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Vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 How the VMF matrix works Godfrey Rust, Rightscom Presentation to VMF seminar British Library,

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Presentation on theme: "Vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 How the VMF matrix works Godfrey Rust, Rightscom Presentation to VMF seminar British Library,"— Presentation transcript:

1 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 How the VMF matrix works Godfrey Rust, Rightscom Presentation to VMF seminar British Library, London November 9, 2009

2 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. Albert Einstein

3 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 VMF goal vmf vocab 1 vocab 2 vocab 3 vocab 4 Automatically compute the best fit mappings between any two pre-defined vocabularies.

4 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 vmf vocab 1 vocab 2 vocab 3 vocab 4 3 stages of VMF project

5 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 vmf vocab 1 vocab 2 vocab 3 vocab 4 3 stages of VMF project 1.Create the matrix and map vocabularies in (what weve mainly done so far).

6 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 vmf vocab 1 vocab 2 vocab 3 vocab 4 3 stages of VMF project 1.Create the matrix and map vocabularies in (what weve mainly done so far). 2.Scheme to scheme mappings out (some first tests of this).

7 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 vmf vocab 1 vocab 2 vocab 3 vocab 4 3 stages of VMF project 1.Create the matrix and map vocabularies in (what weve mainly done so far). 2.Scheme to scheme mappings out (some first tests of this). 3.Establish VMF as an ongoing resource.

8 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 RDA (libraries) ONIX (book/serials publishing) DDEX (recorded music) Dublin Core (web metadata) FRBR (libraries) LOM SCORM (education) MARC21 (libraries) DOI (any content) CIDOC CRM (museums and archives) FRAD (libraries) MPEG21 RDD (digital rights) RDA ONIX Framework Initial schemes to map

9 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Concentrating on: Resource categories Resource-to-Resource relators Resource-to-Party relators Party-to-Party relators Party categories Vocabularies Metadata is increasingly seen to be more about Relators than attributes – FRBR, indecs, CIDOC CRM, RDA all Relationship based. Always been there – just hidden. 9 of the Dublin Core 15 terms are actually Relators. Semantic Web/RDF point in the same direction. Distributed data means linking identities – which means Relators.

10 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Approximate figures for the matrix today: 10 schemes 53 vocabularies mapped in whole or part 500+ concept families unique terms 30,000+ RDF triples Concentrated on resource-to-party relators (highest overlap, most important verbs) at the outset. Some further work to do before releasing the matrix publicly. Matrix stats

11 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 The data model of the matrix has to accommodate the data models of all the vocabularies mapped to it, and the relationships between them. The VMF data model and ontology is based on Rightscoms COA model, which grew from the framework and has much in common with FRBR and CIDOC CRM. COA also provides the model of making – an analysis of the relationship between Works and their Manifestations which is of particular use in library/content provider metadata. Data model: the challenge vmf vocab 1 vocab 2 vocab 3 vocab 4

12 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 How does VMF work? Terms are mapped into an ontology (the VMF matrix) built up from families of concepts based on verbs. The matrix can be queried to get the best fit match from one term or vocabulary to another. (Note: the matrix is for machine processing – not for human use, and it is not a cataloguing tool or a standard vocabulary). vmf vocab 1 vocab 2 vocab 3 vocab 4

13 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create (or Creating Event) A Concept Family

14 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create (or Creating Event) A Concept Family Create (to Make something (as a human being)

15 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create (or Creating Event) A Concept Family Parent Make (to bring something into existence) Create (to Make something (as a human being)

16 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create (or Creating Event) A Concept Family Parent Make (to bring something into existence) Create (to Make something (as a human being) Children Conceive, Originate, Derive, Create Work, Create Perceivable Resource, Create with Tool, Create with Material, Direct, Contribute etc…

17 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create (or Creating Event) A Concept Family Parent Make (to bring something into existence) Children Conceive, Originate, Derive, Create Work, Create Perceivable Resource, Create with Tool, Create with Material, Direct, Contribute etc… Create (to Make something (as a human being)

18 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create (or Creating Event) A Concept Family

19 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation A Concept Family

20 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_Creation A Concept Family

21 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator A Concept Family

22 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create A Concept Family

23 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family A Concept Family provides a complete set of terms that describe a type of Event or State (Context), always based on a verb. All relationships (and so most meanings) are based on Events, so this is a good place to start. Every term in the VMF matrix is a member of a Concept Family.

