4 Why Genetics – The Challenge Population will go from 6.9 to over 9 B, food requirements will double, and water requirements likewise will double. Will the carrying capacity of the planet be stretched??Source: Food Economics and Consumer Choice (Simmons, 2008)
5 Please rank these sires based on visual appraisal for structural soundness, composition, body type and overall eye appeal.
6 Which sire is a carrier of one or more simple recessive genetic defects?
7 Which sire has the greatest genetic potential to sire calves that excel in marbling (quality grade)?
8 Advancements in Cattle Evaluation Visual appraisalPedigree informationParentage verificationPerformance dataEPDs and accuraciesMulti-breed, international evaluationEconomic selection indexesDNA tests for simple recessivesTargeted marker panelsHigh-Density marker platformsGE-EPDs and accuraciesGE-Indexes for simplified and dependable multiple trait selectionGEOGRAPHY
9 How Do you identify carriers of simple recessives?
11 How Do You Identify Carriers of Simple Recessives? Historic – Progeny Test10 normal calves needed, out of known carrier cows with no affected progeny, for 99.9% certainty that a sire is free of a genetic condition
12 How Do You Identify Carriers of Simple Recessives? Historic – Progeny TestToday – DNA Test10 normal calves needed, out of known carrier cows with no affected progeny, for 99.9% certainty that a sire is free of a genetic condition
13 Benefits of Parentage Determination Verify A.I. sires and donor damsPedigree IntegrityAccurate Genetic EvaluationManage defectsMaintain hybrid vigorComplementary matings
14 Tracking Performance with Sire-Trace Match Sires to Offspring to Improve Future Calf-CropsIdentify the most and least prolific siresTrack down the most and least productive siresReplacement heifers with known sire parentageRetain daughters of sires with the most appropriate predicted genetic merit for maternal traits
15 Tracking Performance with Sire-Trace Research Shows Value of Sire IdentificationEach Group Consists of Three Sires. The Carcass Value is the Average of All Calves by All Three SiresStudies demonstrate that the difference between the best and worst sires can mean thousands of dollars earned – or lost – throughout their breeding lives3 to 32: range of calves per sire$78.53: a single-year difference in progeny carcass value between the three best sires and three worst sires$5,800: lifetime difference in progeny carcass value between the three best sires and the three worst siresCASE STUDY: AVERAGE CARCASS VALUE PER SIRE IN MULTISIRE HERD
16 How Parentage Verification Works Marker 1Marker 2Marker 3ProgenyAATTGGSire 1TCSire 2AGCC
19 Response to Selection How Superior Are The Selected Animals? How Dependable Is Selection Information?GEOGRAPHYHow Early Can Superior Animals Be Identified?
20 Why Do We Need More Information? TraitBWWWMilkYWSCAs Calves*4.4361963.76As calves, full sibs share the same pedigree EPD profileTC Rancher-.519218.104.22.168.91.92.89TC Stockman8.54112801.02.95.93.90.84GEOGRAPHYEPDs Based on Progeny Performance Reflect GENE SAMPLING*Parent averages of current EPDs
21 Product Profile GeneSTAR® includes: Feed Efficiency Marbling TendernessHomozygous BlackPalatability IndexEffective in Any Breed
22 Palatability ZonesFor Ease of Interpretation, animals are categorized into Palatability Zones based on index scores:SuperiorScores Above 355Top 20% of AnimalsAcceptableScores Between 100 & 355Middle 60% of AnimalsMarginalScores Below 100Bottom 20% of AnimalsThe Top 20%, Middle 60% and Bottom 20% are from our historical database of results. Each individual’s reports will vary in regard to the percentage of animals that fit into each category.
