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Presentation on theme: "RADIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PURDUE UNIVERSITY Laser Safety Retraining Updated: 09/2012."— Presentation transcript:


2 Laser Safety Program When using a Class 3B or Class 4 laser, potential hazards from the direct beam exist to the eye and skin. Purdue Executive Memorandum D-2 mandates the use of Class 3B and Class 4 lasers to be compliant with the Purdue Laser Safety Program. Purdue Executive Memorandum D-2 Each laser project must complete the necessary paperwork, meet the training requirements, and be evaluated by the Purdue LSO (Laser Safety Officer)

3 Laser Classifications Class 1, 1M, 2, 2M, and 3R: low to lower-medium powered lasers that will not produce eye/skin injury under manufacturer-intended use, and if not intentionally focused on the eye. Lasers with one of these classifications are exempt from the laser registration requirements of Purdue University. Note: Class 3R was formerly known as Class 3a. If ANY laser is modified (e.g. power, focusing, etc.), regardless of its initial classification, the LSO will need to perform an analysis to determine classification.

4 Laser Classifications (contd) Class 3B (medium power): viewing hazard under direct or specular reflection conditions, normally not a diffuse reflection or fire hazard Class 4 (high power): Hazard to eye or skin from the direct beam, and May be a diffuse reflection or fire hazard May also be a source of laser generated air contaminants (LGACs) and hazardous plasma radiation. Laser classifications are now only reported in Arabic Numerals; Roman Numerals are no longer accepted.

5 Required Paperwork Each project must submit the following forms to the LSO Form LU-1: F or laser project (must include SOPs) Form LU-1 Form LF-1: For each facility used Form LF-1 Form LS-1: For each Class 3B and 4 laser (note: a laser cannot be approved for multiple laser projects) Form LS-1 Form LU-2: Must be completed by the LPI (Laser Principal Investigator) and all unrestricted personnel Form LU-2 These forms can be sent through campus mail to: Jerry Gibbs/REM/CIVL It is necessary for the LSO to review the paperwork prior to the required LSO site evaluation.

6 Required Training All Restricted and Unrestricted Users on laser projects must complete Purdues Online Laser Safety Training. The LPI is not exempt. Initial Training is 3-part step: Successful completion of the Online Training Attendance of the Classroom Training, unless you are a Restricted User Laser-specific training provided by LPI or Unrestricted User on project. Retraining (at 2-year intervals) must be completed by all Restricted and Unrestricted Users, and is completed online.

7 Laser Safety Program Personnel Restricted User: work with a Class 3B or 4 laser only under direct physical supervision of their Laser Principal Investigator or an Authorized Unrestricted User, or do not operate the laser, but work within the Nominal Hazard Zone (as defined by the Laser Safety Officer) of a Class 3B or 4 laser while the laser is in operation. Unrestricted User: Has been approved by the LSO and the LPI to use the laser without supervision Can supervise Restricted Users

8 Laser Safety Program Personnel LPI (Laser Principal Investigatory) manages their own project, once it has been approved by the Purdue LSO. Must qualify as an Unrestricted User, and be a full-time permanent Purdue faculty/staff member (e.g. cannot be a Post-Doc, Visiting Professor, etc.), and submit all required paperwork to the Purdue LSO. There can be only 1 (one) LPI for a laser. Many projects have multiple faculty members as Unrestricted Users under the LPI. Laser Safety Program is managed by the Purdue LSO Currently the LSO is Mary Handy, but will always be someone in REM (Radiological and Environmental Management) Laser Safety Program is overseen by the Purdue LSC (Laser Safety Committee). This committee is made up of representatives, mostly LPIs and safety personnel, from multiple departments

9 Personnel Requirements Laser Principal Investigator (LPI) Issue appropriate instruction and training materials on laser hazards and their control to all personnel who may work with lasers that are operated within supervisors jurisdiction. Not permit the operation of a laser unless there is adequate control of laser hazards to employees, visitors, and the general public. Ensure all individuals working have submitted a completed LU-2 form, including LPI Ensure LU-1 (that must be submitted to LSO) has all authorized individuals listed. Subsequent users may be listed with all required information either as an LU-1 addendum, or by written documentation to LSO.

