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SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.

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Presentation on theme: "SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS."— Presentation transcript:

1 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

2 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS The world is made up of objects, living or non living; big or small. The world is made up of objects, living or non living; big or small. These things interact with each other and with the surrounding environment, working towards achieving common goals. These things interact with each other and with the surrounding environment, working towards achieving common goals. Their existence, in most of the cases, depends upon their interaction. Their existence, in most of the cases, depends upon their interaction. Introduction Chapter Background

3 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS Introduction An Example Imagine ourselves; we need air & water to live, materials to build shelter and to protect ourselves. Imagine ourselves; we need air & water to live, materials to build shelter and to protect ourselves. Drinking water is available to us through rivers etc. To fill up rivers, sunlight is needed, so that clouds are made and there is rain. Drinking water is available to us through rivers etc. To fill up rivers, sunlight is needed, so that clouds are made and there is rain. This hydrologic or water cycle is shown in figure below. This hydrologic or water cycle is shown in figure below.

4 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS Introduction Example of a City One of the main objectives of a city is to provide a restful place where all necessities of life are made available at a single place. One of the main objectives of a city is to provide a restful place where all necessities of life are made available at a single place. Building blocks of a city are people, buildings, roads, water supply system, electricity distribution system, gas supply system, healthcare system, municipality and so on. Building blocks of a city are people, buildings, roads, water supply system, electricity distribution system, gas supply system, healthcare system, municipality and so on. All of these building blocks of a city and are equally required for its sustained functioning and existence. All of these building blocks of a city and are equally required for its sustained functioning and existence.

5 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS A set of interrelated components working together to accomplish common aims & objectives A set of interrelated components working together to accomplish common aims & objectives A system is an entity that maintains its existence through the mutual interaction of its parts. A system is an entity that maintains its existence through the mutual interaction of its parts. Multiplicity of interacting parts that collectively work towards a common goal. Multiplicity of interacting parts that collectively work towards a common goal. A collection of entities or parts that are linked and interrelated such as hydrologic cycle, cities, and transportation modes. A collection of entities or parts that are linked and interrelated such as hydrologic cycle, cities, and transportation modes. Collection of workers, management, machines, processes, etc. that work together, e.g., to provide some major infrastructure's services (e.g., water distribution system, buildings, electrical system). Collection of workers, management, machines, processes, etc. that work together, e.g., to provide some major infrastructure's services (e.g., water distribution system, buildings, electrical system). SYSTEM Definition

6 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS This mutual interaction gives rise to a very important characteristic of a system known as emergence or synergy - the properties that a system demonstrates can be entirely different from the properties of the elements that makes it. This mutual interaction gives rise to a very important characteristic of a system known as emergence or synergy - the properties that a system demonstrates can be entirely different from the properties of the elements that makes it. For example, Sodium Chloride or table salt, a harmless salt used daily in our food, is made up of highly reactive metal called sodium and a poisonous gas called chlorine. For example, Sodium Chloride or table salt, a harmless salt used daily in our food, is made up of highly reactive metal called sodium and a poisonous gas called chlorine. The properties that table salt has, vanishes if the two elements are separated from each other. The properties that table salt has, vanishes if the two elements are separated from each other. SYSTEM Emergence or Synergy

7 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS Introduction Inference Whether we look at entities in nature such as a hydrologic cycle or something that we have built like a city, there exists a similar makeup or structure that exists within them. Whether we look at entities in nature such as a hydrologic cycle or something that we have built like a city, there exists a similar makeup or structure that exists within them. We will try to set apart and recognize this common structure or makeup in this chapter. This common structure is what we call a system. We will try to set apart and recognize this common structure or makeup in this chapter. This common structure is what we call a system.

8 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM Classification Natural vs. Artificial or Man-Made Systems: Natural systems are those systems that exist as a result of natural processes for example human body or water cycle Natural systems are those systems that exist as a result of natural processes for example human body or water cycle Technological or Artificial or Man- Made systems are systems developed by people. Examples can be cities, factories, transportation systems, computers, internet etc. Technological or Artificial or Man- Made systems are systems developed by people. Examples can be cities, factories, transportation systems, computers, internet etc.

