66 Furthermore… clinicians, nurses, and caregivers + older adults = in caregiver workload and burden This is not only true in institutions but in the home as well!
77 The Result There is an increased need for new treatment options and solutions Solutions need to be robust and easily scalable to meet the needs of this growing population
88 Research Questions Researchers are looking at technologies as a potential solution Can technology be used to blur the boundaries of place with respect to providing care? Can technology help support the growing needs of older adults? Can technology support caregivers and nurses? We think it can!
99 Defining our Goal Intelligent Assistive Technology: Using Artificial Intelligence to Support Wellness & Aging-in-Place
10 Defining our Goal Intelligent Assistive Technology: Using Artificial Intelligence to Support Wellness & Aging-in-Place Wellness - The quality or state of being in good health especially as an actively sought goal Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary
11 Assistive Technology Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially or off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities - Cook & Hussey (2000)
12 Pervasive Healthcare Recently pervasive (or ubiquitous) computing has started integrating with healthcare Examples include: Wireless, wearable, and implantable sensors Personal medical devices Smart home technology Pervasive computing in care institutions Pervasive applications for caregivers and nurses Personal, social, cultural and ethical implications of developing and using such technology
13 Limitations While good ideas, there have been several barriers to use, mainly: Often these technologies are not able to accommodate the changing needs of a user Many result in an increase in burden for nurses, caregivers, and family members Why? - Because you need to take into account context!
14 What is Context? Context can be defined as any information that can be used to characterise the situation of a person, place, or object Context encompasses everything in the persons environment, including the person
15 What is Artificial Intelligence? The very general answer: Algorithms and techniques that can act like a human when performing cognitive functions (e.g. decision making) Artificial intelligence is able to use context to make rational decisions Most relevant to our research are intelligent sensing and planning techniques
16 Sensing and Planning Intelligent sensing: Allows contextually rich information to be collected about the person a rational manner (develop task, user, and system models) Intelligent planning: Allows a system to decide what the person is doing and how to react in an appropriate manner (e.g. providing assistance at the appropriate time)
17 Our Research Goal To develop intelligent technology that is able to: Automatically learn about the user and environment Continuously collect data and information Use contextual information to autonomously operate and make decisions
20 Modeling a System as a POMDP What were each of these parameters for COACH?
21 Solving POMDPs A solution to a POMDP is a program (policy) that tells the system what to do in each possible state, in order to maximize the total expected reward The solution must take into account the reward after the first action, plus the reward after the second, … into the future.
22 Dynamic Programming Algorithms for solving POMDPs all involve dynamic programming: Iteration Caching intermediate results Example: Compute best policy that looks 1 step into the future Compute best policy that looks 2 steps into the future, using previous results Repeat until looking further into the future makes only a small change in total expected reward
23 Modeling a System as a POMDP In class exercise: Model a robot that guides a user through a large assisted living complex.