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Coal Gasification Technology and Syngas Production Ruben Reyes ChE379.

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Presentation on theme: "Coal Gasification Technology and Syngas Production Ruben Reyes ChE379."— Presentation transcript:

1 Coal Gasification Technology and Syngas Production Ruben Reyes ChE379

2 Purpose/Outline Gasification technology –Different types of gasifiers –Products from gasification Syngas production, Gasifiers used for IGCC power plants Conclusion

3 Coal Gasification Technologies –Basic Overview of gasification Coal or other fuels Oxidation carefully controlled H2, CO2, CH4, other products H2 can be purified Ash/slag leftovers –3 types of gasifiers Moving bed Fluid Bed Entrained Flow –Underground Coal Gasification Vertical wells and pathway creation Controlled retraction injection point

4 Above ground gasification Moving bed reactor (Lurgi – dry ash and BGL - slagging) –Counter-current flow of coal and oxidizing blast –Blast composed of air and hot syngas, so low oxygen consumption –Operates on reactive carbon sources –Good heat transfer heats the carbon source creating methane and tar –Post production cleaning and scrubbing requires greater energy use BGL gasifier (fixed bed, slagging) Figure 1: BGL Gasifier

5 Above Ground Gasification Fluid-bed reactor (Winkler, HTW, CFB – dry ash; KRW, U- Gas – Agglomerating) –Air fluidizes a bed and carbon containing particles added –Proper mixing of fuel and oxidant provide good mass transfer and heat transfer –Fine particle will escape with syngas and needs to be cleaned –Very good heat/mass transfer so partially reacted carbon may settle with ash –Slagging will reduce fluidization, so temp remains below softening point for ash Winkler Gasifier (Fluid bed, dry ash) Figure 2: Winkler Gasifier

6 Above Ground Gasification Entrained flow reactors (Shell, Texaco, E-gas, Noell, KT - Slagging) –Carbon source is made of very fine particles in a liquid or slurry for very good mass transfer –Very little residence time –Co-current flow with oxygen where high temperatures can be reached –Low heat transfer means hot exiting gas with no methane or tar, but more oxygen required. –High temperature and very small carbon sources make it an ideal process for coal gasification. High temperatures without charring No agglomeration because of fine particle size preparation Texaco Gasifier (entrained flow, slagging) Figure 1: Texaco Gasifier

7 Underground Coal Gasification Vertical wells, soviet technology –H2 and O2 are injected and ignited to create syngas, CO2 and methane –Coal deposits do not allow for transport of the gases from the injection well to recovery well very easily –Closely spaced wells and reverse combustion methods are employed to create a cavity between wells –This process works, but requires many wells to be constructed Figure 5: Current UGC

8 Underground Coal Gasification Controlled retraction injection point from oil technology (CRIP) –The oil industrys horizontal drilling for production and injection wells to deliver and absorb syngas continuously –Only one injection well, the ignition continues through the inseam as the injection wells are retreated. –The product is collected in a product well –Concerns about ground water inhibit the use of UCG. Figure 6: CRIP UGC

9 Syngas production and energy industry CO2 removal –Used for oil reclamation –Can be injected back in ground Combined cycle –Combustion turbine –Heat used for generating steam Fuel cell uses

10 Conclusions There are many ways that carbon containing compounds may be gasified Coal gasification occurs best in entrained flow reactors such as the Texaco gasifier –The coal will not heat up as much and will not create methane and tar. –The requirement for fine particles into the gasifier prevents agglomeration Underground coal gasification technology is present and used today but with certain challenges –Water contamination –Impact on environment and land Potential benefits are many –Syngas used in combined cycle energy production –Hydrogen fuel cell use for energy production and transportation purposes –Methane and hydrogen have applications in the chemical industry where they can be used. –Not mentioned, gasification is first step in coal liquefaction process. –Coal gasification could reduce dependence on foreign oil –CO2 sequestration

11 References Gasification reference shelf - images and photos. (n.d.). National Energy Technology Laboratory. Retrieved November 20, 2007, from http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/coalpower/gasification/pubs/photo.htm l Gasification Technology and R&D. (n.d.). U.S. Department of energy. Retrieved November 20, 2007, from http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/powersystems/gasification/index.htm http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/powersystems/gasification/index.htm l Higman, C., & Van Der Burgt, M. (n.d.). Gasification. Elsevier. Retrieved November 20, 2007, from Google Book Search database: http://books.google.com.ezproxy.lib.utexas.edu/ books?id=ZUlRaUrX8IU C&printsec=frontcover&dq=gasification&sig=Sxb9s5qmKK03xe9INbsiuoJw wX8#PPP1,M1 Underground Coal Gasification. (n.d.). World Coal Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2007, from World Coal Institute Web site: http://www.worldcoal.org/pages/content/index


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