24 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family How do these terms relate to the vocabularies we are mapping?

25 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by

26 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by marc21:Relationship Creator

27 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by marc21:Relationship Creator lom:role_lifecycle author

28 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by marc21:Relationship Creator lom:role_lifecycle author Dc:dc15 Creator

29 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by marc21:Relationship Creator lom:role_lifecycle author Dc:dc15 Creator crm:property was created by

30 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by marc21:Relationship Creator lom:role_lifecycle author Dc:dc15 Creator crm:property was created by crm:property has created

31 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by marc21:Relationship Creator lom:role_lifecycle author crm:class Man-made object Dc:dc15 Creator crm:property was created by crm:property has created

32 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by marc21:Relationship Creator lom:role_lifecycle author crm:class Man-made object frbr: Endeavour Dc:dc15 Creator crm:property was created by crm:property has created

33 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by marc21:Relationship Creator lom:role_lifecycle author crm:class Man-made object frbr: Endeavour Dc:dc15 Creator crm:property was created by rdd:verbs Make crm:property has created

34 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by marc21:Relationship Creator lom:role_lifecycle author crm:class Man-made object ddex: (nothing) frbr: Endeavour Dc:dc15 Creator crm:property was created by rda: (nothing) frad: (nothing) rdd:verbs Make crm:property has created

35 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Create Agent Creator Resource Creation Relator Creator_CreationCreation_Creator Relator Create_CreationCreation_Create Relator Create_CreatorCreator_Create Relator Creator_Creator Relator Creation_Creation A Concept Family onix:CodeList17 Created by marc21:Relationship Creator lom:role_lifecycle author crm:class Man-made object ddex: (nothing) frbr: Endeavour Dc:dc15 Creator crm:property has created crm:property was created by rda: (nothing) frad: (nothing) rdd:verbs Make Every term in a vocabulary maps onto a term in some Concept Family.

36 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Value of the Concept Family (1) The Concept Families provide all possible points (nodes) in the matrix for vocabulary terms to be mapped.

37 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Derive Agent Deriver Resource1 Derivation Resource2 Source Relator Deriver_DerivationDerivation_Deriver Relator Deriver_SourceSource_Deriver Relator Derivation_Source Source_Derivation Relator Derivation_Derive Derive_Derivation Relator Deriver_Derive Derive_Deriver Relator Source_DeriveDerive_Source Relator Deriver_Deriver Relator Derivation_Derivation Relator Source_Source A (bigger) Concept Family

38 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Context Derive Agent Deriver Resource1 Derivation Resource2 Source Relator Deriver_DerivationDerivation_Deriver Relator Deriver_SourceSource_Deriver Relator Derivation_Source Source_Derivation Relator Derivation_Derive Derive_Derivation Relator Deriver_Derive Derive_Deriver Relator Source_DeriveDerive_Source Relator Deriver_Deriver Relator Derivation_Derivation Relator Source_Source Automated naming of Relators (easy to create and find terms). A (bigger) Concept Family

39 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Value of the Concept Family (2) The Concept Family allows large numbers of terms to be generated in the matrix very efficiently. A single concept will typically produce terms (3-5 classes and 8-24 relators). Less than a quarter of those will directly map onto vocabularies, but most will be used as pathways in computing relationships between different terms. Because the model is simple in concept, and the process is reasonably flexible and automated, the maintenance of a large and complex ontology is manageable (as simple as possible…).

40 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Value of the Concept Family (3) The family tree of verbs provide the skeleton of the whole matrix, going from the most general concepts at the top down to the most detailed anyone might need to imagine. Because of the concept families, the matrix is made up of a number of parallel hierarchies, joined across by the family links.

