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1 Presented by Std-X Aakash Naik Kanav Sood Vivek Nair
D.A.V. Public School, New Panvel Presented by Std-X Aakash Naik Kanav Sood Vivek Nair Scientists are still working on the puzzle. The IPCC’s 5th Assessment Report is planned for Climate models are being improved, more data is being collected. However, the puzzle is already complete enough to know we need to take action.


3 What's climate change? Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average (e.g., more or fewer extreme weather events). Climate change may be limited to a specific region or may occur across the whole Earth

4 Why should we care? Global average temperatures are expected to increase by about 2-13°F (1-7°C) by the end of the century. That may not sound like a lot, so what’s the big deal? The problem is that small changes in global average temperature can lead to really large changes in the environment. Let’s look at some of the expected changes.

5 Causes of Climate Change

6 Natural Causes

7 Volcanic Eruptions When volcano erupts a large amount of Sulphur dioxide, Water Vapour, Dust, Ash and Aerosols are released into atmosphere which influences the climatic patterns.

8 Ocean Currents The oceans play an important role in determining the atmospheric concentration of CO2. Changes in ocean circulation may affect climate through the movement of CO2 into or out of the atmosphere.

9 Earth Orbital Changes The earth revolves around the sun with a tilted angle of 23.5°. More tilt means warmer summers and colder winters. Less tilt means cooler summers and milder winters. It leads to small but climatically important changes mainly the strength of seasons.

10 Solar Variations The SUN is the fundamental source of energy and changes in the energy outputs would cause the climate to change. Small changes over an extended period of time leads to climate change.


12 Human Causes: 1.Deforestation 2.Agriculture 3.Carbon Emissions 4.Global Warming

13 1.Deforestation Produces even more CO2
Makes way for agriculture and industries. Produces even more CO2 Contributes to global warming and climate change 1.Deforestation

14 (a major green house gas)
2.Agriculture Alters Earth’s land Changes ability to absorb/reflect light and heat Deforestation with use of fossil fuels Desertification/ Major sources of CO2 (a major green house gas)

15 3.CARBON EMISSIONS 4% from industrial processes 7% from agriculture
21% from transport 65% from use of fuel to generate energy 3% from decisions taken by individuals, like Energy used in homes Driving a car Other elements etc.

16 Effects of emissions on land...

17 2003 European Heat Wave U.K.: Train rails buckle
Germany: Lowest river levels this century France: >14,000 deaths Switzerland: Melting glaciers, avalanches [Image 1] There will always be natural variability, and some places and some years will be warmer or cooler than average. In general, however, summers will get hotter, not only because of higher temperatures but also because humidities will increase. That means that heat waves, like the one that killed 35,000 people in Europe in 2003, will become more common. [click, Image 2] On the plus side, winters will be warmer in many places, reducing heating bills. And the number of days with frosts is likely to decrease. Portugal: Forest fires 2003 European Heat Wave

18 4.Global Warming

19 Global warming is the continuing rise in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans.

20 How is it caused? Global Warming is caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, resulting from human activities such as deforestation and burning of fossil fuels.

21 The Greenhouse Effect


23 --------------------- --------------------
Tonnes of equivalent Carbon Emissions Per Capita in 2008

24 What do climate scientists really think?
[Image 1] A survey conducted in 2007 by George Mason University of U.S. scientists who have expertise in climate science (not just a scientific background) what they think. 97% of the 489 respondents agreed that “global average temperatures have increased” during the past century. That’s up from 60% in 1991. [click, Image 2] 84% believe human activities are causing the warming, and only 5% disagree. So the survey does indicate the bulk of climate scientists—those most knowledgeable about the field—now agree that human activity contributes to global warming.


26 Common Diseases

27 Cholera The bacterium thrives in warmer waters and cause diarrhoea so severe that it can kill within a week. Without improved sanitation, rising global temperature will increase deadly outbreaks. Babesiosis This malaria like disease is carried by ticks endemic in the tropics but has now cropped up everywhere. It is rare in humans and seldom deadly(treatable with antibiotics) but may become more problematic as the globe warms, providing more welcoming environments.

28 Sleeping Sickness Yellow Fever
Global warming change the distribution of the tsetse flies that carry the disease, now infecting more than 500,000 people yearly worldwide. Victims become lethargic and may suffer severe swelling of the lymph nodes. Yellow Fever Mosquitoes spread this disease, which causes fever and jaundice like symptoms, between humans and wildlife, and will likely spread into new areas as the climate changes.

29 Felt less! There are more – Tuberculosis Bird flu To name a few.....
Plague Lyme disease Ebola

30 Measures to reduce climate change:

31 Individual measures...

32 Individual measures: Unplug electronic appliances: Unplug energy suckers when not in use. Appliances use energy just by being plugged in. Recycle packaging instead of throwing away. Save gas and money by car pooling. The savings will add up and you will be helping to slow down climate change.

33 End logging in old-growth forests and support reforestation.

34 & Support Green Energy to reduce climate change.

35 norms/policies/steps...
Governmental norms/policies/steps...

36 1.Implement immediate emission reduction targets.

37 2.Initiate International Treaty Negotiations.

38 Example of one such organization working for the cause: The IPCC

39 Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC)
IPCC was jointly established by the World Meteorological Organization(WMO) and United Nations Environment Programme in 1998 Terms of reference: To asses available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. To provide scientific/technical/socio economic advice to COP to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

40 3.End industrial farming based on fertilizers, pesticides and fuel sourced from petroleum.

41 4.Upgrade the transport services at urban and regional level.

42 5.Accelerate the construction of wind farms in suitable areas.

43 Existing work and knowledge regarding the ‘change’

44 Lack of citizen understanding regarding the basics of climate science is still wanting even though knowledge has increased over time. Especially notable confusion is between causes of climate change and ozone depletion, and confusion between weather and climate.

45 Concern is widespread around the world, it may also be inversely correlated with the wealth and carbon footprint of a nation

46 Concern towards easy solutions.
People stop paying attention to global warming when they realize that there is no easy solution for it. Many people take only those problems seriously for which they think action can be taken.

47 Shattering some of the green myths that contribute to cause of climate change . . .
Studies and surveys conducted by different agencies say that . . .

48 Traditional nappies vs. use & throw nappies
Traditional nappies are as bad as disposables, a study by Environment Agency found. while throwaway nappies make up 0.1% of landfill waste, the cloth variety are a waste of energy, clean water and detergent. v/s

49 Paper bags-cause more global warming !
Paper bags cause more global warming than plastic. They need much more space to store so require extra energy to transport them from manufacturers to shops. ! or

50 Do I really produce a green-house gas ??

51 Dairy Animals-also give out METHANE !
Organic dairy cows are worse for the climate. They produce less milk so their methane emissions per liter are higher.

52 Trees – crusaders or destroyers?
Trees, regarded as shields against global warming because they absorb carbon, were found by German scientists to be major producers of methane, a much more harmful greenhouse gas.

53 Some known facts on climate change :-

54 There is a scientific consensus that human activities are very likely to affect global climate

55 Since the developing world would still like to develop, the developed world must make substantial emissions reductions. 70-80 percent of current levels must be reduced by


57 Climate change isn’t likely to affect our generation.
We need to make changes for subsequent generations.


59 Courtesy- Google Wikipedia Bing My Web Search

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