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1of Radiology & Neurology University of Michigan COMMONALITIES IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF MOTOR, MOOD AND COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS IN PARKINSON DISEASENicolaas Bohnen, MD, PhDAssociate Professorof Radiology & NeurologyUniversity of MichiganAnn Arbor, MIFunctional Neuroimaging, Cognitive and Mobility Laboratory
2LANDMARKS IN PARKINSON DISEASE 1590 William Shakespeare, Henry VI, Dick “Why dost thou quiver, man?”, Say: “The palsy and not fear provokes me”Franciscus de le Böe ( ), Anatomist, University of Leyden, first medical description of tremors1817 James Parkinson, first description of PD1912 Frederick Lewy describes cytoplasmic inclusions1960 Hornykiewicz showed striatal dopaminergic depletion in PDCarlson, Cotzias: Clinical application of l-DOPA.1970 Bjorkund: Development of neural transplantation1976 Garnett: Development of 18F-FluoroDOPA (PET)1987 Benabid et al. DBS surgery pioneers
3NIGROSTRIATAL DOPAMINERGIC DENERVATION IS CONSIDERED A KEY PATHOBIOLOGICAL EVENT IN PD11C-(+)-DTBZ PETNC PDPET or SPECT imaging can demonstrate presynaptic dopaminergic denervation in PD. Striatal reductions are asymmetrically more prominent in the posterior and dorsal putamen.
4CARDINAL MOTOR-DAT (-CFT) PET CORRELATIONS: NIGROSTRIATAL DENERVATION IS INSUFFICIENT TO EXPLAIN THE PARKINSONIAN SYNDROMEBRADYKINESIAUPDRS brady (P<0.01)pegboard (P=0.01)foot tapper 0.45 (P=0.03)B. RIGIDITYUPDRS rigidity 0.11 nsC. IMBALANCEfall risk nsD. TREMORUP TREMOR nsAccelerometer ns
5NON-MOTOR SYMPTOMS OF PD ARE OFTEN THE GREATEST SOURCE OF DISABILITY Dysautonomia: Constipation, orthostatic hypotension, sexual dysfunction, bladder dysfunctionPersonality changes: introversion, social viscosity, compulsive behavior (side-effect dopaminergic medications)AnxietyDepression / ApathyExecutive cognitive dysfunction & dementiaSleep disturbances / daytime somnolenceVisual changesHyposmia
6CARDINAL MOTOR-DAT (-CFT) PET CORRELATIONS: NIGROSTRIATAL DENERVATION IS INSUFFICIENT TO EXPLAIN THE PARKINSONIAN SYNDROMEDORSAL CAUDATESTRIATUM NUCLEUSSmell *** 0.62***CES depression ns nsTrait anxiety ns nsMMSE ns nsTMT BA ns ns***P<0.001
8LEWY BODY: FIRST DESCRIBED IN THE NUCLEUS BASALIS OF MEYNERT Frederic Heinrich Lewy ( ) was the first person to describe the neuronal inclusion bodies, later renamed Lewy bodies, associated with PD in Max Lewandowsky's Handbook of Neurology in 1912However, he never seemed to make note of the typical occurrence of the inclusions in the substantia nigra of PD patients. This finding was made in 1919 by C. Tretiakoff who was the first to ascribe the name "Corps de Lewy" or "Lewy bodies" to the inclusions.Frederic LewyHeiko Braak
9Braak Classification of Lewy Neurite/Body Deposition in PD: A New Perspective On PDBraak et al. 2004
11Clinical correlates of Braak PD staging Braak stageSite of Lewy neurite formationClinical FeaturesIDorsal motor nucleus VagusVIP Neurons Aucherbach pl.GI dysfunction, i.e., constipationIILocus Ceruleus, RF,Raphe NucleusSleep-wake disorders (RBD)IIISNpc, amygdala, basolateral nuclei, basal forebrain, hypothalamusDysosmia, motor dysfunction, subtle cognitive changeIVTemporal mesocortexApparent dysautonomia, neurocognitive changeVDepigmentation of SN, prefrontal/sensory assoc CxMild dementia, hallucinations, motor impairmentVIEntire neocortexMarked motor impairment, dementia
12PD = a “Centrosympathomyenteric neuronopathy” Nigrostriatal denervation is only the tip of the PD iceberg (Langston, 2006)PD = a “Centrosympathomyenteric neuronopathy”
13COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT IN PD In PD, selective cognitive deficits, esp. executive dysfunction with difficulties planning, innovating, and sequencing (Bedard et al., 1999) are often present in the absence of clinically diagnosable dementia.Because of the primary basal ganglia involvement in PD, it has generally been asserted that executive impairment is mainly attributable to a dopaminergic loss. The contribution of dopamine to the working memory processes in PD has been emphasized (Goldman-Rakic, 1998). However, more pure measures of executive functioning do not show significant benefit with dopaminergic treatment (Cooper et al., 1992). Therefore, it is clear that the dopaminergic hypothesis cannot explain why dopaminergic treatment generally does not reverse the dysexecutive syndrome in PD.
14COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT IN PD: THE CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM A more satisfying understanding of dysexecutive syndrome in PD has come from pharmacological studies of the cholinergic system.Dubois et al. (1997, 1999) reported that the use of anti-cholinergic medications in patients with PD led to severe impairment on tests, such as the Wisconsin card sorting task, digit span test, and a behavioral indifference scale . Furthermore, anticholinergic drug administration caused a transient dysexecutive syndrome in PD patients, but not in normal controls, indicating specific anti-cholinergic vulnerability in PD (Bedard et al., 1998).
