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THE 12 TH OMAN INTERNATIONAL ELT CONFERENCE QUALITY IN ELT: RAISING PEDAGOGICAL STANDARDS APRIL 18-19, 2012 LISA A. RUTHERFORD UAE UNIVERSITY AL AIN, UAE.

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Presentation on theme: "THE 12 TH OMAN INTERNATIONAL ELT CONFERENCE QUALITY IN ELT: RAISING PEDAGOGICAL STANDARDS APRIL 18-19, 2012 LISA A. RUTHERFORD UAE UNIVERSITY AL AIN, UAE."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE 12 TH OMAN INTERNATIONAL ELT CONFERENCE QUALITY IN ELT: RAISING PEDAGOGICAL STANDARDS APRIL 18-19, 2012 LISA A. RUTHERFORD UAE UNIVERSITY AL AIN, UAE Omani Perceptions on Integrating Technology in EFL

2 I WOULD LIKE TO THANK H.E. DR. RAWIYAH BINT SAUD AL BUSAIDIYAH, MINISTER OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE SULTAN QABOOS UNIVERSITY ELT CONFERENCE COMMITTEE FOR ALLOWING ME TO PRESENT MY PAPER TODAY. Thank-You

3 PRESENTATIONS AIMS This presentation addresses the following aims of the conference theme, Quality in ELT: Raising Pedagogical Standards: Professional Development Teaching and Learning Environments Methods and Methodology Curriculum, Design, Implementation and Evaluation ELT Research Educational Technology

4 AGENDA OVERVIEW ABSTRACT LITERATURE REVIEW & LEARNING MODELS HYPOTHESIS SUBJECTS METHOD RESULT CONCLUSION

5 OVERVIEW In this case study, 34 Omani Educational Technology students were engaged in task-based and project- based learning. They were given instruction on EFL educational theory and were tasked to create educational materials to support learning outcomes. These materials included presentations, videos, flashcards, interactive quizzes, and a class website. At the end of the course, students were interviewed and given a research questionnaire about their Web 2.0 design experience.

6 ABSTRACT This study examines Omani pre-service teacher attitudes toward integrating Web 2.0 technology in the EFL classroom. Thirty-four Omani EFL education majors participated in this six-month study. The results show a high degree of confidence of technical abilities among participants. A majority of the participants expressed confidence to design course materials using Web 2.0 technology and many planned to use their newly-acquired technology skills in their EFL classroom. This study also presents an educational technology model.

7 TWO TRENDS EMERGE Literature Review

8 LITERATURE REVIEW In previous studies: 70% of education majors (pre-service teachers) felt that a classroom computer would make them more effective educators. (Agyei, 2011). However, in a study of teachers who have graduated, only 28% felt they understood the relationship between educational software and the curriculum. (Ntuli, 2011).

9 LITERATURE REVIEW Two trends have emerged in recent studies involving technology education of education majors (pre- service teachers) Trend 1: A curriculum without an educational model has not effectively integrated technology into teacher training, resulting in ineffective teacher training. Trend 2: A curriculum that uses an educational model in the integration of technology into teacher training which effectively prepares educators.

10 LITERATURE REVIEW Trend 1: Ineffective technology training not based upon an instructional model: Lack of Student Teacher Confidence: 16.7% of education majors felt they understood educational technology (Agyei, 2011). 3.35% felt confident that they could apply what theyve learned. (Agyei, 2011). No Application of Theory Observation: No integration of technology during student teaching practicum. (Techlehaimanot, 2011) Observation: No integration of technology written in student teachers lesson plans. (Techlehaimanot, 2011)

11 LITERATURE REVIEW Trend 1: Ineffective technology training not based upon an instructional model: (continued) Lack of Hands-On Experience 4.3% pre-service teachers have created an educational website (Kumar, 2011) 9.8% have created educational videos and electronic portfolios (Kumar, 2011) 13% have created educational web pages (Kumar, 2011)

12 LITERATURE REVIEW Trend 2: Effective technology training based upon an instructional model: High Teacher Confidence 85% of pre-service teachers are confident in their ability to use technology to enhance teaching. (Jordan, 2011) 76% can select technologies appropriate for content enhancement and educational use. (Chai, 2011) Effective Application of Theory 84% pre-service teachers can use technology to enhance learning & 86% can use technology to enhance content (Jordan, 2011) 73.9% of pre-service teachers can combine content, technology and methodology to present lessons. (Chai, 2011)

13 LITERATURE REVIEW Trend 2: Effective technology training based upon an instructional model: (continued) Educational Technology is Used Purposefully 72% pre-service teachers can use technology to develop materials. (Yardakul, 2011). 75% can use technology to develop student learning activities based upon student needs. (Yardakul, 2011).

