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Organisations- og Virksomhedsteori 6. Undervisningsgang – 11. marts 2013.

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1 Organisations- og Virksomhedsteori 6. Undervisningsgang – 11. marts 2013

2 Lectures, Spring 2013 WeekDateSubjectLiterature 528.JanIntroduction to the course 64.FebMultiple PerspectivesMJH, Chap 1+2 711.FebWinter holiday 818.FebOrganizations and EnvironmentMJH, Chap 3 925.FebCancelled 104.MarOrganizational Social Structure + CaseMJH, Chap 4 + Comp 1111.MarCulture + TechnologyMJH, Chap 6 + 5 1218.MarOrganizational Power, Control & Conflict + CaseMJH, Chap 8 + IKEA 1325.MarCase Work kick off 141.AprEaster holiday 158.Apr Case work – supervision at ITU 1615.Apr Theory in Practice / New directions in Organization Theory MJH, Chap 9+10 1722.Apr Strategizing; Intro + Decision Theory Nygaard, Chap 1+2 1829.Apr Strategizing; Agent- and Transactional cost analysis Nygaard, Chap 4+5 196.MayStrategizing; Institutional- Networks theoryNygaard, Chap 8+9 2013.MayStrategizing; Corporate Systems TheoryNygaard, Chap 10 2120.MayWhit Monday 2227.MaySpare week

3 Organizational Culture Welcome to the world of Organizational Culture! Cultures integrate human diversity with a shared sense of belonging that can be expressed in a multitude of ways, only a few which are likely to be acknowledged by every cultural member. In this sense sharing culture is paradoxical, being at once universal and particular, tangible and intangible, integrated and fragmented, and relying upon community and diversity. A construct describing the total body of belief, behavior, knowledge, sanctions, values, and goals that make up the way of life of a people.

4 Exercise! Please form 1-3 groups and discuss the following statements: Elliott Jaques (1952:251)Andrew Pettigrew (1979:574)Meryl Reis Louis (1983:39) The culture of the factory is its customary and traditional way of thinking and doing things, which is shared to a greater or lesser degree by all its members, and which new members must learn and at least partially accept, in order to be accepted into service in the firm. Culture is a system of Publicly and collectively accepted meanings operating for a given group at a given time. The system of terms, forms, categories and images interprets a peoples own situation to themselves. Organizations are culture bearing milieux, that is, they are distinctive social units possessed of a set of common understandings for organizing action and languages and other symbolic vehicles for expressing common understandings Edgar Schein (1985:6)John van Maanen (1988:3)Harrison Trice and Janice Beyer The pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaption and internal integration, and that have worked well enough to be considered valid, and, therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to these problems. Cultures refers to the knowledge members of a given group are taught to more or less share; knowledge of the sort that is said to inform, embed, shape, and account for the routine and not-so-routine activities of the members of the culture. A culture is expressed (or constituted) only through the actions and words of its members and must be interpreted by, not given to, a field worker. Culture is not itself visible, but is made visible only through its representation. Cultures are collective phenomena that embody peoples responses to the uncertainties and chaos that are inevitable in human experience. These responses fall into two major categories. The first is the substance of a culture; Shared, emotionally charged belief systems that we call ideologies. The second is cultural forms; Observable entities including actions, through which members of a culture express, affirm and communicate the substance of their culture to one another

5 Organizational Culture Occupational Cultures Professional Cultures Industrial Culture Church School Community Family Organizational cultures have complex relationships with the environments in which they operate and from which they recruit their members. Employees join an organization having already been socialized by cultural institutions such as family, community, church and school.

6 Organizational Subcultures Subculture Members of a subculture identifies themselves as distrinct group(s) with unique collective understandings Dominant subculture, typically put forward by company management, also known as the corporate culture. Enhancing subcultures that enthusiastically support the corporate culture. Orthogonal subcultures holds independant values and beliefs that neither interfere with norcelebrate the dominant culture. Countercultures holds values and beliefs that actively challenges the corporate culture.