10 Personnel Requirements Laser Principal Investigator (LPI) – contd For any known or suspected accident relating to a laser under his/her authority, enact appropriate response plan, which includes notification of the LSO. If necessary, assist in obtaining appropriate medical attention for any employee involved in a laser accident. Not permit operation of a new or modified Class 3B or Class 4 laser under his/her authority without LSO approval. Shall submit plans for Class 3B and Class 4 laser installations/modifications of installations to the LSO for review. Shall be familiar with the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for each Class 3B and Class 4 laser under his/her authority, and ensure that that they are provided to all users of such lasers.

11 Personnel Requirements Employees working with lasers Not energize or work with or near a laser unless authorized to do so by the lasers supervisor. Comply with Purdue University Laser Safety Guidelines, LSO and LPI safety rules and procedures. Inform his/her LPI of any known or suspected accident involving a laser under their LPIs jurisdiction. If the LPI is not available, notify the LSO.

12 Laser Safety Regulations OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act – Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations) ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Z136.1 – American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers – NOT a regulation, BUT: OSHA will use General Duty Clause, citing the ANSI Z136 standard. If you do not have a copy of your own ANSI Z136, you may come to the LSOs office and read the copy that is kept there.

13 Stuff You Need to Know What lasers have the LSO and LPI approved you to use? Have you been trained on how to use your lasers by the LPI, or another Unrestricted User on the your project? Where are your SOPs located? Are you following the SOPs? Are you having laser service personnel contact LSO prior to service on the laser(s)? Do you have records maintained (e.g. project personnel, training records, etc.)? Do you know what type of eyewear to use with each laser? Are the keys in the key control, or computer access code ONLY available to Unrestricted Users on the project? (e.g. keys are not left in key control on laser when not being directly supervised by an Unrestricted User)

14 Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits are below known hazardous levels. Exposures at the MPE limit may be uncomfortable. The LSO calculates the MPE limit for each Class 3B and Class 4 laser, upon receipt of the Form LS-1.Form LS-1

15 Mechanisms of Eye Injury A laser can produce a beam injury to the eye through these 3 mechanisms: Thermal Potential effects: charring, edema, hemorrhage Photochemical (blue light and UV) Potential effects: production of toxins and biochemical changes which may cause inflammation, lesions and lens opacities Photoacoustic (short intense pulses) Potential effects: explosive forces due to expanding gases This is why we are required to always wear appropriate eyewear for Class 3B and Class 4 lasers, if we are in the NHZ (Nominal Hazard Zone) when the laser is in operation.

16 Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength TARGET: Cornea Far IR (IRC): 3000 nm – 1 mm Mid IR (IRB): 1400 nm – 3000 nm Mid UV (UVB): 280 nm – 315 nm Far UV (UVC): 100 nm – 280 nm EFFECT: Mid IR and Far IR: Thermal Mid UV and Far UV: Acute inflammation and conjunctivitis, fluorescence of lens, corneal and lenticular opacities (clouding) cataractogenesis (peaks at 300 nm)

17 Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength TARGET: Retina Near IR (IRA) : 700 nm – 1400 nm Visible Light: 400 nm – 700 nm EFFECT: Thermal burns, hemorrhage, scotoma (blind spot), photoretinitis (blue light damage)

18 Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength TARGET: Lens Near UV (UVA): 315 nm – 400 nm EFFECT: Development of cataracts

19 Special Considerations for Ocular Exposures Lower MPE limits may be required when normal protective mechanisms such as eye movement and pupil constriction are hindered. Inform your LPI if you think that you have a condition that may impact your susceptibility to the laser beam. LPI For example, individuals who have had pupil dilation performed will not have the natural defenses of the constricting iris which could limit that amount of radiation entering their eye. Also, advanced age of an individual may reduce the ability of the iris to contract.