14 TWO CURRENT MODELS: CPK & TPACK AND ONE PROPOSED MODEL EDUCATIONAL MODELS

15 KNOWLEDGE OF EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE CONTENT KNOWLEDGE CPK MODEL (Shulman, 1987)

16 EDUCATIONAL MODELS TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE TECHNOLOGICAL PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE TECHNOLOGICAL PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE CONTENT KNOWLEDGE TECHNOLOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE TPACK MODEL (Cox & Graham, 2009; Mishra & Koehler, 2006; Shulman, 1986)

17 LEARNING MODEL USED IN THIS STUDY Learning ELT Methods and Educational Theory Instructional Design Learning Core Competencies Instructional Delivery Integration of Technology into Curriculum Computer Skills Foundation English ELT Methods Linguistics Educational Methods Implement ELT Methods into Instructional Design

18 LEARNING MODEL USED IN THIS STUDY Combining Text, Pictures & Sound Presentations Audio Video Interactive Exercises & Activities Class Website Instructional Design Introduction of Key Concepts Presentation of Thematic Units Reinforcement of Prior Learning Autonomous Learning Assessments (Exercises, Quizzes, Exams) Instructional Delivery

19 PROJECT-BASED LEARNING USING WEB 2.0 DESIGN Study Presented

20 HYPOTHESIS 1. What are Omani pre-service teachers perceptions on Web 2.0 instructional design? What are Omani pre-service teachers perceptions on integrating Web 2.0 technology in the EFL classroom?

21 SUBJECTS In this case study, 34 Omani second-year EFL students were enrolled in Educational Technology, a required course for all EFL Education majors. All participants had a background in computer technology and English education theory. All of the participants had received training in computer skills, English grammar, English writing, linguistics, syntax, morphology, and young learner education.

22 METHOD During a 15-week course, students were tasked to design an online English course (K-12). Four educational technology projects were assigned and evaluated. The software students used included: Word, PowerPoint, MovieMaker, Softoria, Audacity & Lame, and an online webhosting program in.php format at The project assignments can be found at the class website at: During the 13 th week, students were given a 9-question Likert questionnaire and an interview.

23 PROJECT DESCRIPTION & PROJECT EXAMPLES METHOD

24 PROJECTS WEEKPROJECTTHEORY (LECTURE) Weeks 1-2Initial Homepage Design What is Ed Tech? Student Centered-Learning E-Learning Illustrating Educational Materials Weeks 2-4Young Learner Projects The Young Learner Emergent Readers Sight Words Web Design Websites for the Young Learner Weeks 4-7Intermediate Learner Projects Materials Development Creating Audio Files Creating Videos Creating Assessments Week 7-12Advanced Learner Projects Documentaries Standardized Testing Assistive Technology for the Disabled Final ProjectFinal Presentation

25 Project 1 Evaluation (Week 2) Task DescriptionYesNoPointsComments Has website URL address Has initial website template design Has Homepage Has Young Learner Page Has Advanced Learner Page Has Contact Page Has Address Has No Spelling Errors All Web Pages Are in Order TOTAL

26 STUDENT PROJECT #1 (CREATE A HOMEPAGE)

27

28

29 Project 2 Evaluation (Week 4) Task DescriptionYesNoPointsComments Homepage with Educational Message Has Young Learner Page 4 Subpages Under Young Learner Has Puzzles Page Has Flashcard Page Has Young Learner Website Page Has Young Learner Video Page Has No Spelling Errors All Web Pages are in Order TOTAL

30 STUDENT PROJECT #2

31

32

33 Project 3 Evaluation (Week 7) Task DescriptionYesNoPointsComments Story for Intermediate Learners Illustrations for Story Story in Layout Format Quiz in Hot Potatoes Quiz Answers Websites for Intermediates Downloads Age Appropriate Content Appropriate

