Presentation on theme: "The SMART Board and Software Reading Programs: can it help improve 4 th graders reading comprehension skills? Letty Vaca and Christina Matera EDU 703.22."— Presentation transcript:
The SMART Board and Software Reading Programs: can it help improve 4 th graders reading comprehension skills? Letty Vaca and Christina Matera EDU Spring 2009
Table of Contents Abstract Introduction -Statement of the Problem -Review of Related Literature -Statement of the Hypotheses Method -Participants -Instruments -Experimental Design -Procedure Results Discussion Implications References Appendix (ces)
Introduction Technology: part of our everyday lives NCLB and the National Education Technology Plan (2004) Engages children Can be used to improve childrens reading skills
Statement of the Problem A large percentage of the fourth graders reading scores in the State of New York are still below the proficient reading level (November, 2007). Integrating technology in the classrooms to support or supplement teachers literacy instruction can possibly improve childrens reading skills.
Review of Related Literature Four theorists that align with our action research project: Howard Gardner People are intelligent in different ways Maria Montessori Students are lifelong learners and problem solvers Jean Piaget Children can construct their own knowledge Lev Vytgosky Apprenticeship (guiding hand)
So how does Gardner, Montessori, Piaget and Vytgotsky fit into our action research project? Instructional methods that incorporate technology improves (Learning Theory for Education and Training with Technology, 2000): Reflective and metacognition abilities of learner are developed as student seek to clarify, explain and justify their stand Motivation/engagement Positive attitudes toward the subject areas studied Promote greater competencies in critical thinking Higher achievement and greater productivity Interdependence self-esteem and appreciation of school Social and communication skills are developed
Review of Related Literature Interactive whiteboards can accommodate multiple learning types (Basilicato, 2005; Wall, Higgins & Smith, 2005). Laptops can engage children in their learning process and enhance their reading skills (Warchauer, 2007). Internet is another tool used for online activities (reading and writing), research on subjects and build vocabulary (Schmar- Dobler, 2003; Bromley, 2002). Web Quest engages students in information processing and collaboration. When Web Quests are literature based, books become the focal point for reading-centered learning activities (Teclehaimanot & Lamb, 2004).
Review of Related Literature CD-ROM Storybooks can increase and aid reading comprehension by helping students focus more on understanding the meaning behind the text and less on decoding. ((Matthew, 1997; Doty, Poppelwell & Byers, 2001; Pearman, 2008; Pearman, 2008). Digital Story telling teachers can integrate Digital Storytelling in their lessons to enhance and accelerate student comprehension by using visual images (Robin, 2008). Video games can help activate critical thinking skills and problem solving skills based on prior knowledge, and even help make connections (Gee, 2008). Text to speech is a software program that reads the story out loud. It is useful for struggling readers to listen to the words as they read the text.
Statement of Hypotheses HR1 Integrating technology into literacy instruction can improve 4 th graders reading skills. HR2 The absence of integrating technology into literacy instruction can hinder 4 th graders from improving their reading skills.
Method Participants – 30 fourth graders (15 students from each class) – One classroom- 95% African American & 5% Hispanic – Second classroom- 60%- African American, 39% Hispanic, & 1% Caucasian – Lower to middle class – Public elementary school located in the Bronx, N.Y. Instruments – SMART Board (Interactive whiteboard) – Microsoft PowerPoint – Surveys & pre and post questionnaires – Self created Readers Workshop lesson plans on context clues – Internet: online reading software programs on context clues – Reading assessments: WRAP and running records
Experimental Design - Static-Group Comparison Two groups: - (X 1 ) control group – no technology integrated in lesson - (X 2 ) experimental group – technology integrated in lesson - (O) pretested with W.R.A.P, and then post-tested with multiple choice on context clues, and T.C. running records One designated treatment group (X 2 ) experimental group – lesson plan, SMART Board, MS Power Point and online software programs will be used to help students improve finding context clues skill.
Procedure Pre-phase of action research: Both groups assessed before the treatment using W.R.A.P. Both groups filled out a pre-questionnaire that had a five point Likert scale Post-phase of action research: For four weeks, every Friday, both groups received instruction on how to use context clues to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words. Control group (X 1 ) did not have technology implemented in the lesson plan Experimental group (X 2 ) had technology implemented in the lesson plan Both groups were assessed again on their reading levels using the T.C. running records. Both groups were given a multiple choice test on context clues. Then, both groups filled out a post-questionnaire that had a four point Likert scale.