9 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM Classification Static vs. Dynamic Systems: A static system has a structure but there is no change or activity over a period of time for example a building or a bridge. A static system has a structure but there is no change or activity over a period of time for example a building or a bridge. A Dynamic system show varying behavior over time, a manufacturing or chemical plant, an automobile, and human bodies are examples of a dynamic system. A Dynamic system show varying behavior over time, a manufacturing or chemical plant, an automobile, and human bodies are examples of a dynamic system.

10 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS All systems have three basic components. These are input, process and output. All systems have three basic components. These are input, process and output. The figure shown is also known as basic system diagram which is one of the ways to model or represent any system The figure shown is also known as basic system diagram which is one of the ways to model or represent any system The model of a system shown is known as open loop system. The model of a system shown is known as open loop system. An open loop system is defined as a system that has no means for comparing the actual output with desired output so that some corrective actions can to taken by the system. An open loop system is defined as a system that has no means for comparing the actual output with desired output so that some corrective actions can to taken by the system. SYSTEM Structure (open loop) Process Input output Open Loop System

11 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM Structure (open loop) Control of open loop systems often requires human intervention Control of open loop systems often requires human intervention Example of open loop system: Example of open loop system:

12 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS As opposed to an open loop system a closed loop system uses one more component know as a feedback to measure the output and circle it back to the input so that after comparing it with the desired output, rectifying instructions or commands can be given, if required, as new inputs to the system. As opposed to an open loop system a closed loop system uses one more component know as a feedback to measure the output and circle it back to the input so that after comparing it with the desired output, rectifying instructions or commands can be given, if required, as new inputs to the system. SYSTEM Structure (closed loop) Input output Closed loop Systems Feedback Process

13 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM Structure (closed loop) In the example of an automobile speed given above the fourth feedback component is added, by the human intervention, to make the system work under controlled conditions. In the example of an automobile speed given above the fourth feedback component is added, by the human intervention, to make the system work under controlled conditions. Another example of closed loop system is of human body that keeps the temperature of a body at 98.6 F. Another example of closed loop system is of human body that keeps the temperature of a body at 98.6 F. The body reads its temperature through natural sensors, gives its feedback to the brain, which in turn acts accordingly by starting sweating or shivering, to increase or decrease the temperature, as required by the body. The body reads its temperature through natural sensors, gives its feedback to the brain, which in turn acts accordingly by starting sweating or shivering, to increase or decrease the temperature, as required by the body.

14 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS Any system may have more than one input and/or more than one out put. For example an electric generation power plant. Any system may have more than one input and/or more than one out put. For example an electric generation power plant. SYSTEM Structure (multi-input multi-output) Feedback Process

15 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS The term complex systems refer to as systems in which the elements are varied and have complex or convoluted relationships with other elements of the system. The term complex systems refer to as systems in which the elements are varied and have complex or convoluted relationships with other elements of the system. The systems which are not complex in nature generally involve fewer engineering disciplines e.g., a washing machine is an electro-mechanical system. The systems which are not complex in nature generally involve fewer engineering disciplines e.g., a washing machine is an electro-mechanical system. An example of a complex system is a space satellite. An example of a complex system is a space satellite. –To develop and operate a space satellite a vast spectrum of technological knowledge ranging from mechanical to electronics, computers to astrophysics, controls to signal processing is required. SYSTEM Complex Systems

16 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM Complex Systems Examples of some complex technological systems, signifying the three basic components, are illustrated in table below. Examples of some complex technological systems, signifying the three basic components, are illustrated in table below. Most modern technological systems are strongly driven from advances in technologies and are increasingly falling under the category of complex systems. Most modern technological systems are strongly driven from advances in technologies and are increasingly falling under the category of complex systems.