34 STUDENT PROJECT #3

35 Quiz Answer Key Student Project #3

36

37 QUIZ ANSWER KEY STUDENT PROJECT #3

38 Project 4: Documentary Evaluation (Week 12) FORMATYESNOCOMMENTS TITLE, AUTHOR LENGTH (5 MINUTES) THEME CONTENT BASED THEME: AUDIO NARRATIVE MUSIC VISUAL PHOTOS VIDEOS MATERIALS READING, TESTS, VOCABULARY

39 Project 4: Documentary Evaluation (Week 12)

40 STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE & INTERVIEWS WEEK 13

41 Study Questionnaire I have designed a website before taking educational technology. 2 I have designed and owned my own website before taking educational technology. 3 I didnt know how to design a website before educational technology. 4 I like designing websites. 5 I think that web design in educational technology is difficult. 6 I think web design is fun and interesting. 7 I want to keep my website. 8 I want to create a website for my future classes. 9 I would like to learn more about web design in the future.

42 STUDENT INTERVIEW 1. What do you think about web design? Is it helpful? Difficult? Useful? What do you think of software such as Hot Potatoes? Will you use Hot Potatoes in the future?

43 STUDENT SURVEY RESULTS

44 RESULTS (Study Questionnaire) I have designed a website before taking educational technology I have designed and owned my own website before taking educational technology I didnt know how to design a website before educational technology I like designing websites I think that web design in educational technology is difficult I think web design is fun and interesting I want to keep my website I want to create a website for my future classes I would like to learn more about web design in the future Agree Disagree

45 RESULTS Most students had no Web 2.0 design experience prior to the course. 96.9% have never designed a website before. 88.1% have never owned their own website prior to the course. 88.2% didnt know web design prior to the course.

46 RESULTS At the end of the course, a majority of the participants expressed confidence to design course materials using Web 2.0 technology. 99.9% of the students liked designing websites. 82.3% found web design fun and interesting. 61.7% didnt find web design difficult and only 11.7% found web design difficult.

47 RESULTS Many planned to use their newly-acquired technology skills in their EFL classroom in the future. 96.9% want to keep their website. 88.2% want to create a website for future classes. 88.2% want to learn more about web design in the future.

48 STUDENT INTERVIEWS RESULTS

49 RESULTS (INTERVIEW) 1. What do you think about web design? Is it helpful? Difficult? Useful? (Student # 7) It is helpful for me because it is not only teaching me how to create a website, but it also taught me how to deal with similar situations in the future. One day I may use it for classes or even groups or communities in school.

50 1. What do you think about web design? Is it helpful? Difficult? Useful? (Student #10) It is not that difficult. It is useful because it gave us ideas about how to include technology in teaching. And it keeps our things organized and people may visit it and learn a lot.

51 1. What do you think about web design? Is it helpful? Difficult? Useful? (Student # 16) Web design is useful. The teacher can benefit from it by presenting videos or pictures to students.

52 RESULTS (INTERVIEW) 1. What do you think about web design? Is it helpful? Difficult? Useful? (Student 21) I think it is helpful because it can help teachers to do their lessons easier and it can help the students to understand their lessons in a new way. I think it is useful too because you can save the lessons and students can use them any time.

53 RESULTS 1. What do you think about web design? Is it helpful? Difficult? Useful? (Student # 24) I think it is very helpful to communicate with learners of any age and it is available 24 hours a day.

54 IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 1. What do you think about web design? Is it helpful? Difficult? Useful? (Student #33) I think that web design is useful for us as students and teachers (as we are going to be that soon). Actually, this is the most interesting semester I have had since I entered this college.

55 RESULTS What do you think of software such as Hot Potatoes? Will you use Hot Potatoes in the future? (Student #9) Yes, I will use it in the future with my students. I will make exams by using Hot Potatoes. (Student #11) I think Hot Potatoes is a very useful program. It is useful for making exams and competitions on the computer. (Student #12) We could use Hot Potatoes to make various tasks that are well organized.

56 CONCLUSION Effective technology training must be based upon a proven educational model. This results in higher teacher confidence. A thorough understanding of educational theory leads to a more purposeful use of educational technology.

57 THANK-YOU FOR ATTENDING MY PRESENTATION The End


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