Presentation on theme: "Renewable energy & water UK experience good and bad Ecoweek 17/3/10"— Presentation transcript:
1Renewable energy & water UK experience good and bad Ecoweek 17/3/10 Brian Mark, Technical Director1
2To help understand my view International consulting engineersFounding member of UKGBCSteering groups of CSH, Zero Carbon Hub, UKGBC/ZCH, Sustainable Community Infrastructure ReportAuthor of energy content of CABE Sustainable Cities Web site, Eco-towns design reviewerMember of Renewables Advisory BoardEnergy/sustainability strategists for nearly 100,000 future UK homesLearning to be planners as Energy has entered the UK spatial planning system
3A HISTORY OF FULCRUM DESIGNS Continued, controlled, innovation…..
4BUILDING REGULATIONS TRAJECTORY…. THE UK TIMETABLE TO ZERO CARBONGovernment’s timeline:Dwellings: 2016Education buildings: 2016Government buildings: 2018All other: 2019Zero Carbon taskforces: reinforcing the need for step changeZero Carbon Hub: engaging industryPPS1 Supplement: Sets out measures for how new developments should support climate change mitigation and adaptation, contribute to reducing carbon emissions within the built environment whilst also meeting community needs for economic and housing development. Emphasis on Local & Regional Authorities to develop and adjust planning policies to ensure that new developments meet the PPS objectives. This will involve review of Regional Spatial Strategies (RSS) and Development Plan Documents (DPD) to incorporate the requirements. Obligation on LAs to implement independent strategies, assessments and reviews, including obtaining an evidence-based understanding of local opportunities for renewable and low-carbon sources of energy supply and where supporting infrastructure might be required to aid the realisation of these opportunitiesPPS1: “Development plan policies... should seek to promote and encourage, rather than restrict, the use of renewable resources (for example, by the development of renewable energy). Regional planning authorities and local authorities should promote resource and energy efficient buildings; community heating schemes, the use of combined heat and power, small scale renewable and low carbon energy schemes in developments…”PPS22:Local planning authorities may include policies in local development documents that require a percentage of the energy to be used in new residential, commercial or industrial developments to come from on-site renewable energy developments Such policies:(i) should ensure that requirement to generate on-site renewable energy is only appliedto developments where the installation of renewable energy generation equipment is viable given the type of development proposed, its location, and design;(ii) should not be framed in such a way as to place an undue burden on developers, for example, by specifying that all energy to be used in a development should come from on-site renewable generation.”
5SOME DRIVERS THAT CAN’T BE IGNORED BECAUSE THEY ARE LINKED TO BINDING TARGETS The UK Climate Change Act - 80% CO2 reduction by 2050The Renewables Obligation, the EU 2020 Directive – 15% renewable UK energy by 2020 (<2% now) Greece?The Dec 2008 EU Waste Directive (to become the 2010 UK Waste Strategy) – Possibly tough reuse targets, W2E only counting when efficient (60% for existing, 65% for new plant) THIS NEEDS CHP or equivalent efficiency conversion, what will Greece do?PPS1 and the Planning and Climate Change Supplement – Plan only for sustainable development that reduces climate change (mitigation) and survives it when it happens (adaptation). Combined with PPS22 in new consultation PPS from 8/3/10Present responsibility for evidence based local studies to identify opportunities for additional renewable energy and decentralised energy generation strengthened along with need to adapt Core Strategy to maximise uptake
6DEFINITION OF ZERO CARBON CHANGES WITH VIABILITY TESTS – EU EPBD2 MAY IMPOSE THE SAME JOURNEY ON GREECECURRENT REQUIREMENTSNet carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromALL energy used in the dwelling are zero or betterRequires ALL renewable energy to begenerated on-site or delivered via Private WirePROPOSED REQUIREMENTSHierarchical approach requiring:High-levels of energy efficiency (39 or 46 Kwh/m2)Mandatory level of on-site carbon mitigation(including district heating) but Citiworks EU Judgement?“Allowable solutions” for dealing with theremaining emissions
7NOT MANY URBAN MICROGENERATION OPTIONS Solar ThermalHigh UK £ /Kg CO2 saved because of complexity. The simple Greek systems work very wellGround Source Cooling / HeatingOn balance in the UK it’s a good idea. In Greece usestored winter or dry period adiabatic cooling in summerto allow heat pump efficiency to count towards 2020Wind TurbinesNot enough urban wind, Go large!!Photovoltaic CellsInsufficient money without FiT or roof on high density development - beware dustBiomass/WasteCentral rather than small plant for better audit/control of emissions, should it be for transport anyway?
