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IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies Cost-effective, Efficient, Energy-saving Computing.

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Presentation on theme: "IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies Cost-effective, Efficient, Energy-saving Computing."— Presentation transcript:

1 IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies Cost-effective, Efficient, Energy-saving Computing

2 Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) – Public transit system – San Francisco, Oakland, California

3 Goal: Fast, reliable transportation – 346,000 passengers each day – -- 1,601,655 per day – -- 150,000 per day Recently, ambitious modernization effort – Overhaul stations – New rail cars – New information technology infrastructure

4 Old – Legacy mainframe applications New – Oracles PeopleSoft Enterprise application – HP Integrity blade servers – Oracle Enterprise Linux operating system – Grid Computing

5 Results – Rapid information to support timely decisions – More reliable to support 24/7 operations – Fewer servers Virtualization Less energy used


7 5.1 IT Infrastructure 5.2 Infrastructure Components 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trend 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trend 5.5 Management Issue

8 5.1 IT Infrastructure The shared technology resources – Provide the platform for the firms specific information system applications Microsoft Operating Systems – Infrastructure Services or products built on MS operation systems – Word, Powerpoints, Excel, …. – Internet Explorer –.Net

9 One-Stop shopping Low cost Highest quality Operational excellence New products & services Customer & supplier intimacy Better decision making survival Software Hardware

10 IT infrastructure – A set of Physical devices Software applications – Required to operate the entire enterprise

11 IT infrastructure – Set of firmwide services including: Computing platforms providing computing services Telecommunications services Data management services Application software services Physical facilities management services IT management, standards, education, research and development services

12 IT infrastructure – Service platform perspective is more accurate view of the value of IT investments

13 Evolution of IT infrastructure – Five stages – Different configuration of computing power and infrastructure elements.

14 1.General-Purpose Mainframe and Minicomputer ERA: (1959 – Present) IBM 360 – Online remote terminals – Centralized mainframe – Proprietary communication protocol

15 Minicomputer – Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) 1965 » PDP 11, VAX machine » Powerful machines at far low prices » Decentralized computing

16 2.Personal Computer Era: (1981 to present) Xerox Alto, Apple I and II (1970s) Wintel PC – Windows operating software – Intel microprocessor – Productivity software tools » Word processing, spreadsheets, presentation software

17 3. Client/Server Era (1983 to Present) Clients: Laptop and desktop Server: Powerful server computers – Stores shared data – Serves Web pages – Managing network activities

18 Network may be two-tiered or multitiered (N-tiered) Various types of servers (network, application, Web)

19 4. Enterprise Computing Era (1992 to present) – TCP/IP (1995) Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol – Integrate disparate network and applications Link different types of computer hardware


21 5. Cloud and Mobile Computing Era (2000 to present) Growing bandwidth power of the Internet Client/server model – Cloud Computing Access to a shared pool of computing resources – Computers, storage, applications, services Accessed on an as-needed basis IBM, HP, Dell, Amazon – Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) Software as a Service – Google, Microsoft, SAP, Oracle,


23 Technology driver of infrastructure evolution – Moores law and Microprocessing power 1.The power of microprocessors doubles every 18 months 2.Computing power doubles every 18 months 3.The price of computing falls by half every 18 months



26 The Law of Mass Digital Storage – The amount of digital information is roughly doubling every year


28 Metcalfes law and network Economics – The value or power of a network Grows exponentially as a function of the number of networked members – cp.

29 Declining Communications costs and the Internet – Utilization of communication and computing facilities explodes

30 Standards and Network Effects – Proprietary and expensive infrastructure – Technology standards Ethernet – enabled PCs to connect together in small LAN TCP/IP – enabled LAN to be connected to Internet – Economies of scale Decline of computing cost

31 5.1 IT Infrastructure 5.2 Infrastructure Components 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trend 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trend 5.5 Management Issue

32 5.2 Infrastructure Components IT Infrastructure has 7 main components 1.Computer hardware platforms 2.Operating system platforms 3.Enterprise software applications 4.Data management and storage 5.Networking/telecommunications platforms 6.Internet platforms 7.Consulting system integration services

33 1. Computer Hardware Platform – Client machines Intel, AMD microprocessors – Server market Intel, AMD blade server in rack Sun SPARC IBM POWER chips

34 – Top hardware manufacturer IBM, HP, Dell, Sun Microsystems – Top chip producers Intel, AMD, IBM – Mainframe IBM Giant server for massive enterprise network and corporate Web sites Equivalent to thousands of small blade servers

35 2. Operating System Platform – Server operating systems Microsoft: 75% Unix/Linux: 25% – Client operating systems Microsoft Windows operating systems Google Chrome OS: lightweight operating system for cloud comp Windows Azure Android IOS

36 3. Enterprise Software Applications – SAP – Oracle – Middleware: BEA Linking existing systems to Enterprise Applications – Microsoft

37 4. Data Management and Storage – Leading database software IBM DB2 Oracle Microsoft SQL Server Sybase MySQL – Physical data storage EMC Storage area networks (SAN) – Connect multiple storage devices on a separate high-speed network

38 5. Networking/Telecommunications Platform – Local area network operating systems Windows Linux and Unix Unix: large wide area networks TCP/IP: wide area network – Leading hardware Cisco Alcatel-Lucent Nortel Juniper Network

39 6. Internet Platform – Internet hardware server IBM, Dell, HP/Compaq – Web software applications development tools Microsoft – MS Expression Web, SharePoint Designer,.NET Oracle-Sun – Java Adobe