15DEMENTIA IN PARKINSON DISEASE Incidence of dementia in PD 40-50%.The causes of dementia in PD are probably manifold but likely include direct cortical involvement as evidenced by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, dopaminergic degeneration, cholinergic deficits from nucleus basalis atrophy, and concomitant conditions such as Alzheimer disease (AD).Significant loss of cholinergic forebrain neurons has also been reported in PD brains (Whitehouse et al., 1983; Candy et al., 1983). Arendt et al. found greater forebrain neuronal loss in PD than in AD (Arendt et al., 1983), suggesting that cholinergic deficits may be at least as prominent in (late-stage) PD as in AD.
16IN VIVO CHOLINERGIC DENERVATION IS MORE SEVERE AND EXTENSIVE IN PARKINSONIAN DEMENTIA THAN IN PROTOTYPICAL ALZHEIMER DISEASE11C-PMP AChE PET (Bohnen et al., 2003)
17AChE PET CORRELATES OF EXECUTIVE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT IN PD Cholinergic denervation in PD is associated with cognitive (executive, attention, working memory) changes.
18DEPRESSION IN PDDepression is a frequent non-motor symptom in PD (25-50%) and is a significant source of disability in this disorder (Weintraub et al., 2004).There is converging evidence of serotonergic hypofunction as a basis for depression in PD on the basis of reduced 5-HIAA csf levels (D'Amato et al., 1987; Birkmayer et al., 1987).
19POST-MORTEM DATA: PROMINENT PRE- BUT NOT POSTSYNAPTIC 5HT DEGENERATION IN PD
20DEPRESSION IN PD: 5HT REVISITED? A recent meta-analysis on antidepressant studies in PD found that this population may benefit less from typical antidepressant treatment, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), than do patients without PD (Weintraub, 2005).A recent study of acute tryptophan depletion also failed to identify a specific serotonergic vulnerability for depression in PD (Leentjens et al., 2006)
21SEROTONERGIC DENERVATION IN PD 50% 20% ROSTRO-CAUDAL GRADIENT 11C-DASB PET(Courtesy Roger Albin)
22DEPRESSION & COGNITION IN PD A relatively unique feature of depression in PD is that mood disturbance is associated with a quantitative but not qualitative worsening of cognitive deficits (Tröster et al., 1995).Prospective studies have shown that depression may be a risk factor for incident dementia in PD (Lieberman, 2006)This modulatory effect of depression on cognitive impairment in PD suggests that a common mechanism might underlie both types of symptoms.
23CHOLINERGIC DENERVATION & DEPRESSION IN PDDepressive symptomatology is associated with cortical cholinergic denervation in PD that tends to be more prominent when dementia is present.A significant inverse correlation between cortical AChE activity and scores on the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) (R=-0.50, P=0.007) which remained significant after controlling for MMSE scores.(Bohnen et al., 2007)
24MOTOR * PHARMACOTHERAPY & DBS IN PD MOTOR INTERACTION Functional Neuroimaging, Cognitive and Mobility Laboratory
25Trade-Offs in PD pharmacotherapy MIND vs. BODYTrade-Offs in PD pharmacotherapyDA*ACh“scale”Anti-cholinergic drugs have anti-rigid and anti-tremor effects but may cause confusion or delirium.Cholinergic drugs may cause motor fluctuations and worsen tremor but may help cognitionDopamine agnosits improve motor functions may lead to psychosisDA receptor blockers (antipsychotics) may help psychotic symptoms but may cause parkinsonism
28DBS: NON-MOTOR SIDE-EFFECTS Cognitive deficits post DBS: verbal memory; verbal fluency; attention and executive functions; working memory; mental speeds and response inhibition (for review, Temel et al., 2006).Mood changes: depression, incl. suicide, mania, anxiety (for review, Temel et al., 2006).HypersexualityPathological laughterChanges in personality, impulse control disorderAnatomically, cognitive and limbic information related to the basal ganglia is processed by the associative and limbic circuits, respectively. These data point towards a potent regulatory function of the STN in the processing of associative and limbic information towards cortical and subcortical regions with further evidence from functional neuroimaging studies (Temel et al. 2006; Mallet et al. 2007).No major behavioral changes from Vim thalamic and GPi target stimulation.
31STN DBS “on” vs “off” verbal fluency Number of words processedRegions of decreased activation within the right orbitofrontal cortex and the left inferior frontal cortex/insular cortex, the left inferior temporal cortex during STN stimulation compared with the OFF state during the fluency task (Schroeder et al., 2003)
32“STN” (Nigral) DBS: Acute inducible depression Only stimulation through contact 0 of the electrode placed on the left side caused depression. The actual time of each recording is indicated on the photograph. Panel A shows the patient's usual expression while receiving levodopa. Panel B shows a change in the facial expression 17 seconds after stimulation began. Panel C shows the patient crying and expressing despair 4 minutes and 16 seconds after the start of stimulation. Panel D shows the patient laughing 1 minute and 20 seconds after the stimulator was turned off.
33Bejjani et al. 1999 CONNECTIONS The results of PET revealed activation of the left orbitofrontal cortex, a finding consistent with involvement of the nigrothalamic pathway, which extends to the left amygdala and limbic structures and is implicated in the processing of unpleasant feelings.
35CONCLUSIONSPD is a multi-systems neurodegeneration syndrome that cannot be fully explained by nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation. There is also post-mortem and in vivo evidence of monoaminergic (5HT, NE) and cholinergic denervation.Pharmacotherapy in PD may (adversely) effects DA, NE, 5HT or ACh neurochemical systems with respective non- motor and motor consequences.DBS, in particular STN, may affect,because of its close anatomic proximity, non-motor associative and limbocortical circuits with consequences on mood, cognition and behavior.