Presentation on theme: "Modular Hardware and Software Provide the Building Blocks for Creating Wideband Measurement Solutions Presented by: Scott C. Nevin R&D Software Engineer."— Presentation transcript:
1 Modular Hardware and Software Provide the Building Blocks for Creating Wideband Measurement SolutionsPresented by:Scott C. Nevin R&D Software EngineerModular Product Operation, Santa Rosa, CaliforniaI’m excited about talking to you today about fundamentally new products that I was a part of helping bring to market in the last year. In my career spanning back 16 years with Hewlett-Packard and Agilent, this is the quickest I’ve ever witnessed such a massive product roll-out. Our modular organization launched 47 new products targeting the modular product space. It was exhilarating to be a part of the team that made it happen, and we’ve enjoyed several industry awards as a result of our hard work.During this presentation I will discuss some of Agilent’s modular hardware available today that can be used to create flexible solutions which provide unique and cost effective wideband RF tools for vector signal analysis and radar test solutions.The new Agilent PXI products provide an interesting mix of high-speed measurements in small building blocks which can create highly flexible and scalable measurement solutions.This modular building block approach is strongly supported with IVI Foundation standard software interfaces and a complete software tool kit for each module.The M9392A vector signal analyzer which I helped create, is a “set” of modules with complete system control software designed to provide a solid, basic micro-wave measurement solution that works with Agilent’s industry-leading (gold-standard) vector signal analysis software.
2 Agenda What is this PXI I’m hearing about? Typical Wideband MeasurementsWideband Solution Space from a Modular PerspectiveThe Agilent Modular Value PropositionFlexible, Scalable and Upgradeable SolutionsCurrent Solutions and Modular PossibilitiesI’m going to start our discussion today with an overview of PCI and PXI and how they relate to each other.I think it is important to have a basic understanding of this key technology and how it enables high-speed data I/O.We’ll discuss some typical wideband measurements and how Agilent’s modular offerings can address these measurements. RF is not my strong-suit, I’m a software engineer, so please be gentle with me!In the A/D market in particular, modular products have taken on a new greater importance.The US Department of Defense has moved to adopt a Modular Open Systems Approach called (MOSA), this is turn is driving a greater embrace of modular solutions.Another aspect driving modular solutions is the value proposition that it brings to the table.Enables strategic upgrades and expansion as future modules hit the marketLower total cost of ownershipModular instruments should have a longer service life.I’d also like to discuss the value that Agilent brings to modular products.Standard IVI-Foundation interfaces support each module and system.We’ve made the decision to be software environment agnostic. We support the most popular modular programming languages and tools to help users quickly get up to speed programming their modules or system.In our design we have created the ability for your higher software to be designed to allow for setup and orchestration across multiple sub-systems.This makes the best use of the potential very high throughput capability of PXI/AXI modular systems.
3 PXI Chassis & Modules PXI Module 26.5GHz VSA Modules M9018A -Chassis Chassis and VSA modulesAcronym Alert – I’m going to throw a bunch of acronyms at you, but I will point out what I’d like you take away from this.So just what is PXI and why did it evolve?The What: Simply it is an extension of the data bus of the computer.Why: The data bus is the fastest communication fabric because it allows for direct memory access and transferAs an example comparing a typical 1,024 point FFT with frequency tuning, capture, DSP and data transmission to the hostOur modular VSA solution is going to take 7 milliseconds, an Agilent MXA instrument will take 10 times as long at 70 milliseconds/In 1997 the first PCI (Peripheral Component Interchange) specification was released. This early standard formed a decent foundation for instrumentation, however it lacked critical timing and synchronization features. That made it great for things like video cards, but really bad for instrumentation. It was a good first attempt.To address these short-comings, the PXI Systems Alliance added “extensions” to PCI for timing, triggering, and synchronization.These extensions to PCI became known as PXI.Here’s what you need to know:PXI and PCIe are extensions of the data bus of the computer that form a very high speed point-to-point communication fabric.The PXI standard is much more than an electrical definition; it also contains hardware, software, power and cooling requirements as well.Here’s photos of our modules for the M9392A VSA solution and our “industry-redefining” PXI M9018A chassis.The chassis has the best cooling specifications on the marketOne terrific feature is the electrical interconnects that permit ANY module format in ANY slot. No one else but Agilent can do that in an 18 slot chassis.