8What a bed flat would have needed excluding wind if the UK definition of zero carbon construction had not evolved beware EU EPBD2 !48 m2 polycrystalline PV panel or38 m2 polycrystalline PV panel + 3m2 evacuated tube or 4m2 flat plate solar thermal panel or30 m2 polycrystalline PV panel + ground source heat pump for space heating and hot water or26 m2 polycrystalline PV panel + ground source heat pump for space heating only + 3m2 evacuated tube or 4m2 flat plate solar thermal panel or23 m2 polycrystalline PV panel + biomass boiler
9ENERGY HIERARCHY REQUIRED BY GLA PLANNING SYSTEM FOR NEW DEVELOPMENT ENERGY HIERARCHY APPROACH TO OPTIMISE CO2 SAVINGEnergy use and CO2 reductions tobe achieved through the wasteminimisation cost/benefit hierarchydefined as:Demand reduction (Lean)Efficient provision of services (Clean)Application of 20% renewable energy (Green)Green roofs for adaptation response
10Copyright of Fulcrum Consulting HOUSING SCENARIOSBest fit solution depends on densityIndependentHybridHubIndependent ApproachIndependent/ Community ApproachCommunity ApproachEnergy CentreEnergy CentreCopyright of Fulcrum ConsultingBiomass BoilerGround Storage SystemAll buildings treated separately – meeting CO2 targets via integrated systemsA hybrid approach with energy centres and standalone building systems in combinationBuildings linked to energy centres via community - scale infrastructure
11Hierarchical Approach CONSULTATION: DEFINITION OF ZERO CARBON HOMES AND NON DOMESTIC BUILDINGSAllowable solutionsHierarchical ApproachCarbon compliance beyond the minimum standards up to 100% of total energyEnergy efficient appliances or advanced controls systemsExporting LZC heat/cooling to existing propertiesSection 106 Planning ObligationsRetrofitting EE measures to existing stockInvestment in LZC energy infrastructure (within UK and with ‘benefits of ownership’ passed to purchaser)Off-site renewable electricity via ‘direct physical connection’Any other measures that Government might announce as eligible i.e. CARBON FUNDSEnergy efficiency‘Carbon compliance’‘Allowable solutions’
12Past, present and future RENEWABLE ENERGYPast, present and futureUK Renewables Obligation target (20% in the grid by 2020) 5.6% now, should have been about 9%For the EU 2020 RE Directive the grid will need to be at least 30% renewable, more if EU Biofuels Directive rescinded!The UK now has to import gas i.e. making our own future energy is a strategic concernBuilt environment has a sector delivery target driven through both Building Regulations and Planning
13CHP Can also generate cooling via tri-generation LOW CARBON ENERGY , COMBINED HEAT AND POWER (CHP)Local electricity generation that makes use of the waste heatCHP Can also generate cooling via tri-generationCombined heat and power is the generation of thermal and electrical energy in a single process. In this way, optimum use can be made of the energy available from the fuel. CHP installations can convert up to 90% of the energy in the fuel into electrical power and useful heat. This compares very favourably with conventional power generation which has a delivered energy efficiency of around 30-45%.
14SO WHAT TO DO? A POSSIBLE CLUE … City scale CHP … Copenhagen and virtually everywhere else in developed Europe/Scandinavia with modern exemplary sustainable communities (Malmo, Freiburg etc)One of largest retrofitted communal energy systems in the WorldHeating 50 million M2 of built areaConnects four CHP plants, four waste incinerators and more than 50 peak load boiler plants to more than 20 distribution companies in one pool-operated systemTotal heat production of around 30,000 TJ.
