Presentation on theme: "ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATIONS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: OUR EXPERIENCE Sandro M. Radicella Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory."— Presentation transcript:
ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATIONS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: OUR EXPERIENCE Sandro M. Radicella Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory
Technological innovation Technological innovation is essential for human development. From the printing press to the computer, people have devised tools for facilitating learning and communication. Technology is not inherently good or bad, the outcome depends on how it is used.
Information and communications technology (ICT) involves innovations in microelectronics, computing (hardware and software), telecom- munications and opto-electronics micro- processors,semiconductors, fibre optics. These innovations enable the processing and storage of enormous amounts of information,along with rapid distribution of information through communication networks.
The role of ICT It is accepted that telecommunication is a basic infrastructure necessary for economic and social development of a country. This is even becoming more strong than ever as information related economic activities are growing. Information and communications technology may be described as the support of the central nervous system of complex societies, transmitting and processing information and commands among the various parts of such societies. Internet plays a fundamental function in ICT role
Benefits from ICT Information and communications technology carries on high promise both in human and economic terms. Benefits could be obtained in: Education Education Job training Job training Health care Health care Food security Food security Environment management Environment management Government efficiency Government efficiency And specifically in Science and Technology: Speed up dissemination of scientific results world-wide through scientific knowledge sharing and exchange Speed up dissemination of scientific results world-wide through scientific knowledge sharing and exchange Allows to set up of Virtual Labs for communications and remote instrument control Allows to set up of Virtual Labs for communications and remote instrument control
Rapid evolution of ICT doubling of computing power every 18 –24 monthsdoubling of communications power every 6 months Predictions indicate the doubling of computing power every 18 –24 months and the doubling of communications power every 6 months. Both are accompanied by huge reductions in costs and massive increases in speed and quantity. In 2001 more information can be sent over a single cable in a second than in 1997 was sent over the entire Internet in a month.
Internet growth in developing and emerging countries
The digital devide The distribution of Internet users show uneven distribution in the world. Connecting a major portion of the population is a challenge in developing regions. Limitations are the outdated public telephone network and the arbitrary high cost of the services. Radio technology To beat this problem, solutions based on the most advanced techniques but with accessible costs have to be devised. Radio technology represents in many cases the solution.
ICT and collaborative research and innovation Thanks to ICT scientific research and innovation the original networked communication between universities that allowed the birth of the Internet is increasingly collaborative between institutions and countries. From 1995 –97, scientists in the United States coauthored articles with scientists from 173 other countries;scientists in Brazil with 114,in Kenya with 81,in Algeria 59.13
A Premise for Action at the Abdus Salam ICTP The growth of the ICT poses the challenge of providing developing countries with an adequate way to be linked with the rest of the world to avoid the risk of being cut out from main stream of information flow. The academic community is the obvious starting point for these efforts that will permeate to the rest of society. It is recognized that the underlying problem is the lack of sufficient well qualified human resources able to handle the new systems and technologies.
The action at the Centre Abdus Salam ICTPIntensive Training Activities Programme of Training and System Development on Networking and Radiocommunications United Nations University This premise motivated the Abdus Salam ICTP to carry out Intensive Training Activities for participants from developing countries and to establish a Programme of Training and System Development on Networking and Radiocommunications with the collaboration of the United Nations University. radio technologycomputer networking Both radio technology and computer networking have been used to help building up the ability of academic institutions in developing countries to access ICT
Training Activities (milestones) 1989 - 1989 -1st College on Theoretical and Experimental Radiopropagation Physics ( first of a series of biannual Colleges on the same topic) 1991 1991-2nd College on Theoretical and Experimental Radiopropagation Physics ( with scientific and financial support from URSI) 1993 1993-3rd College on Theoretical and Experimental Radiopropagation Physics ( first with financial support from URSI and ITU/BDT) 1993 to 1996 1993 to 1996- Activities cosponsored with ITU/BDT 1997 1997- ICTP-URSI-ITU/BDT Workshop on the use of Radio for digital communications in developing countries 1998 1998- 1st ICTP-URSI-ITU/BDT School on the use of Radio for digital communications in developing countries ( its 5th yearly edition in 2002)
The new Programme Programme of Training and System Development on Networking and Radiocommunicationstechnical assistance and training The objective of the Programme of Training and System Development on Networking and Radiocommunications was to provide technical assistance and training to academic and scientific institutions in developing countries requesting help to establish small area computer networks and their connection to the Internet, either directly or through national networks.
Main Projects in Africa 1. Pilot project: computer network for education and research at the Obafemi Awolowo University of Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Successfully completed by June 1996, with the use of spread spectrum radio technology. 2. Intensive Training, in Trieste, with support of the World Bank, of 26 academic network managers and 16 network engineers representing 26 Nigerian Universities, December 1996. 3. Follow up training activity for the NUNet of Nigeria in Ile-Ife and Abuja, Nigeria, 6 - 27 October 1997. Staff from all the 40 Nigerian Universities were trained in computer networking with the use of radio links. 4. Workshop on the use of Radio for Computer Networking at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana, 31 August - 11 September 1998. Supported also by the United Nations University (UNU), the University of Cape Coast (UCC), and other local organisations. A basic Radiocommunications Training Laboratory has been implemented at the University of Cape Coast for this purpose. 5. Training Activity on Networking and Radiocommunications in Trieste,14 September- 4 December 1998,supported also by the United Nations University. Participants were 14 scientists from Nigeria (7), Morocco (3), Angola (1), Senegal (1), Cote dIvoire (1), Romania (1).
Projects in Romania 1. Pilot project for the establishment of a full Internet Connectivity between the National Institute for Material Physics located at the Magurele Physics Platform and the node of the Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Romania, successfully carried out during July 1997. 2. Seminar on Networking and Radiocommunication carried out in Bucharest,Romania, 13-17 December 1999, co-Organized with the University of Bucharest (CREDIS) and financed by the World Bank.
Other activities Since 2000 the group has been involved in Training Activities and Technical Advise in the use of radio for computer networking in Benin, Peru, Romania, Sudan and Venezuela. The group created also the S&T Collaborium Initiative.