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Topic 2: Overview of Technology Management Chapter 1 Harrison & Samson (2002)

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1 Topic 2: Overview of Technology Management Chapter 1 Harrison & Samson (2002)

2 Technology Management Field Topics that will be emphasized in this class include Technology Strategy Development of Technological capability Innovation management Technology management and business competitiveness interface Technology adoption E-business and Virtual Corporation

3 Definitions Technology (for the purpose of this class) refers to information technology (IT), which includes computer hardware/software, telecommunications, networks, and database. Management function include planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling

4 Fact Effective use of IT provides a competitive edge. IT is a means, not an end. People are the most important resources. Most projects fail due to poor management.

5 Innovation Innovation refers to new products, new processes, new managerial approaches, and combinations of the above. An important aspect of innovation is Adoption and implementation of IT.

6 Variables related to Innovation (Burgelman & Maidique 1988) Resource availability and allocation Ability to understand competitors innovative strategies The business technological environment Structure and cultural context Strategic management capacity in dealing with entrepreneurial behavior

7 Success Factors of TM (Maidique & Hayes in Burgelman & Maidique 1988) Business focus Adaptability Organizational cohesion Entrepreneurial culture A sense of integrity Hands-on top management

8 Framework for Reviewing Technological Innovation: 8 Stages Discovery of a new idea or product Emergence of the proposed idea or design concept Verification of the theory or design Demonstration of a prototype Trail and evaluation Commercial introduction or initial operation of the innovation Innovation adoption Innovation proliferation

9 IT and Market Balancing between technology push and market pull Proactive approach for technical development Feasibility of an innovation: technologically and commercially Congruent of an innovation with corporate objectives and goals

10 Manager Perspective on Managing Technology Advanced technology can create an abrupt change in businesses. New technology requires (Beatty 1992) –A skilled champion –A plan for systems integration –Organizational integration

11 Barriers to Success Failure of a champion Lack of systems integration Incompatible systems Lack of a cross-functional team

12 Lessons Learned Imbalance between technology generation and technology diffusion in the US (Alic 1993) Requirements of international facility location and technology transfer (Woodward & Liu 1993). Technology will be useful only when it is used. More emphasis needs to be placed on adoption, adaptation, and exploitation of technology

13 Lessons Learned (Cont) Protecting existing technology rather than promptly embracing new technology becomes a dead end strategy (Ali & Zahra 1994). E.g., IBM vs. HP. Customer involvement leads to success. Managers today must understand –Impact of IT on the strategic and organizational changes –New role of IT in integrating different business functions in systems design

14 Technology Transfer (Hunter 2001, Similar to tangible assets, technology can be bought, sold, or lease Intellectual property rights can also be bought and sold, or licensed for a limited time, to another party

15 Technology Licensing Inward and outward licensing deals with the issue of intellectual property, which is beyond the scope of this study Example: Infocus http://www.i-

16 Flexibility and Technology Flexible systems and computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) are used in manufacturing. It is not clear whether or not there is a direct link between flexibility and increased performance. Other factors such as organizational structure, culture, and management processes can influence the outcome.

17 Technology Forecasting (TF) Evolution of R&D Management 1950-1975: TF is tactical, isolated, and not a pervasive part of strategic planning. 1975-1990: TF is a data-gathering and environmental scanning exercise, still an isolated subtask of strategic planning. 1990-present: TF is an integral part of strategic planning and business intelligence.

18 Technology & People It is true that peoples abilities havent changed much while technology (esp. IT) has changed dramatically Harrison & Samson (2002). However, peoples behavior has changed significantly, which the authors fail to emphasize. Thus, the way we manage people must be changed as well. Although Harrison & Samson (2002) argue technological resources are becoming more important than human resources in determining competitive outcomes (p. 15), I disagree as weve seen so many IS project failures due to lack of skilled people and poor management. Research in the past few years has begun to call for more studies done on the human factor because it has been ignored for too long.

19 Summary Technology management is critical for not only creating but also sustaining a competitive advantage of an organization. Technology consideration must be an integral part of a firms business strategy. Change in technology without change in the way it is used can lead to failure. Technology and human resources must be working in an integral manner to ensure success. Leaders must have a strong knowledge and capability in managing both technology and people.

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