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Across Channel Momentum Balance Geostrophic balance (frictionless, steady and linear motion) in the lower layer y z LNM h1h1 h2h2

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Geostrophic Balance in the upper layer Geostrophic Balance in the lower layer: y z LNM h1h1 h2h2

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Margules Relation y z LNM h1h1 h2h2

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Effects of the Earths Rotation

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Observed slope: 2m in 10 km 2 / 10 4 = 2 x 10 -4 f = 8.8e-5 u 1 = 0.08 u 2 = -0.025 rho 1 = 1020 rho 2 = 1024

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Could you draw the pressure field (isobars) associated with these salinity (density) fields? u 1 = 0.10 m/s u 2 = -0.05 m/s ρ 1 = 1017 kg/m 3 ρ 2 = 1022 kg/m 3 f = 8.8 e-5 s -1 u 1 = 0.08 m/s u 2 = -0.06 m/s ρ 1 = 1021 kg/m 3 ρ 2 = 1023 kg/m 3 f = 8.8 e-5 s -1 Observed = 2 m in 8 km = 2.5 x 10 -4 Observed = 7 m in 8 km = 8.8 x 10 -4

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Generally, the outflow modified by rotation will be restricted by the internal radius of deformation R, derived from geostrophy: Scaling: Internal Radius of Deformation or Internal Rossby Radius L

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Seno Ballena Estrecho de Magallanes Ejemplo Efectos de Rotación Seno Ballena

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Estrecho de Magallanes Seno Ballena

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Depth (m) rojo – flujo hacia afuera azul – flujo hacia adentro Dic 2003 Dic 2004 Flujo Promedio

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Framework established: Along estuary: pressure gradient balanced by friction Across estuary: geostrophic balance

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S0S0

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Typical Mean Dynamic Balances in Estuaries Along-Estuary Component 1. Barotropic pressure gradient vs. friction Steady state, linear motion, no rotation,

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