41 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Contextualize Exist ExistStatically ExistDynamically Act Do DoTransitively DoIntransitively DoAsPrincipalAgent DoAsSupportingAgent Make Cause CauseState Create Derive Adapt Translate Compile Interact Derive Use Perceive See Some top level concepts: verbs

42 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Contextualize Exist ExistStatically ExistDynamically Act Do DoTransitively DoIntransitively DoAsPrincipalAgent DoAsSupportingAgent Make Cause CauseState Create Derive Adapt Translate Compile Interact Derive Use Perceive See Some top level concepts: verbs

43 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Contextualize Exist ExistStatically ExistDynamically Act Do DoTransitively DoIntransitively DoAsPrincipalAgent DoAsSupportingAgent Make Cause CauseState Create Derive Adapt Translate Compile Interact Derive Use Perceive See Some top level concepts: verbs, agents Agent Doer DoerTransitively DoerIntransitively DoerAsPrincipalAgent DoerAsSupportingAgent Maker Causer CauserOfState Creator Deriver Adaptor Translator Compiler Interacter Deriver User Perceiver Seer

44 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Contextualize Exist ExistStatically ExistDynamically Act Do DoTransitively DoIntransitively DoAsPrincipalAgent DoAsSupportingAgent Make Cause CauseState Create Derive Adapt Translate Compile Interact Derive Use Perceive See Some top level concepts: verbs, agents, resources Agent Doer DoerTransitively DoerIntransitively DoerAsPrincipalAgent DoerAsSupportingAgent Maker Causer CauserOfState Creator Deriver Adaptor Translator Compiler Interacter Deriver User Perceiver Seer Resource Existent StaticResource DynamicResource Patient PatientDoneTo TransitivePatient DoAsPrincipalAgent DoAsSupportingAgent Output Consequence ConsequentState Creation Derivation, Source Adaptatation, SourceOf.. Translator, SourceOf.. Compilation, Component Input Derivation, Source UsedResource PerceivedResource SeenResource

45 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Contextualize Exist ExistStatically ExistDynamically Act Do DoTransitively DoIntransitively DoAsPrincipalAgent DoAsSupportingAgent Make Cause CauseState Create Derive Adapt Translate Compile Interact Derive Use Perceive See Some top level concepts: verbs, agents, resources Agent Doer DoerTransitively DoerIntransitively DoerAsPrincipalAgent DoerAsSupportingAgent Maker Causer CauserOfState Creator Deriver Adaptor Translator Compiler Interacter Deriver User Perceiver Seer Resource Existent StaticResource DynamicResource Patient PatientDoneTo TransitivePatient DoAsPrincipalAgent DoAsSupportingAgent Output Consequence ConsequentState Creation Derivation, Source Adaptatation, SourceOf.. Translator, SourceOf.. Compilation, Component Input Derivation, Suurce UsedResource PerceivedResource SeenResource …and of course all the Relators between these classes.

46 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Make From Material Create Part Of Film Create Parody Of FRBR Expression Smell Moderate Panel Create Content As Librettist Conduct Experiment Design Cover Or Cover Artwork Take Moving Photograph Be Human Perform Music As Primary Performer See With Microform Reader Be Changeable Necessarily Add Ink Outline Or Add Color To Visual Be HTML Realize On Mirror Site Some lower level verbs However granular or obscure, everything belongs to a Concept Family. The matrix should be able to include almost any concept at any level of detail – but is extended on a need to know basis (the principle of Functional Granularity). However granular or obscure, everything belongs to a Concept Family. The matrix should be able to include almost any concept at any level of detail – but is extended on a need to know basis (the principle of Functional Granularity).

47 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Value of the Concept Family (4) The relators within a Concept Family, and between different families, create the network of meaning to allow best fit mappings to be computed when an exact equivalent is not available.

48 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 vmf:Adaptor vmf:WordsAdaptor vmf:Translator vmf:SubtitlesTranslator vmf:WordsCreator vmf:TranslatorAndCommentator vmf:Commentator Mapping to the matrix

49 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 vmf:Adaptor vmf:WordsAdaptor vmf:Translator vmf:SubtitlesTranslator vmf:WordsCreator vmf:TranslatorAndCommentator vmf:Commentator Mapping to the matrix Every term in a vocabulary is given an equivalent term in a VMF concept family…

50 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 vmf:Adaptor vmf:WordsAdaptor vmf:Translator vmf:SubtitlesTranslator vmf:WordsCreator vmf:TranslatorAndCommentator vmf:Commentator onix:Translated by onix:Translated with commentary by ddex:Translator Ddex:SubtitlesTranslator Mapping to the matrix Every term in a vocabulary is given an equivalent term in a VMF concept family…