Results Pre-assessment in reading using W.R.A.P
Chart on pre-questionnaire correlations Materas Class (Technology integrated in the classroom) Software reading program used in computer class to practice reading comprehension skills. Understanding a lesson better on PowerPoint. Reading levels Students finding themselves more engaged in an assignment when it is presented on the SMART Board. r xy = r xy = St. Maries Class (No technology integrated in the classroom) Software reading program used computer class to practice reading comprehension skills. Understanding a lesson better on PowerPoint. Reading levels Students finding themselves more engaged in an assignment when it is presented on the SMART Board. r xy = r xy = 0.267
Post – assessment reading levels using T.C. running records
Chart on post-questionnaire correlations Materas Class (Technology integrated in the lesson) Students learning how to find the main idea in a passage using a software or online reading program on the SMART Board. Students understanding a reading strategy when a software or online reading program and SMART Board is integrated in the lesson. Reading levels Students finding it easy to understand a lesson on finding context clues when a software or online reading program and SMART Board is integrated in the lesson. r xy =.541 r xy =.732 St. Maries Class (Technology not integrated in the lesson) Students learning how to find the main idea in a passage using a software or online reading program on the SMART Board. Students understanding a reading strategy when a software or online reading program and SMART Board is integrated in the lesson. Reading levels Students finding it easy to understand a lesson on finding context clues when a software or online reading program and SMART Board is integrated in the lesson. r xy =.025 r xy =.434
Table 1. Mean and Standard Deviations of Multiple Choice Test on Context Clues Standard GroupMean deviationSample size Matera s class St. Marie s class ____________________________________________________________
Discussion Results reflects a correlation between implementing technology in reading lessons and students reading levels in Mrs. Materas group. Mrs. Materas group scored higher on the multiple choice test than Mrs. St. Maries group. Found that Mrs. Materas group was more engaged in the reading lesson when technology was implemented, which had an affect in the groups reading levels. This confirms Wood and Ashfield (2008) study when they found that Interactive Whiteboards can help improve and literacy instruction. Study showed that is can accommodate the different learning styles or intelligences. It is a multimodal approach to teaching literacy (Shenton & Pagett, 2007). When using a SMART Board, it helps visual, auditory and kinesthetic learners, increases students attention, helps activate critical and problem solving skills, and encourages collaboration.
Implications Further research can be done by extending the period of the study, and using other software or online reading programs such as LearningToday.com, an online reading program that some schools use today. Further study can also be done on the effects of integrating technology in other subjects such as Math and Science, to see if it can help students retain more of the information they learn in Math and Science.
Threats to Internal Validity History Maturation Instrumentation Mortality Differential Selection of Subjects
Threats to External Validity Ecological Validity Specificity of Variables Multiple Treatments Treatment Diffusion
References (partial) American Montessori Society. (1993, November). Position Statement Key Concepts and Practices. Retrieved September 25, 2008, Web site: Baker, E.A. (2000, July). Instructional approaches used to integrate literacy and technology. Reading Online, 4(1). Retrieved September 29, 2008, from Balajthy, E. (2005, January/February). Text-to-speech software for helping struggling readers. Reading Online, 8(4). Retrieved October 30, 2008 from Basilicato, Alfred. (2005, March). Interactive Whiteboards: Assistive Technology for Every Classroom. Retrieved September 20, 2008, from Peter Li Education Group web site: Brinker, Michelle. (2005, December 9). Technology in the Classroom: Cons of technology use. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from Bromley, K. (2002, July/August). Vocabulary learning online. Reading Online, 6(1). Retrieved October 27, 2008 from Casey, J. (2001, October). Technology empowers reading and writing of young children. Reading Online, 5(3). Retrieved October 29, 2008 from Constructivism Theorists. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2008, Web site: Cradler, J., McNabb, M., Freeman, M., & Burchett, R. (2002, May). How Does Technology Influence Student Learning? Learning & Leading with Technology, 29(8), 46-49,56. Retrieved October 30, 2008, from caret.iste.org/caretadmin/news_documents/StudentLearning.pdf Department of Education, W. (2004, January 1). Toward a New Golden Age in American Education: How the Internet, the Law, and Today's Students are Revolutionizing Expectations. US Department of Education, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED484046) Retrieved October 30, 2008, from ERIC database.