7 Organizational Subcultures Strong culture: An agreement about what is valued and the intensity with which these values are held. Strong Cultures are marked by both high agreement and high intensity. While silo cultures may have high intensity within their subcultures, they do not agree what matters most. The Silo metaphor Distinctive norms, values, routines and discourses

8 Multucultural perspective - Hofstede As soon as an organization begins to expand its activities beyond the boundaries of its home nation, it will interact with regularly with representatives of organizations from other nations – joint venture partners, consumer groups, tariff collecting agencies, tax authorities and licensing agents, to name only a few – and all of these stakeholders will become part of the organizations network. The international / global environment is not simply another layer of things to worry about. It represents a fundamental shift in perspective such as shown in the figure. The international environment includes actors that cross national boundaries or operate on a global scale. Trends can appear in different sectors of the international environment, just as they do in the general environment. In this regard, it can be difficult to separate out general and international sector trends and conditions in the overall environment.

9 Multicultural perspective - Hofstede


11 Multucultural perspective - Hofstede Long-term vs. short-term Cultural differences in predilections for thrift and perseverance Low: Traditions and commitments represent fewer challenges to change High: Hard work will lead to long-term rewards

12 Three levels of culture - Schein Artifacts Values Assumptions Assumptions represent truth, or what members of a culture believe to be their reality. Invisible and typically taken for granted. Values are the social principles, goals and standards that cultural members believe to have intrinsic worth. They define what we care most about and are revealed by our priorities. Norms Artifacts are manifestations or expressions of the same cultural core that produces and maintains values and norms

13 Three levels of culture - Schein Basic assumptions represent truth, or what members of a culture believe to be their reality. They are typically taken for granted. Even though they are beneath ordinary awareness these unquestioned aspects of culture penetrate every part of cultural life and color all forms of human experience. As Schein said, they influence what cultural members perceive and how they think and feel. According to Schein, a cultures deep assumptions pervade the next level of culture – cultural values. Values are social principles, goals and standards that cultural members believe have an intrinsic worth. They define what the members of a culture care most about and are revealed by their priorities. Because they also guide cultural members in their evaluation of what is right and what is wrong, a cultures values are sometimes equated with its moral code.

14 Three levels of culture - Schein Norms are expressions of values. They are unwritten rules that allow members of a culture to know what is expected of them in a wide variety of situations including how to coordinate their behavior with that of others. Norms communicate expectations regarding many types of social behavior. Business norms communicate important information such as when you should inform your superior of potential problems, what sort of clothing you should wear to work, and when it is appropriate to display emotion. According to Scheins theory, members of a culture hold values and conform to cultural norms because their underlying assumptions nurture and support these norms and values. The norms and values, in turn, encourage activities that produce cultural artifacts. Artifacts are manifestations or expressions of the same cultural core that produces and maintains values and norms; however, their further distance from the cultural core can make it even more difficult to interpret their cultural significance unambiguously.

15 Three levels of culture - Artifacts

16 Gagliardi Every organization's primary strategy can be defined as to protect the organizational identity that the core assumptions and values create and maintain. In service to the primary strategy, organizations may develop and implement a range of secondary strategies which can be instrumental (operational in nature) or expressive (symbolic in nature)

17 Gagliardi Secondary strategies can either be: Instrumental that are operational in nature; they direct attention to the attainment of specific measureable objects Expressive operate in the symbolic realm and protect the stability and coherence of shared meanings by enabling group members to maintain a lively awareness of their collective self and offer a recognizable identity to the outside world Gagliardi describes three types of change Apparent occurs within culture but does not change it in any significant way, new problems are confronted by choosing from the range of secondary strategies. Revolutionary happens when a strategy is incompatible with cultural assumptions and values when imposed upon a organization, usually through the entry of outsiders who destroy old symbols and create new ones Incremental is the only way of change that reaches the deep level of cultural values and assumptions

18 Organisations- og Virksomhedsteori Technology

19 Technology, skill of the artist Modernist perspective: Equate technology with its most objective features; the tools, equipment, machines and procedures through which work is accomplished. Deterministic perspective because it claims that different technology types suits different environments, require different social structures and affect human action differently. Symbolic-interpretivist perspective (SCOT): studies how technologies are themselves shaped by processes of social construction. They argue that technologies both shape and are shaped by cultural norms, power relations and aspects of the organizations physical structure. Postmodernist perspective: claims that technologies popularity with modernists derives from its ability to mask ways that employees are monitored and controlled by those in authority. Technology impose discipline on those who use them and that their demand for certain behaviors are build right into the production system. Technical design choices and their consequences reflect the imbalance of power in organizational relationships – managers and designers control workers but not the other way around.

