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Renewable energy & water UK experience good and bad Ecoweek 17/3/10 Brian Mark, Technical Director.

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Presentation on theme: "Renewable energy & water UK experience good and bad Ecoweek 17/3/10 Brian Mark, Technical Director."— Presentation transcript:

1 Renewable energy & water UK experience good and bad Ecoweek 17/3/10 Brian Mark, Technical Director

2 Page 2 To help understand my view International consulting engineers Founding member of UKGBC Steering groups of CSH, Zero Carbon Hub, UKGBC/ZCH, Sustainable Community Infrastructure Report Author of energy content of CABE Sustainable Cities Web site, Eco-towns design reviewer Member of Renewables Advisory Board Energy/sustainability strategists for nearly 100,000 future UK homes Learning to be planners as Energy has entered the UK spatial planning system

3 Page 3 A HISTORY OF FULCRUM DESIGNS Continued, controlled, innovation…..

4 Page 4 BUILDING REGULATIONS TRAJECTORY…. Governments timeline: Dwellings: 2016 Education buildings: 2016 Government buildings: 2018 All other: 2019 Zero Carbon taskforces: reinforcing the need for step change Zero Carbon Hub: engaging industry THE UK TIMETABLE TO ZERO CARBON

5 Page 5 SOME DRIVERS THAT CANT BE IGNORED BECAUSE THEY ARE LINKED TO BINDING TARGETS The UK Climate Change Act - 80% CO2 reduction by 2050 The Renewables Obligation, the EU 2020 Directive – 15% renewable UK energy by 2020 (<2% now) Greece? The Dec 2008 EU Waste Directive (to become the 2010 UK Waste Strategy) – Possibly tough reuse targets, W2E only counting when efficient (60% for existing, 65% for new plant) THIS NEEDS CHP or equivalent efficiency conversion, what will Greece do? PPS1 and the Planning and Climate Change Supplement – Plan only for sustainable development that reduces climate change (mitigation) and survives it when it happens (adaptation). Combined with PPS22 in new consultation PPS from 8/3/10 Present responsibility for evidence based local studies to identify opportunities for additional renewable energy and decentralised energy generation strengthened along with need to adapt Core Strategy to maximise uptake

6 Page 6 CURRENT REQUIREMENTS Net carbon dioxide emissions resulting from ALL energy used in the dwelling are zero or better Requires ALL renewable energy to be generated on-site or delivered via Private Wire PROPOSED REQUIREMENTS Hierarchical approach requiring: High-levels of energy efficiency (39 or 46 Kwh/m 2 ) Mandatory level of on-site carbon mitigation (including district heating) but Citiworks EU Judgement? Allowable solutions for dealing with the remaining emissions DEFINITION OF ZERO CARBON CHANGES WITH VIABILITY TESTS – EU EPBD2 MAY IMPOSE THE SAME JOURNEY ON GREECE

7 Page 7 NOT MANY URBAN MICROGENERATION OPTIONS Solar Thermal High UK £ /Kg CO2 saved because of complexity. The simple Greek systems work very well Ground Source Cooling / Heating On balance in the UK its a good idea. In Greece use stored winter or dry period adiabatic cooling in summer to allow heat pump efficiency to count towards 2020 Wind Turbines Not enough urban wind, Go large!! Photovoltaic Cells Insufficient money without FiT or roof on high density development - beware dust Biomass/Waste Central rather than small plant for better audit/control of emissions, should it be for transport anyway?

8 Page 8 What a 2016 2-bed flat would have needed excluding wind if the UK definition of zero carbon construction had not evolved beware EU EPBD2 ! 48 m 2 polycrystalline PV panel or 38 m 2 polycrystalline PV panel + 3m 2 evacuated tube or 4m 2 flat plate solar thermal panel or 30 m 2 polycrystalline PV panel + ground source heat pump for space heating and hot water or 26 m 2 polycrystalline PV panel + ground source heat pump for space heating only + 3m 2 evacuated tube or 4m 2 flat plate solar thermal panel or 23 m 2 polycrystalline PV panel + biomass boiler

9 Page 9 ENERGY HIERARCHY APPROACH TO OPTIMISE CO 2 SAVING ENERGY HIERARCHY REQUIRED BY GLA PLANNING SYSTEM FOR NEW DEVELOPMENT Energy use and CO 2 reductions to be achieved through the waste minimisation cost/benefit hierarchy defined as: Demand reduction (Lean) Efficient provision of services (Clean) Application of 20% renewable energy (Green) Green roofs for adaptation response

10 Page 10 All buildings treated separately – meeting CO2 targets via integrated systems HOUSING SCENARIOS Independent HybridHub Independent ApproachIndependent/ Community ApproachCommunity Approach Energy Centre Biomass Boiler Ground Storage System A hybrid approach with energy centres and standalone building systems in combination Buildings linked to energy centres via community - scale infrastructure Best fit solution depends on density

11 Page 11 CONSULTATION: DEFINITION OF ZERO CARBON HOMES AND NON DOMESTIC BUILDINGS Allowable solutions Carbon compliance beyond the minimum standards up to 100% of total energy Energy efficient appliances or advanced controls systems Exporting LZC heat/cooling to existing properties Section 106 Planning Obligations Retrofitting EE measures to existing stock Investment in LZC energy infrastructure (within UK and with benefits of ownership passed to purchaser) Off-site renewable electricity via direct physical connection Any other measures that Government might announce as eligible i.e. CARBON FUNDS Hierarchical Approach Energy efficiency Carbon compliance Allowable solutions