20 Mechanisms of Dermal Injury A laser can produce a beam injury to the skin through these 2 mechanisms: 1. Thermal (from direct beam or specular reflection) for Near UV, Visible, and IR wavelengths Potential effects: mild reddening (erythema) to blistering Severity is dependent upon exposure dose rate, exposure dose, and conduction of heat away from the site of absorption

21 Mechanisms of Dermal Injury A laser can produce a beam injury to the skin through these 2 mechanisms: 2. Photochemical (from scatter of beam, specular or diffuse reflection) for Mid UV and Far UV wavelengths Potential effects: erythema to blistering, possibly carcinogenic Effects are dependent upon wavelength and exposure dose

22 Specular (Mirror-Like) Diffuse Reflected wavelength is near same shape and intensity as direct beam Occurs when wavelength of laser beam is greater than the irregularities of the surface the beam hits Reflected wavelength is blurred and weaker than direct beam Occurs when wavelength of laser beam is smaller than the irregularities of the surface the beam hits Specular vs. Diffuse Reflection

23 Important Notes Regarding Reflections Avoid having objects that may produce a specular reflection in or near laser beam (e.g. jewelry, tools, computer screens, etc.), unless deliberately used as part of laser system (e.g. mirrors) Surfaces that appear dull and pitted to our eyes may be a specular surface to beams of larger wavelengths

24 Non-Beam Hazards Include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as human use issues. May occur when: material is exposed to a laser beam. laser-related materials are released into the atmosphere. Individuals contact system components. Note: the beam does not have to be on for there to be a non- beam hazard. Written SOPs shall address non-beam hazards, as well as beam hazards.

25 Non-Beam Hazards: Physical Agents Electrical Hazards Collateral and Plasma Radiation Fire Hazards Explosion Hazards Mechanical Hazards Associated with Robotics Noise If you need a review regarding the contributing factors and effects, please review the Initial Laser Training for Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers.

26 Non-Beam Hazards: Chemical Agents Laser Generated Air Contaminants (LGACs) Compressed Gases Laser Dyes and Solvents Assist Gases If you need a review regarding the contributing factors and effects, please review the Initial Laser Training for Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers.

27 Non-Beam Hazards: Chemical Agents (contd) Control Measures: Engineering controls preferred Exhaust Ventilation avoid recirculation of LGACs. use enclosing hoods, if possible. Respiratory Protection for brief exposures or interim control measure. If used, must comply with 29 CFR (OSHA), and Purdue Respiratory Protection Plan. Process Isolation physical barriers, master-slave manipulators, or remote control apparatus. certain applications (e.g. biomedical applications) require disinfection/sterilization of equipment after use. Sensors and Alarms Shall be installed in hazardous gas cabinets and other locations as appropriate (including exhaust ventilation ducts). Should be used for toxic and corrosive chemical agents (e.g. halogens), and be able to detect the hazardous gas in a mixture of emitted gases. Must be properly shielded to minimize susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI).

28 Non-Beam Hazards: Biological Agents LGACs: may be generated when a high-powered lasers interacts with biological tissue. Infectious Materials: may survive beam irradiation and become airborne. Consult ANSI Z136.3, Appendix F.

29 Non-Beam Hazards: Human Factors Ergonomics (e.g. workstation layout, worker-machine interface, handling techniques, area illumination, visual distractions) Limited Work Space: There must be sufficient room for personnel to turn around an maneuver freely, without trip/fall hazards (e.g. wires or cables on floor). Work Patterns: Unusual or long hours may affect worker alertness. Disposal (i.e. donation, remove all means of activation and disposed, destruction) Laser Waste Disposal: waste disposal shall conform with Purdue University disposal requirements (see REMs Hazardous Material Management webpage)REMs Hazardous Material Management webpage

30 Chillers May be employed to reduce heat load produced by lasers. Chiller types: conductivity-cooled, air-cooled, or cooled with a closed loop chiller. If using chilled water, filter the incoming water to ensure that minerals and particulate matter are removed to minimize damage to equipment.

31 General Project Rules Use minimum laser radiation required for the application. Maintain beam height at a level other that the position of the users eye standing or sitting. Prefer engineering controls, however must have administrative and procedural controls.