20 Modernist definitions Core Technology: is the transformation process directly involved in producing the organizations products and services. Comparing core technologies makes it possible to study the differences between both competing and non-competing organizations. High Technology: has been used loosely to describe many different aspects of computer- based technology. At other times high technology refers to any business in which technology is changing rapidly or to one that is considered technologically innovative. Service Technology: Service technology can be described by these three main characteristics: are consumed as they are produced are intangible cannot be stored in inventory

21 Woodwards typology Which organizational arrangement that produce the highest performance levels?? Small batch and unit production: Small spans of control, fewer management levels and decentralized decision making – characteristics of organic organizational forms. Large batch and mass production: Large spans of control, centralized decision making, characteristics of mechanistic forms of organizing. Contimous process production: Same as small batch but more Mgmt levels. IProduction of single pieces to customers orders IIProduction of technically complex units one by one IIIFabrication of large equipment in stages IVProcuction of pieces in small batches VProduction of large components in large batches- assembled diversely VIProduction of large components in large batches- assembly line type VIIMass Production VIIIContimous Process Production, combined with mass or batch methods IXContinous Process Production of chemicals in batches XContinous flow production of liquids, gasses and solid shapes. Technically complexity Low High Group I Small batch and unit production Group II Large batch and mass production Group III Contimous process production

22 Thompsons typology Long-linked; technologies generally fits into either the mass production or continuous processing categories that Woodward defined. Thompson used the descriptive term long- linked because all of the technologies of this type involve linear transformation processes that have inputs entering at one end of a long series of sequential steps from which products emerge at the other. Mediating; technologies serves clients or customers by bringing them together in an exchange or other transaction. In general, these technologies link partners in a potential exchange by helping them locate one another and conduct their transactions, often without ever having to physically meet. Thompson used the term mediating because organizations using these technologies act as go-betweens in bringing together the interests of two or more parties to a transaction. Intensive; technology require coordinating the specialized abilities of two or more experts in the transformation of usually unique input into a customized output. Each use of intensive technology requires on-the-spot development and application of specialized knowledge to new problems or unique circumstances.

23 Thompsons typology Thompsons typology can be easily visualized in terms of a two-by-two matrix. Using this matrix, you can classify any organization as producing either highly standardized outputs from highly standardized inputs or unstandardized outputs from standardized inputs, and as either using standardized or un-standardized transformation process. Transformation processes Standardized Non-standardized Inputs/ Outputs Standardized Non-standardized Long-Linked MediatingIntensive ?

24 Perrows typology Task variability is measured by counting the number of expectations to standard procedures encountered in the application of a given technology. Task analyzability is measured as to which extend, when an exception is encountered, there are known analytical methods for dealing with it. Routine: technologies are characterized by low task variability and high task analyzability. Usually represents assembly like lines such as Thompsons long-linked typology Craft: technology describes conditions of low task variability and low task analyzability. Construction work is craft technology. Few varieties and when exceptions occurs, inventions must be made Engineering: technologies occur where high task variability combines with high task analyzability. Characterized by high task variety but standardized exception handling. Nonroutine: technology is the label attached to technologies characterized by high task variability and low task analyzability. Many varieties and when exceptions occur, inventions must be made.

25 Perrows typology Whereas Woodward and Thompson treated organizations as if they had only one dominant technology, Charles Perrow theorized technology by focusing on the task level of analysis. He began by defining the variability and analyzability of tasks and then created measures that assessed these two dimensions Task variability Low High Task analyzability High Low Routine CraftNon-routine Engineering

26 Routineness and complexity Artists Artisans Assembly workers Technicians Design engineers, scientists Routineness of work Complexity of the technology Low Small Batch High Mass Production Continuous Processing

27 Musikkonservatoriet 1. Har konsulentfirmaet efter jeres mening brugt de rigtige variabler i bestræbelserne på at kunne diagnosticere strukturproblemer i en organisation 2. Foretag en teoretisk baseret diagnose af de strukturelle problemer på konservatoriet. Hvor er kilden til hovedproblemerne efter jeres mening?? Inddrag gerne sammenligninger fra jeres egne oplevelser fra andre uddannelsesinstitutioner 3. På baggrund af jeres diagnose må i komme med en teoretisk begrundet plan for, hvorledes konservatoriet kan omstrukturere for at løse sine strukturproblemer

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