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1 Where powerful, long-term, systemic changes in teacher education are stimulated!

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Presentation on theme: "1 Where powerful, long-term, systemic changes in teacher education are stimulated!"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Where powerful, long-term, systemic changes in teacher education are stimulated! Generating Assistive Technology Systemically

2 2 Developing and Enhancing Literacy through Technology for Students with Disabilities Instructor: Loraine J. Spenciner, Ph.D. Instructional support: Richard Vaglia

3 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 3 Welcome Participants! Dr. Loraine J. Spenciner

4 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 4 Developing and Enhancing Literacy through Technology for Students with Disabilities This workshop is designed for both general educators and special educators. Please plan to participate by: sharing experiences raising questions responding to others comments.

5 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 5 Overview Part 1Welcome and Overview Part 2Students with Disabilities, Federal Mandates, and Literacy Standards Part 3E-Text and Speech Software Part 4Teaching Reading and Using Specialized Software Part 5Using Assistive Technology and Specialized Software in Reading and Writing Activities Part 6Smart Keyboards, Alternative Keyboards, and Touch Screens: Assistive Technology for Building Literacy

6 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 6 Outcomes Participants will be able to: identify examples of assistive technology devices and specialized software to enhance literacy instruction and learning activities describe how assistive technology supports literacy.

7 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 7 Learning Opportunities Participants will: meet students with disabilities using assistive technology devices and specialized software in the classroom develop suggestions for using assistive technology to address a students needs download copies of demos and freeware bookmark URL resource sites.

8 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 8 Meet Graham Graham is 12 years old and in the 5th grade. His favorite subject is mathematics.

9 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 9 Meet Graham Reading and writing activities present difficulty for Graham because of his learning disability. In this workshop well discuss technology solutions to help students like Graham increase literacy skills.

10 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 10 Meet Daniel Daniel is 9 years old and in the third grade. He enjoys books, especially Arthur, Clifford, and Franklin. Outside of school he likes going to the beach, watching movies, and playing detective with his magnifying glass.

11 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 11 Meet Daniel Daniel has Down syndrome and uses assistive technology so that he can participate in his literature-based reading group.

12 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 12 Meet Daniel Because of developmental disabilities, Daniel is not able to communicate verbally. In this workshop well see how he participates with his classmates and answers comprehension questions in his reading group.

13 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 13 To Learn More Assistive Technology for the Internet is available at: es/mates_toc.html

14 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 14 Summary Part 1 This part provided an overview of the outcomes and learning opportunities offered by this module.

15 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 15 Part 2 Students with Disabilities, Federal Mandates, and Literacy Standards

16 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 16 Part 2 This part includes: an introduction to students with disabilities an overview of the federal mandates regarding assistive technology and students with disabilities an introduction to English Language Arts Standards for students in PreK through 12.

17 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 17 Students with Disabilities What types of disabilities do students have? learning disabilities mental retardation physical disabilities visual disabilities hearing disabilities speech and language disabilities and other disabilities

18 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 18 Students with Disabilities Although students with disabilities, like students without disabilities, do not fit a single profile, they may experience difficulty in one or more areas of literacy.

19 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 19 Literacy in the Classroom What is literacy? Literacy involves reading, comprehending and appreciating a wide range of print and non-print materials, and using spoken and written language.

20 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 20 Students with Learning Disabilities Academic achievement: reading and writing Students with learning disabilities may have difficulty learning to read (including decoding and developing fluency), remembering, and organizing information that has been read.

21 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 21 Students with Learning Disabilities Typical problems associated with reading include difficulty with: sound-symbol associations blending recognizing sight words reading fluency identifying key concepts and main ideas organizing and summarizing

22 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 22 Whats It Like to Have a Learning Disability? Richard Lavoie, former special education teacher and current director of a school for children with learning disabilities, explains (1.19 minutes).

23 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 23 Students with Learning Disabilities To read more about types of learning disabilities causes of learning disabilities follow this link:

24 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 24 Students with Learning Disabilities To learn more about specific teaching strategies research findings follow this link:

25 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 25 Other Disabilities Students with other disabilities may experience difficulty in literacy, too. In this workshop we will meet children with mental retardation, limited communication skills, and other disabilities to learn how technology is helping these students become more proficient in literacy activities.

26 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 26 Federal Mandates: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA 1997) IDEA1997 mandates that students with disabilities must have access to the general education curriculum (the same curriculum that students without disabilities have) to the maximum extent possible.

