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1 Improving student learning using information technologies King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
Why e-learning? because its cool because its cool to enhance the quality of teaching to enhance the quality of teaching to meet the needs of millennials to meet the needs of millennials to increase access and flexibility to increase access and flexibility to provide the skills needed in the 21 st century to provide the skills needed in the 21 st century to improve cost-effectiveness to improve cost-effectiveness Whats your reason? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 2
3 What is e-learning? (Bates, 2005) face- to-faceface- to-face no e-learning fully e-learning class- room aids mixed mode (less face-to- face + e- learning) dis- tance edu- cation distributed learning blended learning lap- top pro- grams
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 4 Making choices For any course or academic programme: Where on the continuum of e-learning should this course or programme be? If blended or hybrid learning, what should be done face-to-face and what done online?
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 5 Deciding on the role of e-learning e-learning a tool, not a panacea need to identify where it will bring most benefit depends on type of students, nature of topic Taking account of students/topics, need to design course to make best use of e-learning
Students Three technology issues regarding students: market and demographics market and demographics technology access technology access learner psychology: learning styles, motivation, experience learner psychology: learning styles, motivation, experience © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 6
Who are the students? Demographics Who is your target group? Demographics: age age gender gender location (where do they live; where will they study?) location (where do they live; where will they study?) part-time/full-time (working or not?) part-time/full-time (working or not?) © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 7
Who are the students? Technology access What technology can they access on campus? When? Line-ups? What do they own themselves? Internet access from home? How literate are they in using technology for study purposes You need this information © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 8
Who are the students? Learner psychology Dependent or independent learners? High ability or mixed ability? Motivation Preferred learning styles (listeners, talkers, watchers) Do your students need to be actively engaged to learn? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 9
Who are the students? Common learner profiles Novice undergraduates: 18-20; straight from high school; full- time; dependent learners; low subject motivation; mainly campus-based; demand high personal contact; computers as a study aid © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 10
Who are the students? Common learner profiles Mature undergraduates: 20-25; working part-time; relatively independent learners; high subject motivation; partly campus-based; confident technology users © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 11
S: Who are the students? Common learner profiles Mature graduate students: ; working full-time; independent learners; high subject motivation; mainly distance learners; heavy technology users Most courses will have a mix of students – how to cater for this diversity? Alternatives © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 12
Prior strategic decisions to be made Same students as before or reach out to new students? mandate? 100% face-to-face or blended or fully distant – or all three? What technologies to use? Who is to provide the technology for students? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 13
Knowing your students Who is the desired target group? Describe the current enrolments: demographics/technology access/learner psychology Is there a gap? Could technology delivery help? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 14
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 15 Students and the mix of teaching Identify market: Identify best delivery method: Marketf2fonline From school/undergrad Final year undergrad 70%60%30%40% Graduate: on-campus 50%50% Graduate: off-campus 10%90%
Teaching functions Link choice of technology to desired learning outcomes Choose best pedagogical approach to achieve desired outcomes Two aspects of learning outcomes: content content skills skills © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 16
T: Teaching functions Content (knowing): facts/ideas/principles/relationships/fo rmulae/problems/opinions facts/ideas/principles/relationships/fo rmulae/problems/opinions choice of media: what is best way to represent this knowledge? choice of media: what is best way to represent this knowledge? e.g. use of colour, graphics, animation e.g. use of colour, graphics, animation media excellent for moving between concrete and abstract media excellent for moving between concrete and abstract © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 17
T: Teaching functions: skills Skills (doing) comprehension/analysis/synthesis/ application/evaluation/critical thinking/collaborative learning/problem-solving comprehension/analysis/synthesis/ application/evaluation/critical thinking/collaborative learning/problem-solving choice of media: what technologies facilitate the required skills?choice of media: what technologies facilitate the required skills? e.g. social media for discussion/analysis/group work © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 18
I: Interaction Four kinds interaction: instructor – student(s)instructor – student(s) student – other student(s)student – other student(s) student – learning materialsstudent – learning materials reflection (student with himself)reflection (student with himself) Interaction = feedback + hypothesis + knowledge construction: deep learning © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 19
I: Interaction Cultural issues: will students share/collaborate/discuss/challeng e instructor? Technologies vary in the way they facilitate interaction Design is important: interaction can be built in or can evolve © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 20
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 21 What teaching roles are suitable for online learning? What is best done online? What face-to- face? transmitting information transmitting information collecting data/finding information collecting data/finding information preparation for lab work preparation for lab work designing experiments designing experiments doing experiments doing experiments discussing best ways to do things discussing best ways to do things problem solving……. problem solving…….
