, will have to be able to match a face in a 10 million database in one second. This is the next big thing this technology use distance between eyes as a primary identifier, because it is a feature that does not change with age