5They Are Diverse Ethnicity & Culture Gender Nontraditional ELL/Native languageDisabilitiesLearning/Cognitive StylesSstudents are diverse- focusing on disabilities today- what benefits students with disabilities benefits all studentsELL – English Language Learners
6Disabilities in Higher Education Nationally, 11.3% of undergraduates report some type of disability1Students identifying with RDSStudents identifying with ATRCCSU statistics in line with national statistics- more and more students with disabilities are entering higher education and seeking accommodations- there are students with disabilities who do not choose to identify- Today, so much course content is in digital format and delivered digitally. It is now more critical that course content be accessible or else many students will not be able to fully participate in class.1National Center for Education Statistics, 2008; U.S. Government Accountability Office, 20092Schelly, Davies & Spooner, 2011, Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability
7Types of Disabilities Mobility Impairments Visual Impairments / BlindnessHearing Impairments / DeafnessApparentLearning DisabilitiesAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD/ADHD)Autism Spectrum DisorderTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)Mental IllnessNon-apparentPeople often equate web accessibility with readability by screen readers (used by people with visual impairments) but 2/3rds of the students seeking accommodations follow under non-apparent disabilities.
9Department of Justice (DOJ) Titles II and III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) apply to information and services provided through the internetColorado State University is subject to Title II, public entities, and Title III, public accommodations and servicesJuly 26, 2010, DOJ indicated intent to issue a Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) to establish accessibility requirements for information offered over the Web
10Current Department of Justice Activity DOJ is including in settlement agreements regarding access issues requirements for website accessibilityRequiring compliance with Level A Success Criteria in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) issued by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in December 2008DOJ is considering as the technical standard (1) WCAG 2.0’s Level AA Success Criteria and (2) the Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards issued under Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973After the final regulations are publishedSix months for newly constructed websites and new pages on existing websites and two years for existing websites and Web pages
11Ultimate GoalUniversity communication and information transmitted electronically or digitally is made accessible.Various forms of communication via electronic and information technology include:WebsitesCourse and Instructional Materials (Word documents, PDF documents, Power Point presentations, videos, podcasts, etc.)Courseware, Software, and other Classroom TechnologiesContent Management SystemsSearch EnginesDatabasesRegistration and GradesFinancial and Human Resource Management SystemsTelecommunicationsEmerging Technologies
12CSU Approach Guidelines Universal Design For Learning Strategy Training for any and all individuals who create and work with websites and digital information, including facultyResources on accessibility at CSU websiteStronger directive on its wayMarla to WebsiteHighlight faculty and staff resourcesHighlight benefits of UDL for all students – searchable, ease of navigation, can be used on a variety of devices
13Universal DesignUniversal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.–Ron Mace, UD InstituteUDL is the same concept for electronic accessibility
14So What Exactly is Accessibility? Assistive Technology is a bridge between electronic information and students.Any kind of software that provides alternate ways of accessing electronic information.Text-to-SpeechVoice RecognitionLiteracy Support SoftwareScreen Reader SoftwareCan technology interact with the electronic content?Not Automatically!Content must be designed to interact well with technology.This is accessibility.
