2Concept of Technology Transfer Technology transfer is a principle means of industrialization for underdeveloped nations.The transfer of technology from developed to developing country has grown considerably in last few decades.Acquisition of technology cannot be regarded as a neutral phenomenon . It is closely bound by the economic policy at both national & international level.
3The irreducible constraints The irreducible set of constraints on the transfer of technology from R&D to product environment are:PerformanceEfficiencyFrequency of operationsVolume & weightBandwidth, power dissipationReliabilityReliability is the maintenance of functionality(performance specification) over the life cycle.CostCost is calculated in terms of functionalityi.e. cost per unit of performance.
4Application SpaceIn the R&D environment we talk of trade off between cost, performance & reliability.In the product environment the specification of cost, performance & reliability is determined by, and mapped onto, an application. This mapping process defines an “application space” having three independent axes(orthogonal).For a given application there is a minimum performance specification , minimum reliability specification and maximum allowable cost, this set constitutes a point inn the application space.The total market them is then the collection of all points in the application space.Any trade-off will define at best a new appilation ,at worst product will not match any existing application.
6The experience CurveThe experience curve reflects the evolution of unit cost with cumulative production volume.The experience curve, or cost-volume( C-V) curve, teaches that, unit cost declines with increase in cumulative volume.
7Return on InvestmentTo estimate return on investment we need to superimpose price on the C-V curve as shown below.
8Return on InvestmentInitial price determined by market force is lower than cost.As producer moves down cost dips below price, profitability starts rising.A price reduction as shown in the figure may be due to competition or adaption of technology.Hashed line is for stable market.
9Necessity for Technology Transfer First changing competitive environmentTo have competitive advantage.To be in a favorable situation than competitors.Strategies in business area are established in consideration with some fundamental factors and required conditions.
10Technology Outsourcing Subjects of technology outsourcing
11Technology Outsourcing Management environment factors that promotes technology outsourcing
12Characteristic of Technology Assets that have economic value largely can be divided into tangible assets which have specific form . Intangible assets which does not have any specific formTechnology to be transferred can be included in the intangible category.In wider sense it means entire intellectual property which has economic value.Planning and executing business strategies based on understanding of various characteristics of intellectual property is a short cut to business success.
13Characteristics of Intellectual Property. Not visible and does not have any physical form.Recovery value is relatively high because of the limitation in creation and production due to the high level of intellectual origin.Evaluation and valuation is very difficult,and transfer price and conditions are determined by negotiations rather than market force.Life cycle is relatively short.
14Motive of Technology Transfer In case where owner of the patent does not have the capability to execute and there are no problem in licensing to third party.Problem in developing a basic patent into a commercial product.Disposed for early recovery of R&D cost.Difficult to produce the finished good based on partial patent.Sales by specialized technology developmentIndividual inventor raises research & invention funds.
15Payment method of the sales price for Patents Methods where the sales price and the patents rights registration are exchanged.Methods of payment and receipt simultaneously with the notification of the completion of transfer.3rd party such as banks.
16Modes of transferAccording to the International Code of Conduct on the transfer of technology(UN 1980) ,a number of distinct operationns may be identified, as follows:Assigning or granting of industrial rights.Handing over technical or non-technical know how in the form of documents,plans,diagrams and so on.The communication of technical or other know how in the form of supply of services.Providing technical services related to the selling or leasing of machinery
17Modes of transferAccording to Adeboye(1977) who bases his schema on UNCTAD(1975),wherein the transfer of technology can take place through one or more of the following means:Transfer of published material.Purchase of machinery, equipment and other intermediately goods.Transfer of data and personnel.Granting and licenses and trademarks.Direct foreign investment by transnational co operations.Technologists’ mobilityTechnological entrepreneurshipInterpersonal communication.
18Modes of transferBaranson (1975) classifies these mechanisms into three principle modeslicensingsubcontractingSupply of equipments and materials..Goulet adds consultant to the list proposed by Baranson.
19Modes of transfer transferor transferee Linkage According to M.Sharif(1986) technology transfer is described as consisting of three elementstransferortransfereeLinkageDirectThe operations of transnational companiesLicensing arrangementsHiring of experts and contractorsTraining of technical staff abroad.IndirectPurchase of machinery , equipments, componentsExchange of informationFlow of books,journalsExhibition and trade fairs.
20Modes of transfer UNCTC(1987) classifies technology transfer as CommercialFDIJoint ventureLicensingFranchisingContracts(marketing , technical service)Non-commercialReview of technical publicationsTraining of foreign students
21Modes of transfer Two more mode of transfer identified as Conventional Non-conventionalReverse engineering(product imitation)Reverse brain drainFDI in industrialized countriesAdopted by NICs
22Transfer from advanced/industrialized economy ApproachCultural DifferenceEquipment SpecificationTeam approachPlanningProgram focus and execution
23Product/Processes Transfer Transfer ProcedureDiscovery of technologyTechnology valuation and demand selectionNegotiation and contractingPackagingMarketingPost managment
24Product/Processes Transfer Licensing MethodsExclusive licenseNon-exclusive licenseSublicenseCross LicensingPackage Licensing
25Cost of Technology Transfer Direct CostIndirect cost