4 PCI/PCIe Links and Lanes Let’s dive in the attributes of PCI Express that make it so special.PCI Express in its essence a hard-wired extension of the computer’s data bus.The smallest fundamental unit on the PCIe bus is a lane. A lane has a Tx/Rx pair using voltage differential signaling as seen in figure 1The PCI Express bus is composed of links which is an aggregating unit. A link aggregates (bonds) one or more lanes together as a work unit. The common terminology is to say “by-x”, where x is the number of lanes in the link. So for example, a 8 lane link would be called a “by 8”. Links are in powers of 2, and the largest link in use right now is x16, however it can be bigger.It is important to note PCI Express is a point-to-point bus. This means a link will directly connect two modules. This is P-2-P architecture provides the high bandwidth and is terrific for modules like digitizers and scopes.The table shows versions of the PCI Express specification and their corresponding data rates and resulting theoretical data throughput.PCIe 1.0 has single lane data rate of 250MegaByte/sec after encodingPCIe 2.0, also known as PCIe Gen 2 runs at twice the rate, and can achieve up to 500MegaByte/sec per lane.PCIe Gen 3 is on the horizon…Notice that data rates shown in the table are for a single lane. So for a x8 PCI Gen 2.0 link we can expect a data bandwidth of 4 Gigabyte/second.PCI e Generation 1 is most commonly used right now.The new Agilent M9018A PXI chassis is capable of supporting Generation 2.Gen 3.0 is still emerging and is not yet seen in instrumentation applications.
5 PXI external controller interface Standard PCIe cables and components simplify external controller interconnectWhen building a PXI system the host controller is a primary consideration to make. Your choices areAn internal controller, basically PC hardware combined with a System Controller.This makes for a clean solution in that everything is housed in the PXI chassis and data stays on the chassis backplane.These tend to be expensive and less flexible.Another option is to use an external host controller such as a laptop or PC workstation.The PCIe bus allows use of standardized cables and components so that the PCI bus can be extended from a laptop or PC to the chassis.The advantage of this method is that standard PCIe hardware may be used instead of a proprietary host controller product. Pick your favorite PC brand.This route is less expensive and more flexible.There is no speed degradation with an external host.
6 Agilent M9018 Chassis backplane Here is a block diagram of our new PXI chassis showing the interconnections.Looking across the chassis the first slot (System Slot) holds the controller interface which holds the hardware to form the bridge between the computer host data bus and the chassis.The chassis then has 17 hybrid slots that can hold any format (PXI-1, cPCI, PXIe, PXI-Hybrid) of modules. This is a great feature of the M9018A chassis. Our competitors chassis’ have restrictions on the type of module that can be inserted into specified slots.One other special slot (other that the System slot) is the Timing Slot right in the middle of the chassis. If you need precision reference and star-triggers across the backplane or synchronization across multiple chassis’, this slot is where the timing module will go. The Timing Slot will accept any type of module as well if you aren’t in need of a Timing Module.PXI chassis’ have to provide a set of data switches to route signals between slots and the computer. These switches become absolutely integral in obtaining the high bandwidth data transfers. Having configurable switches makes a chassis a high flexible tool.This PXI chassis has the best switch fabric of any PXI chassis available today.The interconnections are field configurable to tweak performance between modulesThe System Slot connection is configurable as 2x8 links or 4x4 linkThe slots support either x4 or x8 PCIe links. There can be 12x4 links and 4x8 links out of the switch fabric.It stands to reason you’d want to put high speed data hungry devices like digitizers and DSP modules in the x8 slots for ultra-fast module to module communication. Notice the System Slot has 2 x8 connections.Finally the FPGA SMBus controller connects as a PCIe endpoint and provides utility communications within the chassis for reporting fan speed, internal voltages and temperatures.
7 Modular Solution Space A/D IndustryIn 2004 the US Department of Defense (DoD) announced its business and technical strategy to adopt an Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA) for developing new systems or modernizing existing ones. Here is a sample of the MOSA objectives taken from the Executive summary. The document further states that these edicts will be followed, where feasible.Adapt to evolving requirements and threatsLeverage commercial investmentReduce the development cycle time and total life-cycle costEnhance commonality and re-use of components among systemsEnhance access to cutting edge technologies and products from multiple suppliersMitigate the risks associated with technology obsolescenceMitigate the risks of a single source of supply over the life of a systemEnhance life-cycle supportabilityOne of the big drivers right now in the modular solutions market is the US DOD strategy for Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA)This slide lists a subset of the MOSA objectives which speak directly to modular solutions. The MOSA strategy wantsAdaptation to technology evolution – Achieved by being able to capitalize on new and better modulesRe-use of system components, for example a re-used LO for across generator and analyzer solutionsMitigation obsolescence risks -- New modules on the market bring better performance, so why not be able swap them into systems.Enhanced support over the life of the system – Swap out a defective module and return to factory for repair instead of returning an entire instrument.