15FOLLOW THE SCANDINAVIAN MODEL :- UK BIOENERGY CONTRIBUTION IN 2020 RE Strategy projection for 2020RAB Projection for 2020238 TWh renewables111 TWh bioenergy (46%)250 TWh renewables126 TWh bioenergy (50%)ElectricityTransportTransportElectricity11%20%18%19%OffshorewindHeat19%Offshorewind15%13%22%Heat14%11%15%Onshorewind13%6%Other4%OtherOnshorewindOtherOther
16Data are the energy content FUEL TO MEET 2020 SUSTAINABLY:- WASTE WHILE EU DERIVES STANDARDSData are the energy contentof the fuelsWaste woodGarden / plant waste2%Requirement = 575 PJUK biowaste = ~270 PJ (32 million tonnes)17%4%Paper and cardCereal straw53%8%ImportsandEnergy CropsForestry residues,sawmill wastes etc6%3%Poultry manure17 million tonnes1%Sewage sludge5%Wet wastes
17Waste to Energy Technologies Incineration based- has to have good quality emissions under the EU Waste Incineration Directive: no known health problem from compliant W2E plantGasification- partial combustion at aprox 650oC with limited air availability to drive off volatile gasses: difficult to control and can therefore be wasteful and innefficientPyrolysis- heating in the absence of air at aprox 950oC can reform hydrocarbons (plastics) or carbohydrates (biomass) into methane or hydrogenLignocellulosic hydrolysis- an old technology known as 2nd generation biofuel production capable of capturing waste heat and converting waste fibrous biomass into bioethanol for transport use (1 tonne of waste fibre can be converted to 300L of bioethanol
18STRATEGY FOR BIOMASS IN THE UK Maximum use of waste materials in the biomass supply; AD, gasification and pyrolysis open new uses for wasteMaximum use of indigenous biomass supply; 2nd and 3rd generation technologies, leading to increased use in aviation biofuel, biocomposites and renewable chemicalsRO banding Review, RHI, Revised RTFOEnergy from Waste Policy, Revised Planning Guidance, RED sustainability implementation, Biomass sustainability criteria, Bioenergy in Transport Strategy, Fuel Quality accreditationTaken from DECC Presentation for the Renewables Advisory Board 25 January 2010
19URBAN HEAT NETWORKS AND ATES Many cities demonstrate simultaneous heat demand fromsome buildings and heat excess in others
21Urban heat efficiency, don’t make climate change even more dangerous
22Integrated Water and Waste Management must consider:- Reduction of water consumptionRe-use options, with different scales & issuesRainwater HarvestingGreywater HarvestingGroundwater abstractionSewage treatment is organic waste treatment, use anaerobic digestion for energy advantage before converting to CO2 and cleaner water by compostingWet landscapingSustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS)
23Reduction of water consumption In UK 165L/person now- future target of 125In UK Code for Sustainable Homes requires Levels 1&2 :125L, 3&4 :105L, 5&6 80L105L/person achievable with use minimisation techniques, 80L/person requires greywater recycling or rainwater harvestingNo government appetite for regional water use targets, Wales at 2.0 m/yr rainfall and low development has the same target as London with 0.75 m/yr and major growth
24Greywater RecyclingIndevidual recycling units require constant maintenance or filters block, unit reverts to mains use and no water is savedUsers often do not alert the need for maintenance as they prefer the “look” of non recycled waterIndividual units use bromine for disinfection – is this good for municipal biological treatment of waste water in the long term when we have only just worked out that chlorine is bad?Needs spoil excavated and disposed of for the underground receiver tank, a new pipework system, pumps, controls etc- is this good if lack of water is not a regional sustainability concern?In Greece water stress is a much more prevailing issue than in the UK but a communal non potable water supply would be a better answer, similarly indevidual rainwater storage would suffer problems with water quality deterioration due to higher mean temperatures during the low rainfall seasons and a centralised approach (as probably already exists) may well be best
25Wet landscaping is the best Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) Return the rivers to their original function, controlling flooding, enabling wetland ecosystems, nutrient and fresh water recycling before rivers pollute and damage the sea- Marine Dead Zones!!
26The End Brian Mark, Technical Director Mott MacDonald Fulcrum