12 Page 12 UK Renewables Obligation target (20% in the grid by 2020) 5.6% now, should have been about 9% For the EU 2020 RE Directive the grid will need to be at least 30% renewable, more if EU Biofuels Directive rescinded! The UK now has to import gas i.e. making our own future energy is a strategic concern Built environment has a sector delivery target driven through both Building Regulations and Planning RENEWABLE ENERGY Past, present and future

13 Page 13 CHP Can also generate cooling via tri-generation Local electricity generation that makes use of the waste heat LOW CARBON ENERGY, COMBINED HEAT AND POWER (CHP)

14 Page 14 One of largest retrofitted communal energy systems in the World Heating 50 million M 2 of built area Connects four CHP plants, four waste incinerators and more than 50 peak load boiler plants to more than 20 distribution companies in one pool-operated system Total heat production of around 30,000 TJ. SO WHAT TO DO? A POSSIBLE CLUE … City scale CHP … Copenhagen and virtually everywhere else in developed Europe/Scandinavia with modern exemplary sustainable communities (Malmo, Freiburg etc)

15 Page 15 FOLLOW THE SCANDINAVIAN MODEL :- UK BIOENERGY CONTRIBUTION IN 2020 Electricity Heat Transport 15% 20% 11% 6% 14% 19% 13% Other 11% 4% Onshore wind 13% 22% 18% 250 TWh renewables 126 TWh bioenergy (50%) RE Strategy projection for 2020RAB Projection for 2020 238 TWh renewables 111 TWh bioenergy (46%) Transport Electricity Heat Offshore wind Other Onshore wind Offshore wind

16 Page 16 Requirement = 575 PJ UK biowaste = ~270 PJ (32 million tonnes) 17% 2% 4% 8% 6% 3% 1% 5% 53% Imports and Energy Crops 17 million tonnes Paper and card Garden / plant waste Cereal straw Forestry residues, sawmill wastes etc Poultry manure Wet wastes Sewage sludge Waste wood Data are the energy content of the fuels FUEL TO MEET 2020 SUSTAINABLY:- WASTE WHILE EU DERIVES STANDARDS

17 Page 17 Waste to Energy Technologies Incineration based- has to have good quality emissions under the EU Waste Incineration Directive: no known health problem from compliant W2E plant Gasification- partial combustion at aprox 650 o C with limited air availability to drive off volatile gasses: difficult to control and can therefore be wasteful and innefficient Pyrolysis- heating in the absence of air at aprox 950 o C can reform hydrocarbons (plastics) or carbohydrates (biomass) into methane or hydrogen Lignocellulosic hydrolysis- an old technology known as 2 nd generation biofuel production capable of capturing waste heat and converting waste fibrous biomass into bioethanol for transport use (1 tonne of waste fibre can be converted to 300L of bioethanol

18 Page 18 RO banding Review, RHI, Revised RTFO Energy from Waste Policy, Revised Planning Guidance, RED sustainability implementation, Biomass sustainability criteria, Bioenergy in Transport Strategy, Fuel Quality accreditation Maximum use of waste materials in the biomass supply; AD, gasification and pyrolysis open new uses for waste Maximum use of indigenous biomass supply; 2 nd and 3 rd generation technologies, leading to increased use in aviation biofuel, biocomposites and renewable chemicals Taken from DECC Presentation for the Renewables Advisory Board 25 January 2010 STRATEGY FOR BIOMASS IN THE UK

19 Page 19 URBAN HEAT NETWORKS AND ATES Many cities demonstrate simultaneous heat demand from some buildings and heat excess in others


21 Page 21 Urban heat efficiency, dont make climate change even more dangerous

22 Page 22 Integrated Water and Waste Management must consider:- Reduction of water consumption Re-use options, with different scales & issues -Rainwater Harvesting -Greywater Harvesting Groundwater abstraction Sewage treatment is organic waste treatment, use anaerobic digestion for energy advantage before converting to CO2 and cleaner water by composting Wet landscaping Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS)

23 Page 23 Reduction of water consumption In UK 165L/person now- future target of 125 In UK Code for Sustainable Homes requires Levels 1&2 :125L, 3&4 :105L, 5&6 80L 105L/person achievable with use minimisation techniques, 80L/person requires greywater recycling or rainwater harvesting No government appetite for regional water use targets, Wales at 2.0 m/yr rainfall and low development has the same target as London with 0.75 m/yr and major growth

24 Page 24 Greywater Recycling Indevidual recycling units require constant maintenance or filters block, unit reverts to mains use and no water is saved Users often do not alert the need for maintenance as they prefer the look of non recycled water Individual units use bromine for disinfection – is this good for municipal biological treatment of waste water in the long term when we have only just worked out that chlorine is bad? Needs spoil excavated and disposed of for the underground receiver tank, a new pipework system, pumps, controls etc- is this good if lack of water is not a regional sustainability concern? In Greece water stress is a much more prevailing issue than in the UK but a communal non potable water supply would be a better answer, similarly indevidual rainwater storage would suffer problems with water quality deterioration due to higher mean temperatures during the low rainfall seasons and a centralised approach (as probably already exists) may well be best

25 Page 25 Wet landscaping is the best Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) Return the rivers to their original function, controlling flooding, enabling wetland ecosystems, nutrient and fresh water recycling before rivers pollute and damage the sea- Marine Dead Zones!!

26 Page 26 The End Brian Mark, Technical Director Mott MacDonald Fulcrum

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