8 Modular ValueModular hardware need to be designed from the perspective of breaking down the block diagram of an existing system.A complete VSA might become an attenuator / preselector module, a downconverter (perhaps both Rf & uW), an LO module and a Digitizer module.A serious attempt should be made to allow maximum re-use of these modules. In this way an LO designed for a VSA can be re-used in a VSGNew Technology needs to be made available in module form as soon as possible.Customers will find a way to utilize the module if it confers enough advantage over the existing technology to make it worth the effort.Incremental improvements to system modules are acceptableImproving the performance of just one module can make for a much better system.For example Improving LO phase noise in a module will improve overall VSA specsThe modular hardware brings significant value and advantages to the table over traditional box instruments.The modular paradigm is a very efficient vehicle to deliver new technology to the marketplace in a timely manner.Allows for re-use of modules in chassis’s, this really is not possible to do with a box instrument.Brings new hardware to market more rapidly because of the intrinsic nature of individual modulesSingle function or single use modules can be released on a tighter schedule than an entire instrument.Allows for incremental performance increases as new modules and technology comes to market.
9 Hardware Example – Agilent M9392A VSA M9360A Attenuator/Preselector ModuleYIG Tuned Filter Path BW 40 MHz, GHzThrough path 100 MHz-26.5 GHz70dB step attenuatorSwitches for signal routing to RF and µWave downconvertersM9302A LO ModuleSupplies LO to downconvertersSupplies 100 MHz reference to digitizer for sampling clock generationM9361A Downconverter ModuleFrequency Range = GHzIF center freq = 500 MHzIF BW = 250 MHzAux input / switch for signal routingM9351A Downconverter ModuleFrequency Range = 100 MHz to 2.9 GHzIF center freq = 500 MHzIF BW = 40 MHzM9202A Digitizer / Digital IF Module12 bit resolution2 GS/s max sample rate1 GHz max BWHardware digital downconversionHigh speed data uploadHere is a block diagram of our new M9392A VSA set of modules.We have essentially taken a VSA block diagram and broken it down to a logical set of modules.In this case there are 5 modules.Front end attenuation, band switching and a preselector YIG filter. Our modular YIG filter performance is not on par with equivalent Agilent box instrument analyzers.An LO module – Has very similar performance specifications compared to an MXA in the fundamental band below 10 GHz.Two band specific downconvertersAnd a high performance 2 GSample/second IF digitizerIn terms of performance this analyzer offers a full 250 MHz measurement bandwidth in the microwave downconverter path.The M9392A is THE first modular microwave VSA in the PXI market.Widest bandwidth of any standard VSA on the market, a PXA is only 140 MHz by comparison.
10 M9392A µW VSAThis slide shows our PXI VSA modular solution which can be configured to make measurements up to 250 MHz bandwidth.In this example here is a screen shot of the software displaying a full 250 MHz radar chirpNotice how much space the VSA instrument takes up in the chassis - 8 PXI slots (less the system controller)In our chassis you would still have 9 slots available for other modules.Why 5 modules but using 8 slots? This is generally due to size constraints of the electronics, power consumption needing more power that is available in one slot, or for cooling issues.
11 Agilent Modular Products -- Building Blocks for Creating Flexible Wideband Measurement Solutions The new Agilent PXI Modular products really provide the building blocks for creating highly flexible and scalable measurement solutions.In this system example, actually our demo system, we’ve shown you can build on the M9392 VSA to create a new system.We’ve added a modular uWave switch card running into a “contrived device”, in this case a 1:4 power splitterThen into our modular quad-channel down converterWe’ve added a dual coherent channel digitizing scope.The Quad downconverter provides 4 IF outputsOne output is brought up into the M9392A’s auxiliary input of the microwave downconverter. This can be routed directly into our M9202A, a 12-bit 2 Gsample/second digitizer.The Auxiliary IF is well suited for high dynamic range measurements.We can run the M9392A in “digitizer only mode” and use the full 800 MHz of BW of the digitizer.Two more channels from the Quad Down converter are pulled into our dual channel M9210A 10-bit 4 Gsample/s digitizing scope.As an example of the scalability of modular solutions, 1, 2 or 3 M9210As can be used together in a master-slave configuration for between 2 and 6 coherent channels each having a BW of 800 MHz.I want to emphasize here that using the VSA software support in ‘digitizer mode’ allows virtually any viable set of hardware can act as a front-end to the digitizer.In addition we can see the scalability of modular hardware in that modules can be eliminated, or bypassed, or added to the system to create more flexible solutions.
