Presentation on theme: "Universiti Malaysia Sarawak"— Presentation transcript:
1 Universiti Malaysia Sarawak Sarawak Language Technology (SaLT)Research GroupSaLT Initiatives: Preservation and Maintenance of Sarawak LanguagesFaculty of Computer Science andInformation TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia SarawakAssociate Professor Alvin W. Yeo
2 Overview Languages in Sarawak Maintenance and Revitalisation: Holistic ApproachSarawak Language Technology (SaLT) Research GroupSaLT ProjectsBorneo Corpus Management System (BCMS)Iban-English Machine TranslationTRanslation IBan-English (TRIBE)Multimodal-INTegration (MINT) of Sketch and Melanau Daro-Matu Speech in Spatial QueriesSpeech Language Dialog Systems (SLaDS)Development of Language ToolsCurrent findings
5 Introduction (cont’d) Sarawak is a state rich in culture.27 ethnic groups in Sarawak (STB, 2005), each with its own culture and language.Sarawak has 46 living languagesand 1 extinct; according to theEthnologue (Gordon, 2005)Each ethnic group may have different languagesSarawak Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka63 known languages in Sarawak
6 Rationale Population No. of languages Cumulative no. of languages 1– 10049%101 – 50081227%501 – 10001636%1001 – 5000183476%5001 – 10,0003884%10,001 – 50,00064498%50,001 – 100,000100,001 -145100%ExtinctNo data availableCumulative language and number of speakers (Ethnologue,2005)
7 Problem World’s linguistic and cultural diversity is under threat. Many minority languages are on the brink of extinction.Minority language communitiesFurther disadvantaged economically and socially.Dominant languagesExogamyRevitalizing minority languages can bring economic and social benefits as well as cultural benefits.
8 Preservation of Culture Supporting Technologies Holistic Approach: Framework for Language Revitalization and MaintenancePreservation of CultureStakeholdersCommunity/civil societyPeopleResearchersApplicationsEthnic group organisationsComp. ScientistsInternet: Online PresenceSoftware applications and operating systemsHardware: Input devices: keyboards, tablets/pen/stylusResearch institutionsSocial ScientistsGovernment agenciesIT spec.Supporting TechnologiesLinguistsNGOsCommuni-ty readiness: ICT literacyWeb techno-logies: Java, FlashMethodologies: engaging communities; development lifecyclesComputing Technologies:Natural Language Processing, Image Processing, Speech Recognition and GenerationTranslatorsIndustryTrainers…
9 Sarawak Language Technologies (SaLT) Research Group Technology 4 All: 4AsAwarenessUnderstandingNeedsCreating awarenessAccessTrainingComputer literacyHardware/SoftwareTelecommunicationsAdoptionas is (minor modification)Use technologyAddress needsAdaptationCustomisation by stakeholdersCustomisation by usersCommunity-Centred
10 SaLT Role of technology in language maintenance and revitalisation On revitalising and maintaining the existing conventional languages by building corpora, conducting research and developing tools for Sarawak Ethnic Languages.Sarawak Language Technologies (SaLT) Research Group coversCodification of the ethnic languagesCreation of corpora of the various languages in SarawakResearch in computational linguistics projectswhich involves languages and peoples of SarawakDevelopment of tools: word processors, spellcheckers
11 Language TechnologyUnderstanding and explication of language phenomena in acomputationally tractable form, resulting intechniques for interchanging various linguistic formsspeech, text, morphology, syntax, semantics/meaning, discourse, knowledge,thus leading to the creation and development of intelligent applications involving language.