27 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 27 IDEA 1997 Students with disabilities have an individualized education program (IEP) that is written annually by a team of individuals including: the parent(s) a general educator and a special educator an administrator an individual who can interpret assessment results (who may be a member described above) other individuals who have knowledge of the student the student, when appropriate

28 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 28 IDEA 1997 Each time the Individualized Education Program (IEP) team meets, team members must consider the students assistive technology needs.

29 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 29 IDEA 1997 Assistive technology includes: Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of an individual with a disability. (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, 20USC 1401[1], Sec )

30 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 30 IDEA 1997 To learn more about general education teachers and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, visit this site:

31 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 31 Standards Standards for the English Language Arts, sponsored by the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) and the International Reading Association (IRA) describe what ALL students should know and be able to do.

32 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 32 Discussion What advice would you give a new teacher in planning literacy activities for students with disabilities? What might be some concerns of a new teacher?

33 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 33 Summary Part 2 Part 2 included: an introduction to students with disabilities an overview of the federal mandates regarding assistive technology and students with disabilities an introduction to English Language Arts Standards for students in pre-K through 12

34 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 34 Part 3 E-Text and Speech Software Click QuickTime icon to hear Loraines comments Picture of a computer chip

35 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 35 Part 3 Part 3 focuses on digitized text and software that supports speech output. When used together, an individual can listen to text that is displayed on the screen or a person can select text to be read aloud.

36 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 36 Text-to-Speech Software How does text-to-speech software work? This type of software uses the computers built-in speech synthesizer and amplification system to provide speech output. The user may select from a variety of options including, for example, pace of reading, type of voice, and use of cursor highlighting.

37 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 37 Text-to-Speech Software To try out text-to-speech software PC users: Download free copies of HELP Read Freeware at: ReadPlease Mac users: Download a free copy of PlainTalk at:

38 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 38 Using E-Text What is e-text? E-text is text in digital format that was developed using word processing, scanned into the computer, or accessed on the Web or through an on-line service such as .

39 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 39 Using E-Text In 1996, Congress passed a copyright exemption. This exemption eliminated the need to require the permission of publishers before reproducing text in digital format for the use of blind persons or others with physical disabilities.

40 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 40 Using E-Text Authorization to use this copyright exception is extended to nonprofit organizations or government agencies who provide specialized services related to the training, education, adaptive reading, or information access for people with disabilities.

41 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 41 Using E-Text For more information about copyright exceptions, read the Federal Policy Barriers to Assistive Technology at:

42 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 42 E-Text and Text-to-Speech: The Power of Technology E-text combined with text-to-speech technology creates a powerful tool that provides access to the written word. This technology: helps students with disabilities in learning how to read and assists students in comprehending written material

43 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 43 E-Text Resources Project Gutenburg Project Gutenburg posts the complete texts of books that are in the public domain. This extensive on-line library consists of almost 10,000 titles.

44 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 44 E-Text Resources Electronic Text Center The Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia offers access to much of the librarys vast collection of books, manuscripts, and newspapers.

45 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 45 E-Text Resources The EServer The Eserver maintained by the University of Washington contains an extensive on-line library of over 30,000 titles covering a wide range of topics.

46 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 46 E-Text Resources Readers Theater Editions Stories from around the world are found at this site with some selections in Spanish.

47 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 47 E-Text Resources A World Wide Digital Library for Kids This site for students K-12 is an in-depth resource for building literacy across the curriculum.

48 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 48 E-Text Resources On-line literacy tools A Web of on-line Dictionaries This site is a language portal to a web of dictionaries including multi-lingual dictionaries and sign language. Merriam-Webster OnLine This site includes a look-up dictionary and thesaurus along with special features for students to explore language through word games.

49 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 49 Discussion Board Due to a learning disability, Emir has difficulty in completing lengthy reading assignments in his English literature class. The teacher is considering designing the assignment so that all students in the class could use e-text. What should the teacher consider in designing this assignment?

50 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 50 Summary Part 3 Part 3 focused on the use of e-text and text-to-speech software that provides access to written material for many students with disabilities while enabling these students to increase literacy skills.

51 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 51 Part 4 Teaching Literacy and Using Specialized Software

52 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 52 Part 4 In this session, we visit several classrooms to learn how teachers are using technology in learning activities to enhance reading and writing skills. We meet several students and learn about specialized software for developing and enhancing literacy.