12 M9392A / M9362A-D01 Combined Hardware M9155CSwitchM9362A-D01 DownconverterM9210A Digitizing ScopeThis slide shows the modules from the previous slide in our PXI chassis.The combined hardware takes up 15 slots; including PXI system interface module.Adding a quad channel attenuator and a quad IF conditioning cards to this solution you could haveA 4 channel synchronous microwave wideband receiver plus a high-performance single channel microwave VSA all in one 18 slot PXI chassis.Just to reiterate some key highlights of this solutionUsing our M9210 digitizers, each of these quad down-converted channels is coherent and synchronized to within 1 sample.The useable measurement bandwidth can be up to 800 MHz on each channel.A key value of the M9392A is that it supports a full “VSA instrument” mode or a “digitizer only” mode.The digitizer only mode enables custom solutions, allowing users to have any set of viable hardware in front of the digitizer.The M9202A digitizer going to expect 1V full scale at its input optimized for an IF frequency around 500 MHzIn this diagram we can see benefits of this system designNarrow band signals below 250 MHz BW can use the M9392A modulesWideband signals over 250 MHz can bypass the M9392A downconverters by using microwave switches.Routed signal can then feed the M9362A-D01 quad downconverter.The output of the quad downconverter can then feed sample synchronous multi-channel digitizing scopes.Our demo system highlights routing an 800 MHz wideband radar chirp through the quad-downconverter to digitizers where the VSA software is used to analyze and display the signal.
13 Typical Wideband Measurements Parametric MeasurementsRadarPulse rise time, fall time, overshoot, droop, PRIUnintended AM and PM, phase noise, pulse-to-pulse amplitude and stabilityCommunicationsLO feed through, IQ imbalanceUnintended AM and PM, phase noise, frequency error, phase errorACPR, sensitivity, SNRModulationChirp, Barker coding and frequency hopping, multichannelEVM, throughput, channel characterization, MIMO, beam steeringWideband measurements have many of the same measurement requirements as their narrower band equivalents.EVM is still EVM, and so onHowever, when measuring a wideband waveform we have reduced dynamic range because the noise bandwidth increases with 10 log (BW).At 10 MHz BW our noise floor is about negative 114 dBm, however at 1GHz BW the noise floor rises to negative 84 dBmMeasuring low level signals with a wideband receiver has limitations and wideband solutions must be very careful to optimize the dynamic range of measurements.Calibration becomes very important to optimize the input level in to the digitizer and remove impairments like IF flatness and IQ imbalance.Wideband measurements are almost always made using high-speed digitizers which in turn have noise problems leading to spur growth.These spurs are significantly higher than the noise floor indicated by the measurement bandwidth.For a 2 G Sa/s digitizer a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of negative 60 dB would be a good figure, but negative 50 dB is more typically seen.For many applications this is not necessarily a very serious problem because narrow band signals have a low energy contribution in relation to an FFT bucket width.In areas where we are using very large FFT’s in the digitizer or we are trying to measure spurs then wideband digitizers have a serious performance limitation.Our modular solutions have the ability through “hinting” to shift the IF to dodge spurs.Another aspect to think about when making wideband measurements is the capture time.With 8 bit samples, sample rate of 100 M Sa/s and 1 second capture would require 100 MB of memory, a 40 G Sa/s digitizing scope would require 40 GB. This is problematic!Real-time throughput and streaming rates lag behind what is theoretically possible with the very high sample rates of today’s digitizers.To get around this moving data from digitizers back to the host computer is almost done exclusively with decimated data.
14 Generation of Typical Wideband Measurements Signal SimulationDesigning WaveformsWhen creating waveforms for the Agilent M9330A 1.25G Sa/s 15bit QARB a broad set of applications are used. These include Signal Studio, Agilent SystemVue and MATLAB. Each having its own benefits.Wideband RF MeasurementsUp-converting baseband IQ waveformsThe Agilent M9330A QARB is limited to generating a waveform at a bandwidth within its Nyquist sample rate.Upconverting radar waveforms to microwave carriers can be accomplished using the Agilent PSG (E8267D) and Option 016 – which adds wideband IQ InputsThis leads us to how to create wideband test signals, there are a number of software applications that can be used to create test signals for simulation.In the A/D industry there is a strong bias towards MATLAB.MATLAB enables a customizable approach to waveform generation, channel simulation and analysis.It is extremely flexible but requires extensive domain knowledge to implement.Agilent’s SystemVue application is a signal simulation environment that provides many convenient tools for the creation and analysis of complex measurement systems.This application allows relatively easy creation of complex waveforms and analysis that supports most Agilent’s instrumentation.The required mathematical domain knowledge is lower compared with MATLAB.Another strength of SystemVue is the extensive radar modeling library that can be leveraged.So once you have a signal of interest, the question is how to modulate it at a carrier frequency?The Modular M9330A QARB can only generate baseband IQCurrently we have no modular way to up-convert baseband IQ.As in our demo system Agilent’s PSG with the IQ Modulator Option can be leveraged to modulate the IQ at the desired carrier frequency.
