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EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY: The Richard Clark Debate By Susan Holden, Mark Lloyd, Jennifer Nicholson, Eric McIntyre,

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Presentation on theme: "EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY: The Richard Clark Debate By Susan Holden, Mark Lloyd, Jennifer Nicholson, Eric McIntyre,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY: The Richard Clark Debate By Susan Holden, Mark Lloyd, Jennifer Nicholson, Eric McIntyre, Huguette Poirier and Julie Stewart

3 Richard Clarks now-famous comment about the impact of computers on learning was that the best current evidence is that media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that de- livers our groceries causes change in our nutrition (Clark, 1 983, p. 445). Why has this statement had such a dramatic impact on the field of educational technology? How would you respond to it? Question #7 A Controversial Analogy:

4 Richard Clark In 1983 Richard Clark (Robyler & Doering, 2013) proposed that media, or the use of a specific medium, did not influence student learning and/ or achievement. Clark (Robyler & Doering, 2013) suggested that studies which promote media as a means of improving student achievement did not take the following factors into consideration:

5 Factors 1. differences in what is being taught 2. who is teaching it 3. the methods being used 4. and the novelty of the technology.

6 Based on Clarks now famous quotation it would appear that he believes that the content being taught is more important than the media being used to present or deliver it.

7 Educational Technology as defined by: Robyler & Doering (2013) state that: Educational technology is a combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current digital and information tools. AECT as cited in Robyler & Doering (2013) {Educational Technology} is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.

8 Clarks statement stands in stark contrast to the field of educational technology which encourages the use of current technology to promote learning. He suggests that the media or technology that teachers may use is not as important as the content being taught, the method in which it is being taught and by whom it is being taught by. Why has this statement had such a dramatic impact on the field of educational technology?

9 As educators we must consider the impact of Clarks statement and its dramatic impact on the field of educational technology and the way students are using this technology. Therefore, educators must realize that technology itself is not the answer; it is properly using and integrating that technology that makes the difference in student achievement.

10 Why we agree with Clark- Technology alone does not teach students, teachers teach students. Many teachers are not adequately trained on how to use current technology, how can they then teach using these mediums? Administrators seem to be more concerned with bragging rights ie Every classroom in my school has a SmartBoard, rather than Every teacher in my school has gone through extensive SmartBoard training. How would you respond to it?

11 Who is responsible for this push towards using technology? The companies who make it. Hiltzik (2012) stated: The push for advanced technology in the schoolroom is driven by commercial, not pedagogical, considerations. The leading promoter of the replacement of paper textbooks by e-book and electronic devices today is Apple, which announced at a media event last month that it dreams of a world in which every pupil reads textbooks on an IPad or a Mac. Technology is expensive and needs to be purchased thoughtfully and carefully. We need to make sure we arent spending money that could be used to hire more teachers.

12 Why we Agree Continued The computers (technologies) themselves cannot impact student achievement if the students dont know how to use them or what they are capable of-just like the truck delivering the groceries. The food is all there, but we need guidance/ education to know which food is the most nutritious.

13 Why we disagree with Clark: Certain populations (special needs students) require the use of technology in order to actively participate, learn and achieve. A student with physical limitations may not be able to turn the pages of a book independently, but they could very likely turn the pages of an e-book on an Ipad without assistance. Students are not only motivated by the use of technology, it has been omnipresent throughout the entire course of their lives. Why not combine their enthusiasm with the curricular content we are required to teach? People, by nature, are afraid of what they dont know. Fear of failure is very real. What is often overlooked is that without failure there cant be success. (ELI conference Feb 2010). The use of technology is ubiquitous; if we dont educate our students on how to use it properly we will be doing them a great disservice. How would you respond to it?

14 Disagree Contd Kozma (1994) states: If there is no relationship between media and learning it may be because we have not yet made one. If we do not understand the potential relationship between media and learning, quite likely one will not be made. And finally, if we preclude consideration of a relationship in our theory and research by conceptualizing media as "mere vehicles," we are likely to never understand the potential for such a relationship.

15 Shift Happens

16 Now that both sides of the debate have been presented, it is your turn to delve into this discussion Red agree (media doesnt affect student achievement) Blue Disagree (the potential for measuring achievement via technology is not fully understood but it is exponential) Open for Discussion (5 mins)

17 30 years later, what is your opinion on the use of specific technology in the achievement of special needs students in the classroom? The Question We Asked Dr. Clark:

18 My quick answer is that special needs students definitely need various technologies to gain access to instruction. Yet one of the "aha" moments about the media and learning issue for me was when I was managing a PhD program for instructors who would be serving the deaf and hard of hearing. I realized one day that blind and deaf people have managed to achieve advanced degrees in universities (e.g. Helen Keller was award a BA) and they managed by translating all communication to tactile sensations (touch) through finger and raised symbols on paper. The media they used served as vehicles by providing a sensory mode they were capable of receiving. it gave them access to information and instruction they needed. But their learning was determined not by finger spelling or raised bumps on paper, but via the instructional methods and information they received through the media they could use for access. Since "special needs" covers a wide variety of individual and group differences in needs to have media tailored to fit their special circumstances so that they can have access, it is the instructional methods and instructional design used (e.g. "direct" instruction for students with learning problems, "attention support" for students with attention problems etc) that impacts learning. We can do just as horrible or wonderful a job for special needs students on media that give them access as we can for average students. Again, it is not the medium that helps learning it is the instructional methods. His Quick Response:

19 We can do just as horrible or wonderful a job for special needs students on media that give them access as we can for average students. Again, it is not the medium that helps learning it is the instructional methods.

20 Speaking of 30 years later…

21 Bibliography Clark, Richard E., (2012) Learning From Media. Second Ed. Grenwich, Conn. Information Age Publishers. C:\Users\jennifer.nicholson\Documents\Ch. 18 Richard Clark What's Next.docxC:\Users\jennifer.nicholson\Documents\Ch. 18 Richard Clark What's Next.docx Doering, Aaron H., Roblyer, M.D. Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching, Sixth Edition, Pearson, , 1-30 Hiltzig,Michael. (2012, February 4 th ). Who really benefits from putting high grade technology in the classrooms? Los Angeles Times. Business http://articles.latimes.com/2012/feb/04/business/la-fi-hiltzik June 2012.

22 Bibliography Kozma, Robert. B, Will Media Influence Learning? Reframing the Debate, Educational Technology Research and Development, The University of Michigan 42 (2) 7-19 Shift Happens Image of Richard Clark: bcf.usc.edu/~clark/http://www- bcf.usc.edu/~clark/


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