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 22 Group work Identify course Identify teaching activities Activityf2f online online Information transmission x Lab exp. x Lab prep x Data collection xx ……
Meeting the needs of 21 st century learners © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 23
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 24 Different economies Resource-based: agricultural, mining, fishing: land/sea-based, local Industrial: manufacturing: urban, factories, hierarchical, economies of scale, specialist skills Knowledge-based: financial, bio- technology, ICTs, telecoms, entertainment: virtual, global, networked, multi-skilled All three economies in parallel
Meeting the needs of 21 st century learners Main reason for using technology in teaching: to develop the skills needed in a knowledge-based society to develop the skills needed in a knowledge-based society not just IT literacy: embedding use of IT in teaching and learning not just IT literacy: embedding use of IT in teaching and learning also developing knowledge-based skills also developing knowledge-based skills © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 25
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 26 Skills of knowledge-based workers problem solving, critical thinking problem solving, critical thinking communication skills communication skills computing/Internet skills computing/Internet skills independent learnersindependent learners entrepreneurial, initiative entrepreneurial, initiative flexibility flexibility team-work/networking team-work/networking AS WELL AS subject expertise AS WELL AS subject expertise
How can we use information technologies to develop the skills needed by knowledge workers? © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 27
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 28 Propor- tion of courses using each type of e- learning No tech- nology Class- room aids Lap- tops in class Hybrid Fully distance 56% <1% 10%8% 24% Current proportion of different types of e- learning in North America + Europe
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 29 Current teaching models Learning management systems Commercial: Blackboard (includes WebCT) Blackboard (includes WebCT) monopoly (patent) monopoly (patent) high licensing fees high licensing fees Open source Moodle, Sakai Moodle, Sakai free (but operating costs) free (but operating costs) Teacher/institutional controlled
The transmissive model of teaching Predominant teaching model: lectures, seminars, lab classes lectures, seminars, lab classes Students study by: listening in class, reading, discussion listening in class, reading, discussion Assessment by: tests, essays, lab work tests, essays, lab work © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 30
Current, dominant teaching technologies Powerpoint/pdf Powerpoint/pdf whiteboards/projectors/screens whiteboards/projectors/screens lecture capture/clickers lecture capture/clickers learning management systems (Blackboard, Moodle) learning management systems (Blackboard, Moodle) computers/wireless on campus computers/wireless on campus Internet access on/off campus Internet access on/off campus 31
Transmission of knowledg Technology is mainly being used for transmissive model of teaching Learning management systems: instructor posts content (lecture slides, readings, urls), assignments, sets up discussion topics instructor posts content (lecture slides, readings, urls), assignments, sets up discussion topics © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 32
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 33 New technologies: user-created content: blogs, YouTube social networking: MySpace/FaceBook mobile learning: phones, MP3s virtual worlds: Second Life emerging publication: wikis, e-Portfolios multi-player games: Lord of the Rings simulations: MyPhysicsLab.com synchronous: Skype, Elluminate
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 34 What is Web 2.0? Educational implications learners have powerful tools learners have powerful tools learners create/add/adapt content learners create/add/adapt content personal learning environments personal learning environments power shift from teachers to learners power shift from teachers to learners open access, content, services open access, content, services
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 35 How to mobilise Web 2.0 in online teaching Within programmes: group work group work projects and cases projects and cases outside experts and content outside experts and content field work field work language teaching language teaching multimedia assignments/e-portfolios multimedia assignments/e-portfolios ……… ………
Examples History (web quests) History (web quests) Business management (geo positioning, Google) Business management (geo positioning, Google) Medicine Medicine Education (e-portfolios) Education (e-portfolios) © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 36
Conclusions Different students, different educational outcomes Different students, different educational outcomes New tools give learners power to create and demonstrate knowledge New tools give learners power to create and demonstrate knowledge New designs and organization of teaching needed New designs and organization of teaching needed Only limitation: our imagination Only limitation: our imagination © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 37
Thank you! © Tony Bates Associates Ltd 38
© Tony Bates Associates Ltd 1 Tecnologia para e- learning: la importancia de poner la tecnologia al servicio de la educación VIRTUAL EDUCA BILBAO 2006.
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