15 Wideband System Configuration This slide shows the hardware and software components typically needed to create a wideband radar solution.For signal generation this would includeSystemVue with Radar Model Library which can create either idealized or channel impaired waveformsOptionally MatLab can be used to create customized waveforms.The M9330A (QARB) Arbitrary baseband waveform generatorAgilent PSG with Option 016 for wideband IQ up-conversion modulates the IQ at the desired microwave carrier frequencySome small piece of automation software can then be used to drive the QARB and PSG as a set.For signal analysis a system may includeThe M9392A uWave VSA can be used for single channel measurements below 250 MHz of bandwidth.Above 250 MHz bandwidth the M9392A can be used in “digitizer only”The VSA Software is designed to run with the M9392A solution, so you can “enjoy” the same measurement science used in Agilent’s box solutions.The software is the “industry leader” – No other competitor can touch this product for measurement science, and often others use it to verify their products. It is like a gold-standard.For multi-channel measurements and bandwidths up to 800 MHz theM9362A Quad channel downconverter can be used in front of one or more M9210A digitizing dual-channel scopes.
16 Wideband Modular Solution Space Industry trends in general predicts movement of some business from “traditional box” instruments to modularParticularly acute for manufacturing test systemsHigh Speed - modules are an extension of the pc backplaneInherent Upgrade OpportunitiesMeans longer useful service life since single modules upgrades can match test requirements.Reduced cost of ownership since complete system does not need to be replaced.Flexibility - Multi-vendor mix match capability and system re-configurabilityReplace Rack & Stack – reduced footprintAgilent modular products can directly leverage our industry leading measurement science (89601 VSA SW for example) – this measurement capability is severely lacking in competitive modular solutions.I just want to take a minute to reiterate the value of modular solutions especially for wideband solutionsWe’ve stated that the PXI chassis is really an extension of the pc backplane.This enables the high-speed transfer of large volumes of data between the host computer and the modular hardware.Transfer speeds are much faster than all but the most expensive box-instrument equivalents.This is hugely beneficial for wide-band measurements where large data captures and signal waveforms predominateThe future will offer insight into this, but modular products have a potential for longer useful service lifeThis is primarily due to the ability to swap out or replace modules to match new test requirements in the futureThis also acts as a lever to lower the total cost of ownershipSmall footprint and very high potential throughput are major attractors for manufacturing test systems developers.In summary we believe that modular products are a very attractive proposition for customers needing lower cost, high throughput, and small footprint test systems.Add to this Agilent’s renowned measurement science in the VSA software and it is clear that modular users now have access to test capability that was previously only available to customers of box-instruments products.
17 Modular Value (A Software Perspective) Modular systems use a defined software standard for instrument control and can provide support for multiple programming environments.IVI-COM and IVI-CLabVIEW, MATLAB, .NET, and C++ leverage the IVIModular systems should provide a consistent look and feel across all modules or defined modular systemsEach module has a software front panel control for manual setup and diagnostic supportA test developer experienced on one set of modules already has the software programming skill to move to another set of modulesA modular system should allow for the coordination and control of multiple sub-systemsA modular system should allow the overlap of setup and acquisition of different instruments or sub-systems to minimize test timesLet’s now move on to the software value perspective…The software for our modular products is designed around the IVI Foundation standards.We made a conscience decision as an entire organization within Agilent to use common tools, practices, and architectureInternally this is known as the Common Customer ExperienceThis should enable our customers to move across our PXI and AXI portfolio of products and have a common understanding how they work.The IVI interfaces in the modular products are not afterthoughts but designed in. We use them internally. We haven’t had this in our box instruments, the IVI tended to be difficult to use because they were bolt ons.All our software front panels use the IVI-COM drivers exclusively.We provide working example programs across a number of different languages (.NET, LabVIEW, MATLAB)This allow users to begin making measurements from day one. In addition all the examples AND the soft front panels work in Simulation mode without hardware.The PXI platform is attractive to many because the measurement data throughput is very high.Since the speed is of the essence our software architecture is designed to allow for overlapping of setup and acquisition across different instruments or sub-systems.This allows the test engineer to optimize test times by interleaving configuration, settling and acquisition.