53 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 53 Literacy Teaching Reading According to the National Reading Panel, teaching children to read should include instruction in: phonemic awareness phonics fluency comprehension The full report is available at:

54 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 54 Literacy Teaching Reading Follow the links at the California Learning Interchange to view literacy video case studies at both primary and secondary levels. As you view the videos, can you identify examples of teacher instruction that illustrate one or more of the areas included in the National Reading Panel Report (previous slide)? Literacy Video Cases

55 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 55 Literacy Teaching Reading Students with learning disabilities and other students who are low-achieving in literacy, benefit from phonemic awareness and phonics instructional programs and techniques. (National Reading Panel, 2000)

56 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 56 Literacy Teaching Reading Beginning Reading by Fitzsimmons is an ERIC digest that includes teaching tips for students with diverse learning needs, including learning disabilities on: phonological awareness reading words

57 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 57 Literacy Teaching Reading View how kindergarten teacher Judy Robinson uses technology to teach reading.

58 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 58 Literacy Teaching Reading In a review of the limited studies currently available (21 studies meeting NRP criteria), the National Reading Panel found that: all the studies reported positive results in using computer technology in reading instruction the use of speech combined with text may be a promising use of technology in reading instruction.

59 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 59 Literacy Teaching Reading Specialized software can help children develop an awareness of sounds and the sound structure of words by using: color animation text-to-speech

60 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 60 Teaching Reading Earobics is specialized software designed to develop phonological awareness and auditory processing skills. Picture of software package Go to and select Products to learn more.http://www.earobics.com/ Use of Specialized Software

61 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 61 Meet Timothy and Patrick Timothy, who is 9 years old, and Patrick, age 7, are second graders and best friends. Timothy has Down syndrome and Patrick is a child who is developing typically. Photo of Timothy and Patrick working in the computer lab

62 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 62 Using Earobics In school, they use specialized software, like Earobics, to practice skills in phonological awareness and phonics phonological blending phonological segmentation phonological manipulation sound-symbol correspondence Both children with and without disabilities benefit from using specialized software.

63 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 63 Teaching Reading WiggleWorks builds story awareness while helping students learn word recognition strategies. Picture of software package For more information: Specialized Software

64 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 64 Reading for Comprehension Students with disabilities may continue to have difficulty with reading fluency and comprehending written text, long after students without disabilities have developed these skills.

65 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 65 Reading for Comprehension Text-to-speech software provides meaningful, connected reading and enables students with disabilities to focus on understanding and appreciating written text.

66 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 66 Reading for Comprehension CAST e-Reader is a specialized software program that reads text from a word processing document, Web, or . For more information: Picture of software package Specialized Software

67 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 67 Learning to Read and Write The International Reading Association and the National Association for the Education of Young Children have issued a joint position statement regarding developmentally appropriate practices for young children. Follow the links to Learning to Read and Write at:

68 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 68 Discussion Board In this part, we visited a kindergarten and second grade classroom. We also met Timothy, a young boy with Down syndrome, and his friend Patrick. If Timothy were a student in Ms. Robinsons class what recommendations would you provide regarding her lesson and the inclusion of assistive technology or specialized software?

69 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 69 Summary Part 4 Part 4 described various ways students are using technology and specialized software in learning how to read.

70 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 70 Part 5 Supporting Literacy by Using Specialized Software

71 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 71 Part 5 This part focuses on specialized software to develop and enhance reading and writing skills.

72 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 72 Literacy: Teaching Reading and Writing Integrating reading and writing instruction assists children to actively think about text.

73 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 73 Literacy: Teaching Reading and Writing Teacher Laurie Sybert plans interdisciplinary units for her 2nd grade classroom that includes children both with and without disabilities. View one of her learning activities that involves reading, writing, art, science, math, and technology.

74 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 74 Literacy: Teaching Reading and Writing Many specialized software programs are designed for teaching activities that integrate reading and writing activities. The following slides examine two of these programs: Kurzweil 3000 textHELP!

75 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 75 Specialized Software: Kurzweil 3000 Kurzweil 3000 (PC/Mac) is a multi-purpose program that focuses on: reading study skills writing

76 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 76 More About Kurzweil 3000 Using Kurzweil 3000 students can: listen to a scanned page, Web site, or other document look up the meaning of a word take notes as they read highlight text use sticky notes, text annotations, and voice notes create a study guide

77 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 77 More About Kurzweil 3000 Kurzweil 3000 includes features to support writing: word prediction to help express ideas text-to-speech for proofreading written work tools for word look-up, finding synonyms, checking spelling

78 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 78 Specialized Software: textHELP! Read & Write textHELP! Read & Write, a multipurpose program (PC only), works in conjunction with any word processor, , or Web browser to assist in: reading writing

79 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 79 More About textHELP! Read & Write textHELP! Read & Write has a tool bar that floats on top of any application program. This allows the user to highlight and listen to text and provides auto correction and abbreviation expansion in writing text. For more information: Picture of tool bar from Read&Write

80 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 80 More About textHELP! Read & Write Reading: special features highlighted text text-to-speech feedback Writing: special features word prediction color-coded errors addresses phonetic errors auto correction homonym support with color coding abbreviation expansion

81 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 81 Specialized Software: textHELP! Type & Talk textHELP! Type & Talk is a specialized software program to improve reading and writing skills. This program is available for either PC or Mac.

