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Benefits and Limitations of Current Techniques for Measuring the Readiness of a System to Proceed to Production James W. bilbro Jb Consulting International.

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Presentation on theme: "Benefits and Limitations of Current Techniques for Measuring the Readiness of a System to Proceed to Production James W. bilbro Jb Consulting International."— Presentation transcript:

1 Benefits and Limitations of Current Techniques for Measuring the Readiness of a System to Proceed to Production James W. bilbro Jb Consulting International INCOSE Huntsville Regional Chapter monthly meeting Thursday, 18th, 2010

2 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
Over the years, when things have dropped through the crack, processes have been “invented” to correct the problem - hence we have developed processes to identify: Technology Maturity Manufacturing Maturity Capability Maturity System Maturity Etc. 2 2

3 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
All of these processes are in reality part of the systems engineering process, but because of what they deal with – e.g. “technology,” “manufacturing,” “etc.,” the processes are “owned” by organizations other than systems engineering. The result is a fragmented assessment process which in the end fails to achieve the desired goal of ensuring successful programs and projects. 3 3

4 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
Everything that I am going to talk to you tonight falls under the purview of systems engineering! My focus will be on incorporating technology assessment into the system assessment process and then discussing other systems assessment process. Although I do not specifically address it, the same is true for Manufacturing Readiness Assessments. 4 4

5 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
Measuring the “readiness” of a system for production is essentially performing an assessment of the overall system with respect to identifying the risks remaining in the process of bringing it into operation. 5 5

6 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
The assessment should be performed not only with respect to the system itself, but also with respect to the interaction of the system with other systems within the overall System of Systems in which it is to operate! 6 6

7 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
A “system” assessment must have technology assessment as a component if it is to be successful in identifying the risks associated with bringing the system to fruition. 7 7

8 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
Technology is probably not what you think it is! 8 8

9 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
What is Technology? “1.a. The application of science, especially to industrial or commercial* objectives. b. The entire body of methods and materials used to achieve such objectives.” - The American Heritage Dictionary * Or DOD or NASA 9 9

10 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
What is Technology? In general, technology development lies within the context of part “a” of the definition. However, the engineering community often makes use of the term “technology” within the context of part “b”. In this context, technology may be “old (passe),” “off-the-shelf (commercially available),” or new. It is further complicated when “old” technology, i.e. “heritage elements” are used in completely new ways – a situation that encompasses both parts “a” & “b”. 10 10

11 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
What is Technology? Using “heritage” or “legacy” systems, sub-systems or components (whether hardware or software) merits a more detailed discussion. When “heritage” or “legacy” elements are used, it is often thought that because they are “mature” i.e. they have been in “operation” then we can just plug them in. As a result, the systems engineering associated with that element is short circuited and the result is frequently disastrous. 11 11

12 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
What is Technology? The reason that use of “heritage” or “legacy” system is so often fraught with danger is that it is being asked to operate in an architecture or an environment that in all probability is different from that for which it was designed. And because we have not done the upfront analysis, we don’t know we are in trouble until we are already there! This has prompted a different definition of technology based on the experience of the developers. 12 12

13 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
Engineering development is based on the premise that: Requirements are achievable and that any engineering difficulty can be overcome and the requisite performance achieved within cost and schedule constraints. The “certainty” associated with engineering development lies in the past experience of the developers. 13 13

14 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
Technology development, however is based on the premise that: Requirements may not be achievable and that it is not known with any certainty whether or not they can be met within a given cost and schedule. Technology development, therefore, is all about maximizing the probability of success. Pursuing parallel paths. Having alternate solutions. Having fall-back positions. 14 14

15 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
Comparing the engineering development process to the technology development process one can see that it is extremely important to know in what type of development one is engaged. 15 15

16 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
Technology development is distinguished from engineering development in that it requires venturing into the realm of unknowns - beyond the ability of individuals to make informed judgments based on their experience. 16 16

17 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
Within the context of the expanded definition of technology we see that when using “heritage” or “legacy” systems we can easily find ourselves in a technology development effort whether we want to be or not! 17 17

18 So - what does Technology Impact?
Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment So - what does Technology Impact? All aspects of the Systems Engineering Process! Stakeholder Expectation: Requirements Definition: Design Solution: Risk Management: Technical Assessment: Trade Studies: Verification/Validation: Lessons Learned: 18 18

19 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
Consequently, for our first System Assessment, let’s perform a technology assessment – but from a total system perspective that includes its interaction with other systems in the system of systems in which it is to operate. 19 19

20 Technology Readiness Level (TRL)
A Technology Readiness Level (TRL), describes the maturity of a given technology relative to its development cycle. At its most basic, it is defined at a given point in time by what has been done and under what conditions. 20 20

21 Technology Assessment vs. System Assessment
But – while a system/technology assessment may determine the current maturity of a system it does nothing to inform the program of what is required to successfully complete the development process.

22 Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2)
Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2) is a method of systematically dealing with aspects beyond TRL. It is a “predictive” description of what is required to move a system, subsystem or component from one TRL to another. It provides information in the form of: Likelihood of occurrence of an adverse event Risk Cost to ensure that such an event does not occur. The time required to implement the necessary action. AD2 consists of a set of questions in 5 specific areas: Design and Analysis Manufacturing Software Development Test Operations Impact

23 Advancement Degree of Difficulty (AD2)
The levels of risk associated with AD2 are described in terms of the experience base of the developers. i.e., have they done this before? AD2 Tool Question Set AD2 Tool Output

24 Risk Identification, Integration & Illities (RI3)
RI3 is a methodology for identifying frequently occurring risks by exploiting “lessons learned” and “best practice” based on case studies and the experience of the Air Force-wide development team. RI3 used to support, not replace, existing Risk Identification process Questions in nine ‘ilities areas Design Maturity and Stability Scalability & Complexity Integrability Testability Software Reliability Maintainability Human factors People, organization, & skills Questions based on commonly occurring problems are contained in a guidebook and an Excel tool - a web based tool is under development.