40 7. Consulting and System Integration Service Even a large firm – Does not have the staff, the skills, the budget, and the necessary experience – To deploy and maintain its entire IT infrastructure – Leading consulting firm Accenture, IBM Global Service, HP Enterprise Service, Infosys, Wipro Technology – Software Integration Ensuring legacy systems works with new Infrastructure

41 5.1 IT Infrastructure 5.2 Infrastructure Components 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trend 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trend 5.5 Management Issue

42 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Trend 1.Emerging mobile digital platform 2.Grid computing 3.Virtualization 4.Cloud computing 5.Green computing 6.High performance/power-saving processors 7.Autonomic computing

43 1. The emerging mobile digital platform – Cell phones, smartphones (BlackBerry, iPhone) Have assumed data transmission, Web surfing, e-mail and IM duties – Netbooks: Small, low-cost lightweight notebooks optimized for wireless communication and core computing tasks – Tablets (iPad) – Networked e-readers (Kindle)

44 2. Grid computing – Connects geographically remote computers into a single network to combine processing power and create virtual supercomputer – Provides cost savings, speed, agility 3. Virtualization – Allows single physical resource to act as multiple resources (i.e., run multiple instances of OS) – Reduces hardware and power expenditures – Facilitates hardware centralization

45 4. Cloud computing – On-demand (utility) computing services obtained over network Infrastructure as a service Platform as a service Software as a service – Cloud can be public or private – Allows companies to minimize IT investments – Drawbacks: Concerns of security, reliability

46 5. Green computing – Practices and technologies for manufacturing, using, disposing of computing and networking hardware – Reducing computer power consumption 6. Autonomic computing – Industry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure, heal themselves when broken, and protect themselves from outside intruders – self-updating antivirus software; Apple and Microsoft both use automatic updates

47 7. High performance, power-saving processors – Multi-core processors Simultaneous processing of multiple tasks Reduced power consumption – Highly power-efficient microprocessor ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) Apples A4 Intels Atom

48 5.1 IT Infrastructure 5.2 Infrastructure Components 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trend 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trend 5.5 Management Issue

49 5.4 Contemporary Software Trend Linux and open-source software – Open-source software: Produced by community of programmers, free and modifiable by user – Linux: Open-source software OS Software for the Web – Java: Object-oriented programming language Operating system, processor-independent – Ajax Asynchronous JavaScript and XML Allows client and server to exchange small pieces of data without requiring the page to be reloaded


51 Web services & Service-oriented architecture – Web Services Software components that exchange information using Web standards and languages XML: Extensible Markup Language – More powerful and flexible than HTML – Tagging allows computers to process data automatically SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol – Rules for structuring messages enabling applications to pass data and instructions WSDL: Web Services Description Language – Framework for describing Web service and capabilities UDDI: Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration – Directory for locating Web services

52 – SOA: Service-oriented architecture Set of self-contained services that communicate with each other to create a working software application Software developers reuse these services in other combinations to assemble other applications as needed – Example: an invoice service to serve whole firm for calculating and sending printed invoices Dollar Rent A Car – Uses Web services to link online booking system with Southwest Airlines Web site


54 Software outsourcing and cloud services – Three external sources for software: 1.Software packages and enterprise software 2.Software outsourcing (domestic or offshore) – Domestic: » Primarily for middleware, integration services, software support – Offshore: » Primarily for lower level maintenance, data entry, call centers, although outsourcing for new-program development is increasing

55 Three external sources for software (cont.) 3.Cloud-based software services Software as a service (SaaS) Accessed with Web browser over Internet Ranges from free or low-cost services for individuals to business and enterprise software Users pay on subscription or per-transaction E.g. Service Level Agreements (SLAs): formal agreement with service providers


57 Software outsourcing and cloud services (cont.) – Mashups Combinations of two or more online applications, such as combining mapping software (Google Maps) with local content – Apps Small pieces of software that run on the Internet, on your computer, or on your cell phone – iPhone, BlackBerry, Android Generally delivered over the Internet

58 5.1 IT Infrastructure 5.2 Infrastructure Components 5.3 Contemporary Hardware Platform Trend 5.4 Contemporary Software Platform Trend 5.5 Management Issue

59 Dealing with platform and infrastructure change As firms shrink or grow, IT needs to be flexible and scalable – Scalability: Ability to expand to serve larger numbers of users – Flexibility Mobile computing and cloud computing – New policies and procedures for managing these new platforms – Contractual agreements with firms running clouds and distributing software required

60 Management and governance –Who controls IT infrastructure? –How should IT department be organized? Centralized –Central IT department makes decisions Decentralized –Business unit IT departments make own decisions –How are costs allocated between divisions, departments?

61 Making wise infrastructure investments – Amount to spend on IT is complex question Rent vs. buy, outsourcing – Total cost of ownership (TCO) model Analyzes direct and indirect costs Hardware, software account for only about 20% of TCO Other costs: – Installation, training, support, maintenance, infrastructure, downtime, space and energy TCO can be reduced – through use of cloud services, greater centralization and standardization of hardware and software resources

62 Competitive forces model for IT infrastructure investment 1.Market demand for firms services 2.Firms business strategy 3.Firms IT strategy, infrastructure, and cost 4.Information technology assessment 5.Competitor firm services 6.Competitor firm IT infrastructure investments

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