17 Advisors and Organisations Involved NoNameExpertiseOrganisation1Prof. Zaharin YusoffComputational Linguistics (CL) & Natural Language Proc. (NLP)MMU2.Prof. Ahmad Zaki Abu BakarCL & NLPUTM3.AP Dr Normaziah Abdul AzizNLP & Artificial IntelligenceUIAM4.Prof. Dr. Tang Enya Kong5Dr. Bali RanaivoNLP & CL6.Prof. Dr. Zuraidah Mohd. DonLinguisticsUM7.Dr. Gerry KnowlesPhonetics and PhonologyMIQUEST Worldwide Sdn Bhd8.Professor Dr. Peter SonganCommunity developmentUNIMAS
18 Collaborators Universities Involved Organisations Involved UNIMAS (FCSIT, FCSHD, FSS, CLS)Multimedia UniversityUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaUniversiti Islam Antarabangsa MalaysiaUniversiti Sains MalaysiaUniversiti MalayaLocalisation Research Centre, University of Limerick, IrelandUniversity of Waikato, New ZealandOrganisations InvolvedTun Jugah FoundationDewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Sarawak Branch)Melanau AssociationDayak Bidayuh National AssociationSarawak MuseumPustaka Negeri SarawakMajlis Adat Istiadat
19 Team members a. Staff FCSIT AP Dr Alvin Yeo Wee (Head) FCSHD CLS AP Dr. Narayanan K.Dr Edwin MitSuhaila SaeeSarah Flora SamsonNurfauza JaliSuriati Khartini JaliSy. Fazlin Seyed FadzirLee Jun ChoiFCSHDDr. Ng Giap WengD’oria IslamiahWan NorizanCLSDr. Ting Su HieSalbia HassanYvonne Michelle Campbell19
20 Team members (cont’d) b. Research Assistants c. Students Beatrice Chin (FCSIT)Teh Lee Na (FCSIT)Jennifer Wilfred (FCSIT)Lai Nyong Fock (FCSIT)Mohd. Hanafiah Semuni (FCSHD)Loh Chee Wyai (FCSIT)Ang Siaw Tiong (FCSIT)c. StudentsLevelNo. of StudentsPost-graduatePhD2Master by Research6Master by Coursework5Undergraduate22Total3520
21 Borneo Corpus Management System (BCMS) Problem/Background:Currently there is no existing corpus management system to manage corpora available in minority languages of SarawakSolution:Build a system that is able to manage and maintain the corporaObjectives:To design an easy and usable Corpus Processing Toolkit for researchersIntegrate the various tools together in one single platformCurrent Status:Working on the Morphological Analysers and Spell Checkers
22 Corpus Manager (After processing) Original ContentProcessed ContentFile tree that display the processed files. The file is stored in the folder based on categoryEditable ContentUsed to highlight the extracted information in the content
23 Corpus Analyser: Sentence Splitter The output is each sentence of current document
24 Iban-Corpus Development Problem/BackgroundIndigenous languages in Sarawak are slowly dying out due to:One way to stem this “extinction” of languages:Provide more local content – but how??SolutionTranslate English documents to documents in minority languagesMT is needed to facilitates and accelerates the translation processObjectivesIdentify a methodology that can be used to translate English to minority languages, by taking Iban as a case studyCurrent StatusBuilt Iban corpus with 23,833 words with 3,831 distinct wordsConstructed bilingual lexicon with 1,688 words with 1,192 distinct words
25 Iban-English Machine Translation Problem/BackgroundTraditional knowledge (TK) is tacit knowledge; generally not stored and known only by the older generation, who speaks little EnglishTK is very important. It needs to be preserved and protected.Machine Translation (MT) can help to preserve TKTranslate available resources into English so that it is accessible by all, e.g. researchers (social scientists) and younger generationHowever, translation of closely related languages is easierSolutionTranslate TK documents to English through a closely related language as pivot languageCase study: Iban as source language, Malay as pivot language and English as target language
26 Objectives Current Status To demonstrate that the performance of translation through a pivot language is comparable with performance of direct translationRealise benefits (efficiency) of translating multiple “similar” languages through a common pivot languageCurrent StatusBuilding of Iban corpus and lexiconLinguistic comparison on Iban and Malay language
28 Multimodal Integration: Preamble User sketching on the Wacom tablet withCogSketch sketch interface describing a place.Dragon Naturally Speaking software for capturing thespeech with a microphone.
29 Multimodal Integration of Sketch and Melanau Daro-Matu Speech in Spatial Queries (MINT) Problem/BackgroundEnglish: main communication mediumLanguage is unique and distinctIndividual uses different languages may have different approaches in conceptualizing, communicating, reasoning, expressing their thoughtsTranslation is not sufficient enoughBuilding the entire system for certain targeted speakers is time consumingSolutionInternationalisation (i18n)Localisation (l10n)
30 ObjectivesIntegrate Melanau Daro-Matu speech and sketch (image) modalitiesIdentify the interaction patterns of Melanau users.Identify the similarities and difference of English, Malay and Melanau (extending to Iban as well)Localise architecture and representation of multimodal integration in Melanau Daro-Matu, and other languages
31 Modalities Representation Speech Representation Sketch Interpretation Input CapturingInput InterpretationModalities RepresentationSpeech RepresentationSketch InterpretationSketchSpeech InterpretationPart-Of-Speech TaggingLanguage-Dependent ComponentsTokenizationTagging using trained corpusTagging corrections acquired from templatesLexicon requiredGrammar rules requiredAnnotated TextSpatial information retrievalSpeechSketch RepresentationModalities IntegrationSketch and Speech IntegrationDatabase SearchingSentence SplitterTranscription
32 Spoken Language Dialogue System (SLaDS) Problem/BackgroundSpoken language system (SLS) has become an ever-increasing human-system interface.Many studies have been conducted by foreign researchers to unravel the challenge in the design of spoken language system.This study focuses on the design and development of spoken language dialogue system within the context of Malaysian user.SolutionThe project is performed by conducting a simulation test of the real SLS system with local user.The system is then evaluated by adopting the Wizard of Oz method with the objectives to determine its efficacy.The result of this testing will be useful for the future development of Malaysian SLS.