25 Risk Identification, Integration & Illities (RI3)
Risks RI3 Guidebook Likelihood Risk Management Step 2. Risk Identification Active Risk Manager (ARM) compatible file Tool Questions: Integration ilities Consequence Similar output for cost estimation being investigated Tool Additional Summary Displays PoPS* Tool *Probability of Program Success Least Pressing Most Pressing

26 Other System Assessment Processes

27 System Readiness Level (SRL) – UK Ministry of Defense
SRLs are an analysis of key outputs of an acquisition project structured in such a way as to provide an understanding of work required to mature the project. The SRL analysis is achieved using a matrix to capture the results of a comprehensive set of questions centered around System Engineering Drivers (SEDs) and selected systems disciplines (i.e., Training, Safety and Environment, etc.) and understand how they should mature over time. The SRL analysis employs TRL analyses to provide a means of progressively measuring project maturity at technology, component, sub system and whole system levels. TRLsystem < TRLcomponent N.B. – Integration Readiness Levels (IRLs) & Design Readiness Levels (DRLs) were initially used but later rejected.

28 System Readiness Level (SRL) – UK Ministry of Defense
SRLs are intended to be ‘descriptive’ and not ‘absolute’ as work on each systems discipline may progress at different rates. An SRL assessment therefore produces a ‘signature’ rather than an absolute single point SRL figure. The signature records the variation of maturity that has been achieved across the systems disciplines, acknowledging that not all projects mature against the systems disciplines at a consistent rate. The color of the boxes in the Systems Maturity Matrix is determined by analysis of the SRL signature obtained against the expectations for SRL maturity at the time of review SRL Self Assessment Tool Results

29 DOD Systems Engineering Checklists
There are 18 System Engineering Checklists covering all program phases intended to supplement the Services individual processes/methodologies. e.g. The TRA checklist for consists of 69 questions in 8 areas: Timing/Entry Level, Planning, Program Schedule, Program Risk Assessment, Critical Technologies Identification, TRA Panel, TRA Preparation and Event and Completion/Exit Criteria. Each question is to be assessed with respect to risk categories of Red, Yellow, Green, Unassigned or Not Applicable.

30 System Readiness Level (SRL) – the Stevens Institute
Integration Readiness Levels The SRL in this case is defined through the combination of the TRL of a given technology with the Integration Readiness Level (IRL) of each of the elements with which it will be integrated. SRLi = f(TRLj, IRLij) The overall SRL will be a function of the individual subsystem SRLi SRL = f(SRL1, SRL2, …SRLn)

31 System Readiness Level (SRL) – the Stevens Institute
The computation of SRL is considered as a normalized matrix of pairwise comparisons of normalized TRL and IRL. System Maturity Optimization is underway at Stevens

32 Additional Areas that have been addressed with varying degrees of success
Design Readiness Level (DRL) Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) Integration Readiness Level (IRL) Software Readiness Level (SRL) Operational Readiness Level (ORL) Human Readiness Levels (HRL) Capability Readiness Level (CRL) Organizational Readiness Level(ORL) Programmatic Readiness Level(PRL

33 There are many approaches to overall system assessment.
Summary Technology Assessment is a vital part of any overall system maturity assessment. There are many approaches to overall system assessment. Any successful approach for system maturity assessment must balance the need for data against the resources required to obtain that data. 33 33

34 Bibliography Sadin, Stanley T.; Povinelli, Frederick P.; Rosen, Robert, “NASA technology push towards future space mission systems,” Space and Humanity Conference Bangalore, India, Selected Proceedings of the 39th International Astronautical Federation Congress, Acta Astronautica, pp 73-77, V 20, 1989 Mankins, John C. “Technology Readiness Levels” a White Paper, April 6, 1995. Nolte, William, “Technology Readiness Level Calculator, “Technology Readiness and Development Seminar, Space System Engineering and Acquisition Excellence Forum, The Aerospace Corporation, April 28, 2005. Mankins, John C. , “Research & Development Degree of Difficulty (RD3)” A White Paper, March 10, 1998. 34 34

35 Bibliography Ramirez-Marquez, J.E.   Sauser, B.J.   “System Development Planning via System Maturity Optimization,” Accepted for future publication in IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, IEEExplore. Bilbro, James W. “Systematic Assessment of the Program/Project Impacts of Technological Advancement and Insertion Revision A,” 35 35

36 Bibliography TOOLS RI3 Tool and Guidebook are available at: AD2 Tool along with integrated TRL tool available at: TRL Calculator is available at Website at: https://acc.dau.mil/communitybrowser.aspx?id=25811 UK MOD Tool is available at: Stevens SRL Tool is under development at: Manufacturing Readiness Level Tool is available at: https://acc.dau.mil/CommunityBrowser.aspx?id=18231 DOD Engineering Checklists are available at: https://acc.dau.mil/CommunityBrowser.aspx?id=144143&lang=en-US 36 36


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