15Top Tips for Electronic Accessibility Make Scanned PDFs “Searchable”Use Headings & Styles to Create StructureProvide Descriptive Alternate Text for:ImagesLinksGraphsVideo ContentAudio Content (Transcript or Captions)Check Reading Order
16Chris – Non-Apparent Disability ProfileUndeclared major – SophomoreStudent with a diagnosis of Dyslexia and ADDChallenges he experiences in accessing courseworkNote taking – slow and laboriousWritten work – slow with handwriting and typing; loses train of thoughtPrint books and handouts – unable to read efficiently due to dyslexiaPoor quality PDF – small, faint and crowded font is hard to readDifficulty proof-reading his own work; dependent on family members
17AT Chris Used to Access Coursework Read and Write Gold – literacy softwareSee and hear content simultaneously – digital books and content (text to speech)Manipulate the display (background and highlight color)Electronic highlighting and annotationsOCR and read PDFDragon Naturally Speaking – voice recognition softwareAllows him to get ideas on paper using his voiceLive Scribe PenSynchronous written and audio notes for capturing lectures
18Course Solutions for Chris Giving notes ahead of time – lets him print out content on special Livescribe paperHandouts in digital formats – lets him use text to speech softwareUniversally designed PDF – lets him read and create annotations with Read and Write Gold or other text to speech softwareMarla - Demo of accessible PDF
19What is OCR? Stands for “Optical Character Recognition.” Software that takes an image, finds the text, and converts it to computer-recognized text.Creates a document with text that is:SelectableSearchableText-to-Speech CapableMore Usable for Everyone
21Scanning to PDF OCR at the Scanner or Copier Look for “Searchable PDF” or “OCR” options before saving.Morgan Library Course Reserves (http://lib.colostate.edu/)Requested articles are OCR’d for you and posted online for your entire class.Click on the “Reserves” tab on the Library Homepage and login as an instructor using your eid.DIY: OCR with Adobe Acrobat Professional
22Hands-On: OCR with Adobe Acrobat Pro Use the “Recognize Text” ToolAdd Tags Using the Accessibility ToolSave Changes
23Nate - Apparent Disability Profile:Student who is legally blindComputer Science major; JuniorConsidered a power user of assistive technologiesBarriers he experiences in accessing courseworkPrint textbooksPrint handouts and study guidesPDF’s that are image onlyVisual graphics and formulasMarla – case studies illustrate what is required today and what accessibility can mean and do for a student
24AT Nate Used to Access Coursework Screen reading softwareJaws; VoiceOverBraille translation software for embossingRefreshable BrailleTactile graphicsTiger pro graphics with BrailleDaisy book player - StreamMarla – AT only as good as course content it interacts with
25Course Solutions for Nate Course content in digital formats –Allows for access with Braille or screen reading softwareNeeds lecture content in digital format and ideally ahead of time – allows him to use refreshable Braille or to emboss contentUniversally designed course materialsPDF – has to be OCR’edWord documents – created with StylesPPT presentations to be made accessible, e.g. labeling of imagesWeb contentVideo – descriptive audioNeeds content uploaded into Blackboard to be accessible (Word docs, PowerPoint, PDFs)
26Demo Word with Screen Reader Navigating with headings, listsImages with alt text
27How to Write Descriptive Alt Text Avoid redundant descriptions (e.g. “Image of”).Avoid repeating text surrounding the image.Be concise.Consider context.Ask yourself…What is the purpose of this image?If the image were removed, how would I convey the information using text?
28Context is KeyAlternative text for images should describe the meaning of the image in its contextIce Cream ManufacturerGirl Scouts of AmericaMy Niece's BlogDiversity WebsiteSource: Jesse Hausler, ATRC & The ACCESS Project
29Practice Writing Alternate Text Learning Styles VARK is an identified variety of learning styles: Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic. Many learners identify strongly with one of these styles, and approximately 60% learn best with a combination of styles (Multimodal).Source: VARK (http://www.vark-learn.com)
30Hands-On: Top Tips for Word Documents Use HeadingsIndicate Level of ImportanceDon’t Skip Heading LevelsCheck Your Table of Contents in the Navigation PaneChoose a StyleProvide Alternate Text for ImagesMake Sure Image is “In-Line with Text”Right-Click on Image to Format Picture
31Hands-On: Top Tips for PowerPoint Use Slide Layouts (Styles)Every Slide Needs a Unique TitleGenerates Table of ContentsCheck Your Outline ViewAdd Alternate Text for ImagesRight-click to Format PictureCheck the Reading Order of Each SlideItems are read from bottom-to-top
32Hands-On: Top Tips for Converting to PDF Start with an Accessible Source Document“Enable Accessibility and Reflow with Tagged Adobe PDF”In Acrobat Plugin PreferencesUse “Save As PDF” or “Create PDF”Avoid Printing to Adobe PDF in the Printers List!