18 Typical Module Software Structure Interactive InterfaceProgramming InterfacesModuleSoft FrontPanelsMATLABVisual Studio(VB, C#, C++)VEELabVIEWLabWindows/ CVIMATLABDriverLabVIEWDriverIVI-COM and IVI-C DriversM9360A.dllAgilent I/O Libraries (AgVisa32.dll) Release 16This diagram shows the software layers for a typical PXI module from Agilent Technologies.Working from the bottom is the VISA interface (Agilent I/O libraries).Release 16 of Agilent I/O libraries, introduced in November of 2010, adds support for the PCI Express interface used in the PXIe and AXIe standards.In addition to the VISA I/O functionality, Agilent I/O libraries also supports DMA transfers, allowing the highest possible data rates on the PCI Express interface.The I/O layer is a challenge of modular instruments. Many vendors have their own version of I/O or VISA libraries designed to work specifically with their own modules. Agilent I/O libraries circumvents this problem by supporting a primary and secondary VISA provider.When Agilent I/O libraries are installed, there are actually two libraries loaded. Visa32 is the “generic” VISA interface. Most vendors will only install this file and it may contain vendor specific extensions to the VISA standard. We install an AgilentVisa32 which has the module specific extensions for Agilent modules.The next layer in the software model is a “fundamental” library. This library assembly will contain the specific control functionality for the module and will interface with the I/O layer in the most efficient manner.This layer is not intended to be a public interface for test system developers to use.The public interfaces to the modules are in the IVI-COM and IVI-C layers.All Agilent modules all use IVI compliant drivers. Both IVI-C and IVI-COM drivers are provided for each module.In addition to the IVI drivers, specific drivers are also included for National Instruments LabVIEW and Math Works MATLAB which talk through the IVI-layerThis collection of drivers provides the test system developer the greatest flexibility to create their test system in all of the popular Windows - based application development environments.
19 Typical Module Programming API This slide shows the API help for a typical module.There are interfaces to setup the module, perform any measurements and capture data from the modulePlus a standard set of interfaces for status and self-test of the module.
20 Typical Module Soft Front Panel Soft Front Panels for Agilent’s Modular products are patterned using common tools. Our aim is to provide a common look at feel across the product lines.Really geared toward out of the box testing… Is it working?Each soft front panel can run in “simulation mode” without hardware which makes it possible to see executed commands without needing hardware!A really cool feature in our Soft Front Panels is IVI command capture. This allows you to configure and make measurements, then look at the IVI commands that were executed to perform those steps. This even works in simulation mode without hardware!Again I want to point out here that all of the application layer software generated by Agilent, such as the module soft front panel, use the same public interfaces made available to the customer through the IVI drivers.This helps insure that these interfaces are fully developed and tested.
21 M9392A Vector Signal Analyzer SW Overview Interactive InterfacesProgramming InterfacesM9392ASoft FrontPanel89601AVSAProgramMATLABVisual Studio(VB.Net, C#, C/C++)VEELabVIEWLabWindows/ CVIMATLABDriverLabVIEWDriverIVI-COM and IVI-C DriversVSA “Instrument” LibraryM9392A.dllM9202A.dllM9302A.dllM9360A.dllM9361A.dllM9351A.dllThe M9392A signal analyzer is made up of 5 PXI modulesEach of these modules has its own fundamental driver, and IVI-COM/C interface and soft front panel.It would be entirely possible for a test system developer to create a test system using these interfaces.We have provided a “System” IVI-COM/C interface that treats the modules in aggregate as a system.The benefit is that the end-user doesn’t need to worry about system details like;Whether high side or low side mixing should usedAnd balancing the gain through the receiver.These details are handled in a fundamental “instrument” assembly that sits under the IVI-COM/C layer. This layer handles;Configuration issuesSetting paths and attenuator values based on frequency and powerIntegrating user fixture loss information and calibration data into resultsOptimizing the front-end signal to the digitizerA test system developer would, and should, expect the vendor supplied software to handle these issues.Agilent I/O Libraries (AgVisa32.dll) Release 16