51 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 vmf:Adaptor vmf:WordsAdaptor vmf:Translator vmf:SubtitlesTranslator vmf:WordsCreator vmf:TranslatorAndCommentator vmf:Commentatoronix:Translated by onix:Translated with commentary by ddex:Translator ddex:SubtitlesTranslator Queries can then be used to find the best fit mappings between two terms or complete vocabularies. Mapping scheme to scheme

52 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 vmf:Adaptor vmf:WordsAdaptor vmf:Translator vmf:SubtitlesTranslator vmf:WordsCreator vmf:TranslatorAndCommentator vmf:Commentator onix:Translated by onix:Translated with commentary by ddex:Translator Ddex:SubtitlesTranslator Mapping scheme to scheme Queries can then be used to find the best fit mappings between two terms or complete vocabularies.

53 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 An early test… We wrote some simple SPARQL queries which map any one vocabulary to any other, asking it to find for each term: - exact matches - parents - children - siblings (other children of parents) Mapping results

54 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Mapping results This is a sample of vocabulary-to-vocabulary mapping results produced by simple queries from the matrix (some more is shown in the VMF Introduction document). Marc 21 RelationshipOnix Code List 17 Actorsame asActor AdapterChildDramatized by AdapterParentAdapted by AdapterSiblingAbridged by AdapterSiblingOther adaptation by AdapterSiblingTranslated by ArchitectParentDesigned by ArchitectSiblingCover design or artwork by Arrangersame asArranged by music Artistsame asBy artist AuthorChildBy author AuthorChildBy composer AuthorChildSoftware written by AuthorSiblingFrom an idea by Author of introduction etcChildIntroduction by Author of introduction etcSiblingCommentaries by Author of introduction etcSiblingMemoir by Author of introduction etcSiblingNotes by Author of introduction etcSiblingSummary by Author of screenplaysame asScreenplay by Cartographersame asMaps by Commentatorsame asCommentator

55 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 There is rarely a right answer to a complete vocabulary mapping – were looking for the best fit. No mapping can create meaning that is not already in the target scheme – it can only try to find it. Some people will want the decisions made for them, others will want to be given the options so that they can choose. Do we want Recommended mappings for particular vocabulary pairs? Yes – then with what rules, and who agrees the results? There are many possibilities for refining the ontology structure and query methods, including the addition of conditonal rules that go beyond the basic OWL axioms. Testing and review also provide the best QA for the ontology (at least 10% of mappings likely to be less than optimal at this stage). VMF is cooking nicely but needs time to try different things. Question: how to get the best fit?

56 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Matrix data prep in Excel, extracted automatically to RDF triples (TTL format), reviewed using Protege. A small amount of inference is required to complete gaps in the super-relator hierarchy. Current query testing using SPARQL, but the matrix and queries could be put automatically into many logic formalisms and queried with many languages. It will be generally available, so help yourself if you want to experiment. VMF is about the semantics, not the tools. Technology

57 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 rdfs:subClassOf between a class and its parent(s) rdfs:subPropertyOf between a relator and its parent(s) rdfs:domain the domain class of a relator rdfs:range the range class of a relator owl:inverseOf reciprocal relators rdf:type membership of classes owl:disjointWith classes with no common members owl:complementOf disjoint classes that make up a parent concept owl:intersectionOf classes made by combining two or more concepts owl:unionOf classes whose members must be one thing or another Matrix axioms These RDFS and OWL axioms provide the core logic

58 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 rdfs:subClassOf between a class and its parent(s) rdfs:subPropertyOf between a relator and its parent(s) rdfs:domain the domain class of a relator rdfs:range the range class of a relator owl:inverseOf reciprocal relators rdf:type membership of classes owl:disjointWith classes with no common members owl:complementOf disjoint classes that make up a parent concept owl:intersectionOf classes made by combining two or more concepts owl:unionOf classes whose members are one thing or another owl:equivalentClass mapped classes owl:equivalentProperty mapped relators Matrix axioms vmf:IsResourceInCF vmf:IsContextInCF vmf:IsRelatorInCF This extra set of vmf Relators define the relationships within a Concept Family (CF). They can be translated into logical rules to allow more complex inference. This extra set of vmf Relators define the relationships within a Concept Family (CF). They can be translated into logical rules to allow more complex inference. These RDFS and OWL axioms provide the core logic

59 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Matrix rules The concept families and RDFS/OWL axioms provide a simple as possible framework for the matrix, and deliver most of what is needed – but some further logical connections need to be made with rules that go beyond the scope of the basic axioms. For example…

60 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Displaced attributes Some terms collapse two or more concept families into one. For example – the Original Author of a work.