82 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 82 Meet Graham Graham is a 5 th grade student who enjoys animals and volunteers at the community animal shelter.

83 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 83 Meet Graham Graham has a learning disability and uses a specialized software program, Co:Writer, and his classroom word processing program to complete classroom writing assignments.

84 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 84 Specialized Software: Co:Writer Co:Writer is a specialized software program (Win/Mac) that works with any off-the-shelf word processing program. Predicted words are read aloud to help students recognize and select the word that they want. Co:Writer is based on recency and redundancy that: makes typing easier by eliminating key strokes improves grammar and sentence structure. For more information:

85 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 85 More About Co:Writer A student composes each sentence in Co:Writer, displayed in the bottom window. As the student types, the program predicts the next word and displays it in a list.

86 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 86 More About Co:Writer When the sentence is complete and a mark of punctuation is added, the sentence goes into the word processing window, displayed above Co:Writer. Screen shot of Co:Writer

87 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 87 More About Co:Writer Co:Writer has a FlexSpell feature that corrects common misspellings as a student writes. Screen shot of Co:Writer This picture shows part of a sentence with a common spelling error and the correct word predicted in a list.

88 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 88 Graham in the Classroom Video clip of Graham using Co:Writer Click QuickTime icon to view video clip Running Time: 109 File Size: 958 Kb Download

89 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 89 Specialized Software: Write:OutLoud Write:OutLoud, a talking word processing program for Win/Mac, provides: sentence or paragraph feedback that helps students complete their thoughts independently auditory feedback to assist students in proofreading for subject-verb agreement, omitted words, and other errors in mechanics talking spell checker talking dictionary with homonym checker

90 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 90 Using icons on the menu bar, a student can select the speech button to hear text read aloud. As each sentence is read, a yellow cursor highlights the sentence, providing visual feedback. More About Write:OutLoud

91 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 91 Specialized Software: Writing with Symbols 2000 Writing with Symbols 2000 (Windows only) is a talking picture and word processing program with over 8,000 pictures. Pictures used are Mayer-Johnson symbols.

92 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 92 More About Writing with Symbols 2000 Students can: develop literacy skills as they write picture stories read and follow picture directions see the connection between spoken and written words by following the cursor highlighting

93 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 93 Discussion Board In this session we visited Mrs. Syberts second grade classroom. What types of specialized software for reading and writing would you suggest to help a student with a learning disability in her classroom? Share your reasons!

94 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 94 Summary Part 5 Part 5 examined classrooms that use reading and writing across the curriculum and identified examples of specialized software that assist students with disabilities in accessing the general education curriculum.

95 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 95 Part 6 Smart Keyboards, Alternative Keyboards, and Touch Screens: Assistive Technology for Building Literacy

96 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 96 Smart Keyboards, Alternative Keyboards, and Touch Screens This section focuses on ways students with disabilities use smart keyboards and other assistive technology to participate in classroom activities and produce high quality work. First, well visit several classrooms to see how teachers are implementing instructional activities across the curriculum.

97 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 97 Classroom Visit: Integrated Curriculum The students in Lisa Carlons 6th grade produce a daily news broadcast. To learn more, follow the links at:

98 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 98 Classroom Visit: Integrated Curriculum The students in Ms. Hulses 8th grade class are working on a curriculum project that includes language arts, social studies, and science. Read more about their work at:

99 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 99 Assistive Technology for Writing: Smart Keyboards Students with disabilities may need assistive technologies to have access to and participate in the general education curriculum described in the previous slides.

100 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 100 Picture of an Alpha Smart 3000 Smart Keyboards Portable, inexpensive, smart keyboards allow students to write and spell check their work, later downloading files to a computer. Click QuickTime icon to hear Loraine Running Time: 0 34 File Size: 64 Kb Download

101 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 101 Meet Joseph and Jacob Joseph (left) and Jacob (right) use an AlphaSmart during a collaborative writing activity in their 4th grade classroom.