32 Accident Trends Reported incidents related to lasers are most often associated with: Unanticipated eye exposure during alignment Misaligned optics and upwardly directed beams Available eye protection not used Equipment malfunction Improper methods of handling high voltage Intentional exposure of unprotected personnel Operators unfamiliar with laser equipment Lack of protection for non-beam hazards

33 Accident Trends (contd) Reported incidents related to lasers are most often associated with (contd): Improper restoration of equipment following service Eyewear worn not appropriate for laser in use Unanticipated eye/skin exposure during laser usage Inhalation of laser generated air contaminants and/or viewing laser generated plasmas Fires resulting from the ignition of materials Eye or skin injury of photochemical origin Failure to follow SOPs

34 Unattended Use Operate lasers under direct supervision or control of an authorized user – operator shall maintain visual surveillance of conditions for safe use and terminate laser operation in the event of malfunction or other unsafe condition. Unattended operation may ONLY be allowed under LSO- approved control measures are in place; control measures MUST provide adequate protection so that unprotected spectators shall not receive eye or skin exposures that exceed the MPE limits. Service Personnel Emergency Personnel Administrative/Other Personnel Students/General Public

35 Engineering Controls Protective Housing – Require interlocks and appropriate labels. Service Access Panels – Shall only be removed by service personnel; interlocked or removal tool and warning label required. Key Control – Master switch that can initiate and terminate system operation shall be operated by a key or coded access. The key (or code) shall only be accessible to authorized personnel. Viewing Windows, Display Screens, and Collecting Optics – shall incorporate suitable means to maintain the exposure to below MPE. Beam Paths –separate requirements for fully open, limited open, and enclosed.

36 Engineering Controls (contd) Remote Interlock Connector – Class 3B should and Class 4 shall have this control to eliminate accessible radiation to below the MPE Beam Stop or Attenuator - Class 3B should and Class 4 shall have this permanently attached control to eliminate accessible radiation to below the MPE when laser output is not required. Warning Area Warning Signs and Activation Warnings - Class 3B and Class 4 areas shall be posted with the appropriate signage, both for beam and non-beam hazards. Activation Warning Devices - Class 3B should and Class 4 shall use this control during activation or startup.

37 Engineering Controls (contd) Indoor Laser Controlled Area – Analysis shall be performed by the LSO Requirements for Class 4 more strict than Class 3B. Emergency Conditions – For emergencies, there shall be a clearly marked Emergency Stop available for deactivating the laser or reducing output to below the MPE. Entryway Controls – Class 4 laser areas shall have one of the following Non-Defeatable: for deactivation of laser or reducing output to below MPE in the event of unexpected entry into laser controlled area. Defeatable: only if clearly evident that there is no laser radiation hazard at the point of entry. Procedural: only when safety latches or interlocks are not feasible or are inappropriate (e.g. Surgery).

38 Engineering Controls (contd) Outdoor control measures - Lasers are not to be used outdoors without evaluation and approval by LSO. Temporary Laser Controlled Areas – in case of service or other conditions where housing, panels are removed and MPE is exceeded Controlled Operation Equipment Labels – in accordance with FLPPS or IEC Housing, Control Panel (if separated from housing by more than 2 meters), and Long Distance Beam Conduit (at intervals of 3 meters)

39 Administrative and Procedural Controls Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) – shall be written and maintained with the laser(s) for reference regarding operation and alignment, maintenance and service, emergency for personnel injury and fire, and all applicable non-beam hazards (including electrical safety). Output Emission Limitations – LSO may require if excessive power or radiant energy is deemed excessive. Education and Training – required, must cover topics required by ANSI, records must be maintained. Authorized Personnel – LPI authorizes, training and registration are conditions of authorization.LPI

40 Administrative and Procedural Controls (contd) Alignment Procedures Spectators – Shall not be permitted unless LPI has approved, LPI Spectators are informed of the hazards by authorized users, and Appropriate protective measures are taken. Service Procedures – Only those with the education and safety training commensurate with the laser contained within protective housing. Typically, certified technicians from the manufacturer. Service Procedures

41 Special Considerations General Public – Class 3B and 4 require a laser light show variance issued by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), other requirements. Optical Fiber Transmission Systems – considered enclosed within cable, if disconnecting where MPE is exceeded, NHZ requirements implemented. Robotic Installations – working envelope included in NHZ.