22 89600A VSA Measuring 800 MHz Radar Chirp M9392A User InterfacesThere are two paths you can take as far as user interfaces into the M9392A system.The M9392A VSA ships with a “soft front panel” that allows you to acquire and display spectrum and FFT information.The second and more powerful path is to use the 89600A series VSA software which can directly control the M9392A system just like a traditional instrument.The VSA software program is a very well accepted modulation analysis program that supports a wide variety of Agilent instruments, including spectrum analyzers, oscilloscopes and logic analyzers.Adding support to the directly addresses one of the key issues with modular instruments, that is having industry accepted measurement software available for the modular instruments.Having a common measurement software platform is key to reduce product development times by providing superior correlation from design, through product development and into production test.An interesting function of the M9392A soft front panel is a mechanism for saving hardware configurations “by name” of the modules into the IVI Configuration store.These could include a complete system, covering from 50 MHz to 26.5 GHzA microwave only system covering from 2.9 GHz to 26.5 GHzOr a simple configuration that just consists of the IF digitizer (Digitizer Only).These configurations are useful in identifying groups of modules as “system-variants” AND it allows the M9392A software to be used with customer supplied downconverting hardware.By saving different named configurations, the user can easily switch between hardware setups while still using the same software.The VSA software uses these configurations saved in the IVI configuration store to connect to the M9392A hardware and uses the IVI-COM driver to control the hardware.M9392ASoft Front Panel89600A VSA Measuring 800 MHz Radar Chirp
23 89600 VSA Software Automation 89600A (v12.0):COM API89600B (v13.0):Backwards-compatible COM APICompatible with v12.0 onlyException: LTE v13.0 onlySCPI programming ( v13.0).NET programming interfaceNew macro languagesC # and Visual Basic.NETInternal editor or Visual StudioThe M9392 Soft Front Panel and VSA software provide powerful user interface for the M9392A VSA, BUT equally important to the test system developer is a programming interface.The test system developer has two basic options that can be used for writing software to drive the M9392A modular solution.The first option is to use the automation interface of the VSA software. The 89600A software supports a COM interface which can be used from a variety of programming environments.This is a key value for users of the M9392A as it allows them to reuse automation code that was developed for other Agilent instruments.The 89600B software, introduced in October 2010, adds a SCPI and .NET interface providing additional options to automate the software and the instruments controlled by this software.The second option is to use your favorite development language like one of the .NET variants, C, LabWindows, or LabView, etc.
24 Basic Control Sequence Set settingsInitiate HW Changes3) Wait for Initiate CompleteFrequencyPowerInitiateAcq TimeInitiate CompleteM9392AM9392ASetup DUT and other HWBWM9392ATriggerDigitizerLOAttn/PreDownconvertersDigitizerLOAttn/PreDownconvertersThe M9392A VSA Software has been designed with test system developers in mind.Our architecture supports a key requirement that system setup and data acquisition can overlap across multiple modules or sets of modules to minimize test time throughput.Using the M9392A you can configure measurement settings then initiate those changes against hardwareThe hardware reconfiguration of switches, filters and tuning settles is performed in background threadingIn parallel test developers can setup devices under test or other measurement hardware.Then there is blocking call to “wait for initiate to complete” at which point the M9392A is ready to acquire data.
25 Basic Control Sequence 4)Arm5) Get Data32 bit complex pairsArmGet DataWait for DUT and other HWM9392ATrigger happens, Data is acquiredM9392A.Cal and post processDigitizerDigitizerAfter the Initiate complete has signaled that hardware is reconfigured, the Arm command is sent to the Digitizer.Data acquisition will commence as soon as the triggering event has occurred. This could be an immediate acquisition or a triggered signal.Once the Digitizer has acquired data, a Get Data command can be executed to pull the 32-bit complex IQ pairs or spectrum data from the digitizer.
26 Advanced Control Sequence for ATE SettingsInitiate()Actual sample rate, BW, and number of Samples availableWait for Initiate Complete()Abort()ARM()Wait for Data Available()If no settings changedThis diagram shows the complete sequence as it would likely be used in an ATE system.Some things that should be noted from this diagram.After initiate is called you have information about the number of samples that will be returned. You can allocate storage space in parallel with the hardware changes.If the same measurement settings are repeated, a tight loop from just the ARM to the Get Data can be used.If the data does not become available due to a timeout, the abort method can be used to gracefully exit the measurement loop.Get Data()
27 Modular Value – In Summary Physical measurementSignal Conditioning and Data ConversionDigital Signal ProcessingComplex measurement systems softwareInsightFunctional equivalent of instruments in Modular formModulesPerformanceTime to MarketTechnology & ServicesSpeedReliabilityCostComponents / Sub-systemsAgilent LabsBreakthrough TechnologyPerformanceAlgorithms / DevicesInstrumentsOptimized Performance3- 5 YearsAgilent Measurement Science is recognized as the best in the business and now it is available on the PXI and AXIe platforms.The modular design makes it relatively easy, when compared to instruments, to bring new technology into modular form factor.The Modular hardware paradigm makes a great vehicle for new technology introductions so that we can bring new hardware out of Agilent Labs to market more quickly that box instruments.