102 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 102 Visit to Josephs and Jacobs 4 th Grade Classroom Ms. LaPoint has assigned students to work together in pairs to complete a classroom writing assignment. Joseph has a learning disability that affects his short- term memory and his penmanship is difficult to read. Jacob does not have a disability. In the following video, we visit their classroom and learn how the AlphaSmart helps Joseph and Jacob in completing their assignments.

103 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 103 Visit to Josephs and Jacobs 4 th Grade Classroom Video clip of students using AlphaSmart Click QuickTime icon to view video clip Running Time: 2 08 File Size: 1.9 MB Download

104 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 104 Smart Keyboards Another example of an inexpensive smart keyboard, the Quick Pad, uses infrared technology to point and send files to a computer. Click QuickTime icon to hear Loraine Running Time: 0 18 File Size: 35 Kb Download

105 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 105 Smart Keyboards Smart keyboards work best when students: have adequate typing skills need to complete a written assignment need access to digital text need to use word processing (e.g. taking notes) need an alternative keyboard layout (QWERTY, Dvorak, or left/right hand)

106 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 106 Smart Keyboards Smart keyboards do not work well for students who need: to see enlarged type on the screen to use an alternative input device (such as an expanded keyboard or switch interface)

107 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 107 Smart Keyboards To learn more about smart keyboards: AlphaSmart 3000: QuickPad:

108 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 108 Considerations… Planning Instructional Activities Offering a variety of writing materials in the classroom and letting students select from the options prevents a material as being seen as special education only.

109 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 109 Photo of Big Keys, an alternative keyboard. Assistive Technology for Writing: Expanded Keyboards This alternative keyboard available for either Mac and PC displays letters in a QWERTY or alphabetical order and comes with either color or black and white 1 square keys.

110 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 110 Photo of Timothy using IntelliKeys Assistive Technology for Writing: Expanded Keyboards The IntelliKeys is a membrane keyboard that comes with a series of overlays with various key layouts.

111 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 111 Photo of the Discover:Board, an alternative keyboard. Assistive Technology for Writing: Expanded Keyboards The Discover:Board is a talking keyboard (Mac/PC) with a variety of keyboard overlays for use with off-the-shelf software.

112 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 112 Assistive Technology Solutions We have examined many types of assistive technology and specialized software in this workshop. But sometimes there are solutions that involve low tech, low cost assistive technology.

113 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 113 Assistive Technology for Writing: A Modified Pencil Grip This is a picture of a modified pencil grip to support a student with a physical disability in using a writing or drawing tool. Photo of a persons hand illustrating use of the modified pencil grip

114 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 114 Developing Literacy: Using Symbols Mayer-Johnson Symbols are stylized drawings that represent objects and actions. Students who cannot communicate by talking or writing use Mayer-Johnson Symbols to communicate with others. Mayer-Johnson Symbols

115 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 115 Meet Daniel Daniel is an active 3rd grader whom we met earlier. Because of developmental disabilities, he has limited verbal language skills. To communicate with others, Daniel uses some gestures and a communication board.

116 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 116 Meet Daniel Daniel participates in his third grade literature-based reading group by using story boards with Mayer-Johnson Symbols created by his teacher using Boardmaker software.

117 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 117 Visit to Daniels Classroom In the following video clip, observe how Daniel participates in his classroom reading group and uses his storyboard to answer comprehension questions. Running Time: 1 48 File Size: 1.6 MB Download Click QuickTime icon to view video clip

118 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 118 Discussion Board Go to the Literacy Technology Project and select one of the student case studies. Read about the types of assistive technology that were chosen for the student. Do you agree with the selections? Share your ideas and suggestions.

119 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 119 Summary Part 6 Part 6 focused on smart keyboards, alternative keyboards, touch screens and other assistive technology devices that assist students in developing and enhancing literacy skills. Click QuickTime icon to hear Loraine Running Time: 0 57 File Size: 104 Kb Download

120 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 120 Developing and Enhancing Literacy through Technology: Workshop Summary The purpose of this workshop was to: identify examples of assistive technology devices and specialized software to enhance literacy instruction and learning activities describe how assistive technology supports literacy

121 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 121 About Our Modules Our modules have been designed to provide a barrier free learning environment: high contrast between text and background font type that can be read easily if magnified alternate text transcriptions for audio text descriptions of photos and graphics

122 Part 1: Welcome and Overview 122 Visit our Web site to learn about workshops, technical assistance, and resources on assistive technology.


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