17 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS If we look at above examples of complex systems and try to model it using basic system diagram, it is clear that the representation is insufficient for any meaningful understanding of such a system. If we look at above examples of complex systems and try to model it using basic system diagram, it is clear that the representation is insufficient for any meaningful understanding of such a system. SYSTEM Modeling a complex system

18 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS To model a complex system, first of all, we need to understand: To model a complex system, first of all, we need to understand: –Scope of a system: Scope defines the boundaries of a system. –It is used to identify and encompass all the elements and their relationships necessary to form a system. –Identification of the boundary of a system is vital so as to make it precisely clear what is inside and what is outside the system. Elements outside of the system boundary that are interacting with the system form what we call a system environment. Elements outside of the system boundary that are interacting with the system form what we call a system environment. –Typical system environment is made up of system operators, operational maintenance and support systems, shipping and handling environment etc. SYSTEM Modeling a complex system

19 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM Modeling a complex system System Environment Interacting elements e.g., system operator, maintenance System System boundary

20 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS System Environment Road network, Operators, Traffic police, … Consider an intercity passenger transportation company as shown. The system has various elements such as buses, ticketing system, bus terminal management system etc. The system interacts with its environment which is made up of road network, operators (bus drivers etc.), and traffic police and so on. Consider an intercity passenger transportation company as shown. The system has various elements such as buses, ticketing system, bus terminal management system etc. The system interacts with its environment which is made up of road network, operators (bus drivers etc.), and traffic police and so on. As seen in the example given above we can, not only define various systems and its environment by clearly identifying the system boundaries, but also can identify systems within a system based on the scope of our interest As seen in the example given above we can, not only define various systems and its environment by clearly identifying the system boundaries, but also can identify systems within a system based on the scope of our interest SYSTEM Modeling a complex system Intercity Passenger Transportation Co. Buses Ticketing System Bus Terminal Management System …

21 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS By character, complex systems can be made up of a number of major interacting elements, usually known as subsystems By character, complex systems can be made up of a number of major interacting elements, usually known as subsystems Subsystems satisfies the definition of a simple system and are composed of further more simple working elements down to simple elements such as gears, pulleys, buttons, resistors, and capacitors etc Subsystems satisfies the definition of a simple system and are composed of further more simple working elements down to simple elements such as gears, pulleys, buttons, resistors, and capacitors etc SYSTEM Modeling a complex system System Sub system 1Sub system 2Sub system x … Component 1Component 2Component x … Part 1Part 2Part x …

22 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS Functional Elements The main purpose of a system is to alter the three basic entities on which a system operates. These are information, material & energy. The main purpose of a system is to alter the three basic entities on which a system operates. These are information, material & energy. Classification of principal functional elements based on above three are: Classification of principal functional elements based on above three are: –1. Signal (A system can generate, transmit, distribute and receive signals used in sensing and communication) –2. Data (A system can analyze, organize, interpret, or convert data into forms that a user desires) –3. Material (Provide structural support for a System. It can transform shape or composition of materials etc.) –4. Energy (Provide energy to a system). SYSTEM Modeling a complex system

23 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS Components are defined as physical representation of these functional elements which can be classified in six groups as shown in figure: Components are defined as physical representation of these functional elements which can be classified in six groups as shown in figure: SYSTEM Modeling a complex system Electronic Mechanical Electromechanical Thermo-mechanical Electro-optical Software Component

24 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM Modeling a complex system Each of these six categories has further sub-classifications. These are along with examples are Each of these six categories has further sub-classifications. These are along with examples are

25 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS Example of Components Example of Components SYSTEM Modeling a complex system

26 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM Modeling a complex system The lowest or the most primal level in a system is known as parts The lowest or the most primal level in a system is known as parts A part in itself does not have any functioning but are required to put together components. A part in itself does not have any functioning but are required to put together components. Examples of parts are Examples of parts are – Electronic: LED, resistors, transistors; – Mechanical: gears, ropes, pulleys, seals; – Electromechanical: wires, couplings, magnets; – Thermo-mechanical: Coils, valves; – Electro-optical: lenses, mirrors; Software: algorithms etc.

27 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS Interfaces & Interactions A system has to interact with its environment including other systems. A system has to interact with its environment including other systems. All of these interactions occur at various boundaries of the system. All of these interactions occur at various boundaries of the system. Such boundaries are known as external interfaces. Such boundaries are known as external interfaces. –The definition and control of these external interfaces are extremely important in the functional well being of any system. There are also interactions that occur at the boundaries between individual components of a system. These interfaces are known as internal interfaces. There are also interactions that occur at the boundaries between individual components of a system. These interfaces are known as internal interfaces. Interaction between two individual elements of the system is affected through the interface. Interaction between two individual elements of the system is affected through the interface. SYSTEM Modeling a complex system