33 Objectives Current Status To investigate the spoken language and interaction design, and its employment in the development of Spoken Language Dialog SystemsTo determine the efficacy of imported usability evaluation techniques applied in the Spoken Language Dialogue SystemsIdentify speech patterns to develop a predictive model for speech recognitionCurrent StatusTo date, the study is already in its testing stage to capture the dialogue content.Respondent is prompt to interact with the system.The dialogue from the interaction will be taped, transcribed and analysed.
34 Wizard’s Control Panel SCREENSHOTSVIDEOVideo showing interaction sample;Wizard’s Control PanelUser’s view
35 Research Projects: Fundamental Research Grant Minority Languages Online (MiLO): Preserving Cultures by Mobilising Minority Languages (of Sarawak) Online. (completed 30 June 2007)Continued with CLS, Univ. of WaikatoWikipedia approach to development of Bidayuh lexiconBario Lakuh Digital Library (completed)Recordings of Kelabit songsTranscibed, translatedWith audio and video35
36 e-Vocabulary for Sarawak Malay Problems: Language endangermentVocabulary of Sarawak Malay (Original source)Main source: Vocabulary book written by W.S.B.BUCK from Bau, which was published by Sarawak Civil Service on 11th May, 1932.Total of word entries: 1026 words36
37 AbiWord in Local Languages BackgroundOne of the most widely used computer application nowadays is the word processor.Open Source Software (OSS): can used, studied, and redistributed in modified or unmodified form without restrictionSolution/ObjectivesAbiWord (comprehensive word processor) to be localisedTo identify the processes of translation of computing terminology
38 Task Progress Data collection: Interface: Current Status: Ongoing TemplateOngoingInterface:ToolbarMenuSubmenuIconTooltipsOperationCompletedRunning
40 Current Findings: Challenges Resources of some languages availableGenerally lacking; data collection very challengingWriting systems and grammar rules do not existLack of human resourcesFluent in the (untainted) form (translating, POS tagging)
41 Current Findings: Bright future Community AwarenessAssociations of ethnic groups aware of needAdvanced in age interested, younger generation not soProtocol followedUpper management support required to “open doors”Local researchers are interestedColleagues & studentsMachine translation, speech to text, text to speechDevelopment of speech corpus
43 Concluding RemarksDecreasing number of speakers of languages in SarawakMaintenance and Revitalisation: Holistic ApproachSarawak Language Technology (SaLT) Research GroupSaLT ProjectsMachine translation, multimodal integration, speech language dialog system, corpus management systems, online dictionaries/repositories, digital librariesChallenges: community involvement and data collection and analysisSilver lining: committed NGOs and researchersInternationalisation and localisation approach
44 Acknowledgements Institutional support from Financial Support grants Universiti Malaysia SarawakJugah Foundation, Melanau Association, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Sarawak Branch), Majlis Adat Istiadat, Dayak Bidayuh National AssociationFinancial Support grantsUNIMAS Fundamental Research Grant SchemeFederal Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Science Fund Grant Scheme (01-09-SF0028, SF0029, SF0030)
45 Fifth International Cyberspace Conference on Ergonomics (CybErg 2008) Theme: Local knowledge, Global ApplicationsSpecial Discussion on Maintenance and Preservation of LanguagesOn-going 15 Sept – 15 Oct 2008Free Registration
46 Conference on IT In Asia (CITA’09) Sixth InternationalConference on IT In Asia (CITA’09)Theme: “Enabling technologies for Knowledge-driven Society: People-Powered Systems”Tracks on Computational Linguistics, Human Computer Interaction, Software EngineeringKuching, Malaysia, 6- 9 July 2009; Rainforest Music Festival