42 Protective Equipment General – enclosure of beam is the preferred method of control. Eyewear – Required within NHZ for Class 3B and 4 lasers Non-beam hazards may exist which require additional eye protection (ANSI Z87.1) LSO shall determine the OD for eyewear based on laser specifications. Shall be permanently labeled with the OD and its corresponding wavelength. Shall be cleaned and inspected to ensure proper condition. Only use eyewear that is in proper working condition (e.g. no cracks, bleach marks, missing/broken straps, etc).

43 Protective Equipment (contd) Window Protection – within NHZ shall be provided with an appropriate filter, barrier, or screen with reduces laser radiation to below all applicable MPE. Barriers and Curtains – material shall be selected to withstand direct and diffuse reflection of beam, must not support combustion or release toxic fumes upon laser exposure. Labeling of Protective Equipment – Shall be permanently labeled with: Eyewear – OD and corresponding wavelength. Protective Windows – OD and corresponding wavelength, exposure time, and conditions under which protection is afforded. Collecting Optics Filters – OD and corresponding wavelength, threshold limit (TL) and corresponding exposure time, and conditions under which protection is afforded. Barriers (unless integral part of laser system) – TL and corresponding exposure time, and conditions under which protection is afforded. Viewports and Films (unless integral part of laser system) – OD and corresponding spectral region which shall be provided by the manufacturer.

44 Protective Equipment (contd) Skin Protection - mostly applicable to Class 4 UV lasers LSO shall determine if skin protection is needed. Best achieved through engineering controls Other Protective Equipment – respirators, local exhaust ventilation, fire extinguishers, and hearing protection may be required.

45 Area Warning Sign Example A warning sign that is similar in characteristic to the image at the right MUST be placed on the Nominal Hazard Zone of Class 3B and Class 4 lasers. Other warning sign designs are NOT allowed. The LSO can help you with the design of the sign.

46 General Project Requirements Training and retraining (at 2-year intervals) must be completed by all restricted and unrestricted users. The LPI is not exempt.The LPI is not exempt. LSO must perform an assessment of the facility. LPI will ensure all required engineering, administrative, and procedural control measures are in place.

47 Purdue: Common Non-Compliances Unauthorized service of lasers Eyewear, improper (OD and/or wavelength incorrect, disrepair), or unused SOPs not followed Unattended laser operation (for Class 4 lasers) Improper visible alerts (e.g. wrong sign format) Lasers not interlocked to NHZ access point Administrative (forms not submitted, users not trained) Improper barriers (e.g. cardboard, store-bought fabric) Skin exposure, either deliberate or inadvertent Working conditions – long/unusual hours, poor housekeeping, ergonomics

48 Consequences of Non-Compliance The LSO has the authority to suspend, restrict, or terminate the operation of a laser system if the LSO deems that controls are not adequate. LPIs, authorized users, and/or associated personnel found in non-compliance of the Purdue Laser Safety Program and/or applicable governmental regulations may be subject to review by the Laser Safety Committee, at a minimum. Penalties for non-compliance shall be determined by the Laser Safety Committee and/or other applicable bodies of authority.

49 Incidents/Emergencies: Injury Turn off the laser system with the Emergency Button or power switch. If injured personnel require medical assistance, don appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, i.e. gloves), and provide minimum assistance, as needed. Ensure someone remains with the victim until medical personnel arrive. Contact medical personnel (call 911). Inform them of the accident. Once medical personnel have been contacted, inform REM ( ), and Complete an incident report, and complete a First Report of Injury. If a suspected or actual laser-induced injury occurs, medical surveillance must be performed as soon as possible, but no later than 48 hours after the incident.

50 Incidents/Emergencies: Fire Sound fire alarm. Contact fire department (call 911). Inform them of the incident. If fire has gone out, call the Purdue University Fire Department (PUFD) at the non-emergency number ( ) Turn off the laser system with the Emergency Button or power switch. Evacuate area. Contact REM ( ). Complete incident report.

51 Contact Information Zach Tribbett, Laser Safety Officer Jerry Gibbs, Laser Training and Authorization Information Other Radiation Safety Staff:

52 Test Complete the test indicated below. You must have a minimum score of 75% to pass. Your results will be sent to you through , and, if you have passed, will be the documentation you would use to prove certification for renewal.


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