28 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS Interfaces & Interactions There are three types of interface that may occur in a system. These are: There are three types of interface that may occur in a system. These are: –1.Connectors: connectors facilitate the transmission of physical interaction e.g., transmission of fluid through pipes or electricity through cables etc. –2.Isolators: Isolators impede or block physical interaction e.g., rubber cover over copper wire etc. –3.Converters: converters alter the form of the physical medium e.g., pump changes the force in a fluid etc. SYSTEM Modeling a complex system

29 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM Modeling a complex system Example of Interfaces & Interactions Example of Interfaces & Interactions

30 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS Developing a new system is a complex effort that requires several interrelated tasks. Developing a new system is a complex effort that requires several interrelated tasks. Such systems usually evolve over a longer time period, starting from, when the need is identified through the development stage to its final operational use and support efforts. Such systems usually evolve over a longer time period, starting from, when the need is identified through the development stage to its final operational use and support efforts. This whole complex effort is referred to as system development process that can be summarized with an acronym known as SIMILAR. This whole complex effort is referred to as system development process that can be summarized with an acronym known as SIMILAR. SYSTEM System Development Process SIMILA RRRRR custome r needs product/ process

31 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS 1.State the problem. Stating the problem is the most essential task in system development. It entails recognizing customers, appreciating customer needs, establishing the need for change, delineating requirements and defining system functions. 2.Investigate alternatives. Alternatives are explored and evaluated based on criteria such as performance, cost and risk. 3.Model the system. Modeling the system sheds light on requirements, reveals bottlenecks and fragment activities, reduces cost and exposes replication of efforts. 4.Integrate. Integration means designing interfaces and bringing system elements together so that they work as a whole. This requires massive communication and coordination efforts. SYSTEM System Development Process

32 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS 5.Launch the system. Launching the system means operating the system and generating outputs -- letting the system do what it was intended to do. 6.Assess performance. Performance is assessed using output data -- measurement is the key. If output data cannot be measured properly, than system cannot be judged appropriately and consequently there will be no right curative actions. 7.Re-evaluation. Re-evaluation should be a recurrent and iterative process, available throughout all of the stages of SIMILAR in system development process. SYSTEM System Development Process

33 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM System life cycle System development process can be achieved through a mechanism called system life cycle System development process can be achieved through a mechanism called system life cycle There are three system life cycle models presented here There are three system life cycle models presented here As can bee seen, all of the phases shown in the three models are related. The most detailed and elaborate model is the SE model As can bee seen, all of the phases shown in the three models are related. The most detailed and elaborate model is the SE model

34 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM System life cycle THE SE MODEL Concept development stage Concept development stage is made up of three sub-stages. These are 1.Need analysis 2.Concept exploration 3.concept definition

35 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM System life cycle THE SE MODEL Engineering development stage The main objective of engineering development stage is to engineer the system to perform functionalities, specified in earlier stages, in an economical and maintainable form. Engineering development stage has three sub-stages. These are: 1. Advanced development 2. Engineering design 3. Integration and evaluation

36 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM System life cycle THE SE MODEL Post development stage Third and final stage is divided into two main phases: 1.Production 2.Operation and support

37 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM System life cycle THE SE MODEL Testing Throughout System Development Developing a system, is a closed loop process Developing a system, is a closed loop process Testing or evaluation or feedback of the efforts done at any stage is an inherent part of the whole development process; so that the error at any stage can be detected without delay and rectification can be done at the spot to avoid any loss of time, effort or investment. Testing or evaluation or feedback of the efforts done at any stage is an inherent part of the whole development process; so that the error at any stage can be detected without delay and rectification can be done at the spot to avoid any loss of time, effort or investment.

38 SE 100: Introduction to Technology TECHNOLOGICAL SYSYEMS SYSTEM Managing System Development One can imagine easily the exceeding complexities that arise during the system development process. One can imagine easily the exceeding complexities that arise during the system development process. Proper management of this system development process, therefore, is the key to the success of the entire effort. Proper management of this system development process, therefore, is the key to the success of the entire effort. Now we will look at some of the principles necessary for managing such a complex system development process. Now we will look at some of the principles necessary for managing such a complex system development process.


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