28 Solutions and Possibilities Current SolutionsMicrowave VSA and other useful system modulesM9392AM9392A + M9155C µW switch + M9362A-D01 + M9210AModular PossibilitiesThis modular strategy is very attractive to system integrators who can now make far more flexible, cost effective systems for their clientsWith enough of the right component modules we can create solutions to suit any marketLast fall Agilent introduced an astounding 47 new modular products for PXI and AXIe platforms.The current intent of the modular format effort within Agilent is to be able to make functional equivalents of many “box” instruments.Combined with our measurement science investment, Agilent is bringing something new and very attractive to the modular PXI/AXIe market space.In modular, Agilent has found a vehicle that makes it much easier to bring new technology to the market place in the fastest way possible.Our modular offerings become the building blocks on which we or customers can create new solutions for virtually any market.
29 Flexible, Scalable and Upgradeable Solutions Being able to serve multiple needs and is easily reconfigurableAgilent VSA software can exist as a Digitizer onlyMuch of the VSA hardware could be leveraged into a VNA productScalableBeing able to coordinate multiple instances of a measurement or sub-systemThe Agilent M9210A digitizers can be synchronized in to within one sample by using the concept of an ASBus. The ASBus connects the ADC sample clocks across multiple modules via a simple front panel adaptorUpgradeableBeing able to easily improve functionality or performance by replacing discrete modular components [includes customizable FPGA]Improving system performance by replacing individual modulesFrom previous slides the concept of upgradeability should be obvious by now.Just to reiterate the concepts of scaling and flexibility…The Agilent M9210A dual channel 2/4G Sa/s PXI digitizer offers scalability in its ability to synchronize up to three M9210A digitizers to a single sample clock.We can achieve tight synchronization accurate to within 1 sample at 2 or 4 GHz sample rate.Our M9362A Quad downconverter is an effective single module that can provide multi-channel down-conversion into the synchronized digitizers.1 x M9362A-D01 and 2 x M9210A’s yields four synchronized channels
30 In SummaryModular products provide an level of flexibility and an upgrade path that traditional box instruments typically cannot approachMany manufacturing customers are migrating to modular-style instruments for improvements in speed and the reduced footprint.Other customers are migrating because to them Modular just makes more sense (The DoD’s move to MOSA being a case in point)It is likely that Modular products will have a longer useful service life because individual modules can be upgraded to improve system performance over the service life of the instrument.If the Modular paradigm is proving attractive on these grounds alone, then it must seem more compelling still as Agilent brings it’s industry recognized Measurement science over to its modular productsSo in summary let me emphasize some of the major themes from this presentationModular solutions are flexible and provide the ability to create systems that can evolve as new technology hits the street.This should lead to a longer service life of the equipment and a lower total cost of ownershipThere is a migration afoot into modular instruments because of the ability to get 10x speed improvements due to the communication fabric offered by PXI.In addition there is an attractiveness to the smaller footprintFinally Agilent has a decade of investment into our M89600 VSA software that brings our “industry leading” measurement science to bear on our modular products in a way that our competitors just can’t match.
31 Grazie! Merci! Thank you! Questions? This demo will take around 20 minutes to run.Our intention will be to use the M9360A QARB to create a wideband waveform that will be up-converted in the PSG signal generator [Option # 016].Option 1:The PSG RF output will be connected to the M9392A VSA where a 250 MHz Radar pulse will be analyzed using [10 minutes].Option2:The PSG RF output will be connected to the M9362A-D01 quad downconverter connected to an M9202A digitizer where a 800 MHz Radar pulse will be analyzed using the VSA. The VSA software supports a digitizer only mode that allows any viable hardware to be placed in front of the digitizer. It will however be contingent on the user to provide the appropriate 1 volt full scale input into the M9202A digitizer. [10 minutes].Option3:The PSG RF output will be connected to the M9362A-D01 quad downconverter connected to an M9202A digitizer where a 800 MHz Radar pulse will be analyzed on 2 channels by some especially written LabVIEW software. [10 minutes].Visual Studio ® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Windows® is a U.S. registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.