23 Palatability Index Ranges by Breed TypeSuperior Palatability ZoneAcceptable Palatability ZoneMarginal Palatability ZoneMax. 848Max. 775Max. 638Max. 597Avg. 458Avg. 274Avg. 179Avg. 82This chart represents the full range of results for each breed type and not necessarily the proportion of animals that fall into each Palatability category for that breed type.Min. -16Min. -347Min. -454Min. -258
24 Use of GeneSTAR MVP for Feed Efficiency Bull A FE MVP: -1.0Bull B FE MVP: +1.0Difference: -2.0 lbs/day½ passed to offspring:-1.0 lbs less feed/day180 days on feed X -1.0 lbs feed/day =180 lbs less feed/headUsing Bull A and Bull B from the previous slide, we we have two bulls with different MVPs for feed efficiency. (Walk through selection example)
25 Technology Advancement High-Density 50K Panel201156 markers (Feed Efficiency, Marbling, Tenderness)201011 markers (Feed Efficiency, Marbling, Tenderness)2009Just a short time ago genomic technology allowed for just a few markers explaining a few economically important traits. Today, the number of markers has grown, resulting in more reliable information for long-term profitability.7 markers (Marbling, Tenderness)1 marker (Marbling)2008Pfizer Animal Genetics200619892004
26 It’s All About Coverage Verizon Wireless – 3G Broadband CoverageAT&T – 3G Broadband Coverage
27 Secured AAA Member Site Traits – HD 50K % RanksCalving Ease DirectBirth WeightWeaning WeightAverage Daily GainYearling WeightDry Matter IntakeResidual Feed Intake*Calving Ease MaternalMilking AbilityCarcass WeightFat ThicknessRibeye AreaMarbling ScoreTenderness*Residual Average Daily Gain EPD
28 GE-EPDs Powered by HD 50K More Coverage Means More explained genetic variation for more traitsMore dependable GE-EPDs for selection, mating and marketing
29 More Informed Breeding Decisions Sooner BWWWYWMACWMSREAPedigree EPD2.240772115.73.30HD 50K% Rank79%14%5%2%1%ExpectedChange↑High Acc EPD4.0529930321.21.64High Acc85%20%15%3%To begin, let’s look at the pedigree EPDs for this sire (calculated by adding one-half of the sire’s EPD to one-half of the dam’s EPD, for each trait) – that indicate roughly average genetic merit for BW, growth and milk, and above average merit for marbling and ribeye area.
34 Technology Advancement GE-EPDs Powered by HD 50KHigh-Density 50K Panel201156 markers (Feed Efficiency, Marbling, Tenderness)2010Breed-SpecificGenomic-Enhanced EPDs11 markers (Feed Efficiency, Marbling, Tenderness)2009Just a short time ago genomic technology allowed for just a few markers explaining a few economically important traits. Today, the number of markers has grown, resulting in more reliable information for long-term profitability.7 markers (Marbling, Tenderness)1 marker (Marbling)2008Pfizer Animal Genetics200619892004
35 Sources of information for EPDs Pedigree InformationIndividualPerformanceDataProgenyPerformanceDataGenomicPredictionsTime, Money and Opportunity CostsGenomic-Enhanced EPDs,Accuracies and IndexesPowered by HD 50K
36 AAA EPD/Pedigree Lookup - Public Site Traits – HD 50KCalving Ease DirectBirth WeightWeaning WeightAverage Daily GainYearling WeightDry Matter IntakeResidual Feed IntakeCalving Ease MaternalMilking AbilityCarcass WeightFat ThicknessRibeye AreaMarbling ScoreTenderness
37 HD50K Accuracy and Progeny Equivalents AVG 50K Change in ACC from 0.05ProgenyEquivalentBW.258WW.2316YW2.2720RADG3,2713Milk.15CW.177MARB4.2412RE49FAT4112 – ADG3 – DMI4 – carcass progeny, not scanned progeny (scanned progeny equivalent closer to 30-40
38 Sample Collection Hair Follicles At least 25 follicles with bulbs intactBloodFTA cards (HD 50K preferred)Whole blood in purple-top tubesSemenThawed – one or two units
39 For More Information… www.pfizeranimalgenetics.com or call 1.877.BEEF DNA
40 Tonya Amen firstname.lastname@example.org 970-580-0198 Thank You For Your Time!Tonya Amen
41 More Accurate Selection Non-parent YW EPDPossible Change – YW EPDYW AccuracyMVP Enhanced YW-EPD
42 Progeny-Proven, High Accuracy EPDs from Angus A.I. Sires The HD 50K vs. IP Challenge60 A.I. sires with progeny-proven EPDs from over 68,000 progeny in over 27,000 groups with HD 50K and Profile predictionsProgeny-Proven, High Accuracy EPDs from Angus A.I. Sires
44 HD 50K vs. IP – Weaning Weight Weaning Weight DirectIgenityIgenity ScorePfizer MVP
45 HD50K Notably more dependable ranking Better identification of outliers – curve-benders, elite maternal and carcass siresImpacts accuracy, intensity and generation intervalUpdatable without re-testParentage included!
46 Residual Average Daily Gain (RADG) EPDs Before and After HD 50KResidual Average Daily Gain (RADG)