61 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Displaced attributes Some terms collapse two or more concept families into one. For example – the Original Author of a work. Author_Work W Shakespeare Romeo & Juliet

62 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Displaced attributes Some terms collapse two or more concept families into one. For example – the Original Author of a work. Author_Work Adapter_ Source W Shakespeare J Smith Romeo & Juliet

63 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Displaced attributes Some terms collapse two or more concept families into one. For example – the Original Author of a work. Author_Work Source_ Adaptation Adapter_ Source W Shakespeare J Smith Romeo & Juliet Romeo & Juliet – the pop up cartoon version

64 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Displaced attributes Some terms collapse two or more concept families into one. For example – the Original Author of a work. Author_Work Source_ Adaptation Adapter_ Adaptation Adapter_ Source W Shakespeare J Smith Romeo & Juliet Romeo & Juliet – the pop up cartoon version

65 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Displaced attributes Some terms collapse two or more concept families into one. For example – the Original Author of a work. Author_Work Source_ Adaptation Adapter_ Adaptation Adapter_ Source W Shakespeare J Smith Romeo & Juliet Romeo & Juliet – the pop up cartoon version

66 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Displaced attributes Some terms collapse two or more concept families into one. For example – the Original Author of a work. Author_Work Source_ Adaptation Adapter_ Adaptation Adapter_ Source W Shakespeare J Smith Original Author Romeo & Juliet Romeo & Juliet – the pop up cartoon version

67 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Displaced attributes Some terms collapse two or more concept families into one. For example – the Original Author of a work. Author_Work Source_ Adaptation W Shakespeare SourceAuthor_ DerivationWithSourceAuthor Romeo & Juliet Romeo & Juliet – the pop up cartoon version

68 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Displaced attributes Some terms collapse two or more concept families into one. For example – the Original Author of a work. Author_Work Source_ Adaptation W Shakespeare SourceAuthor_ DerivationWithSourceAuthor Romeo & Juliet Romeo & Juliet – the pop up cartoon version A rule is needed in the ontology to show that this one relator actually represents a chain of two existing concept families.

69 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Challenges facing the matrix? The lattice approach is logically robust (a common model for ontology), but it can result in a combinatory explosion of concepts with multiple parents. One additional attribute at the top can turn into dozens or hundreds further down – a combinatory explosion. RDF/OWL/SPARQL are relatively easy and accessible – but not as powerful as full FOL (First Order Logic) inference. No easy remedy – everything has trade-offs. The family approach helps you see both the wood and the trees – but we need to look for best ontology practice to get best results (the matrix can be automatically converted into other formalisms if it is helpful).

70 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Refining the matrix In next stage we would like to: - extend mappings and validate them with scheme authorities - develop and test mapping rules, produce candidate mappings for main vocabulary pairs - welcome suggestions to extend the semantics or organization of the matrix - welcome all experiments with inference rules to get best fit. - welcome one or two specific projects which can make practical use of VMF.

71 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 The need for authorisation vmf vocab 1 vocab 2 vocab 3 vocab 4 For example, if vocabulary 2 is to map as well as possible to vocabulary 4, then both 2 and 4 should validate their mappings to the matrix. Mapping should be a two way process – most accurate if both parties agree. Changes must be maintained - the rate of change is increasing.

72 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Availability VMF matrix freely available as an RDF/OWL ontology before the end of the year. Tools? Dependent on next stages. We have used Protégé for viewing and validating. Further details in the VMF Introduction document.

73 vmf Godfrey Rust, Rightscom: How the VMF matrix works, Nov 2009 Uses of VMF? Authoritative source for public vocabulary mappings (but providing a tool for choice if needed) Incorporate mappings automatically into schema transformations. Provide QA or options for scheme/vocabulary developers. Mapping proprietary schemes? Taxonomies/subject indexes? No limit to scope in principle – concept family model is generic. Extend to full schema mapping/transformation? What other uses or benefits can you see?


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