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Renewable energy & water UK experience good and bad Ecoweek 17/3/10

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Presentation on theme: "Renewable energy & water UK experience good and bad Ecoweek 17/3/10"— Presentation transcript:

1 Renewable energy & water UK experience good and bad Ecoweek 17/3/10
Brian Mark, Technical Director 1

2 To help understand my view
International consulting engineers Founding member of UKGBC Steering groups of CSH, Zero Carbon Hub, UKGBC/ZCH, Sustainable Community Infrastructure Report Author of energy content of CABE Sustainable Cities Web site, Eco-towns design reviewer Member of Renewables Advisory Board Energy/sustainability strategists for nearly 100,000 future UK homes Learning to be planners as Energy has entered the UK spatial planning system

Continued, controlled, innovation…..

THE UK TIMETABLE TO ZERO CARBON Government’s timeline: Dwellings: 2016 Education buildings: 2016 Government buildings: 2018 All other: 2019 Zero Carbon taskforces: reinforcing the need for step change Zero Carbon Hub: engaging industry PPS1 Supplement: Sets out measures for how new developments should support climate change mitigation and adaptation, contribute to reducing carbon emissions within the built environment whilst also meeting community needs for economic and housing development. Emphasis on Local & Regional Authorities to develop and adjust planning policies to ensure that new developments meet the PPS objectives. This will involve review of Regional Spatial Strategies (RSS) and Development Plan Documents (DPD) to incorporate the requirements. Obligation on LAs to implement independent strategies, assessments and reviews, including obtaining an evidence-based understanding of local opportunities for renewable and low-carbon sources of energy supply and where supporting infrastructure might be required to aid the realisation of these opportunities PPS1: “Development plan policies... should seek to promote and encourage, rather than restrict, the use of renewable resources (for example, by the development of renewable energy). Regional planning authorities and local authorities should promote resource and energy efficient buildings; community heating schemes, the use of combined heat and power, small scale renewable and low carbon energy schemes in developments…” PPS22:Local planning authorities may include policies in local development documents that require a percentage of the energy to be used in new residential, commercial or industrial developments to come from on-site renewable energy developments Such policies: (i) should ensure that requirement to generate on-site renewable energy is only applied to developments where the installation of renewable energy generation equipment is viable given the type of development proposed, its location, and design; (ii) should not be framed in such a way as to place an undue burden on developers, for example, by specifying that all energy to be used in a development should come from on-site renewable generation.”

The UK Climate Change Act - 80% CO2 reduction by 2050 The Renewables Obligation, the EU 2020 Directive – 15% renewable UK energy by 2020 (<2% now) Greece? The Dec 2008 EU Waste Directive (to become the 2010 UK Waste Strategy) – Possibly tough reuse targets, W2E only counting when efficient (60% for existing, 65% for new plant) THIS NEEDS CHP or equivalent efficiency conversion, what will Greece do? PPS1 and the Planning and Climate Change Supplement – Plan only for sustainable development that reduces climate change (mitigation) and survives it when it happens (adaptation). Combined with PPS22 in new consultation PPS from 8/3/10 Present responsibility for evidence based local studies to identify opportunities for additional renewable energy and decentralised energy generation strengthened along with need to adapt Core Strategy to maximise uptake

6 DEFINITION OF ZERO CARBON CHANGES WITH VIABILITY TESTS – EU EPBD2 MAY IMPOSE THE SAME JOURNEY ON GREECE CURRENT REQUIREMENTS Net carbon dioxide emissions resulting from ALL energy used in the dwelling are zero or better Requires ALL renewable energy to be generated on-site or delivered via Private Wire PROPOSED REQUIREMENTS Hierarchical approach requiring: High-levels of energy efficiency (39 or 46 Kwh/m2) Mandatory level of on-site carbon mitigation (including district heating) but Citiworks EU Judgement? “Allowable solutions” for dealing with the remaining emissions

Solar Thermal High UK £ /Kg CO2 saved because of complexity. The simple Greek systems work very well Ground Source Cooling / Heating On balance in the UK it’s a good idea. In Greece use stored winter or dry period adiabatic cooling in summer to allow heat pump efficiency to count towards 2020 Wind Turbines Not enough urban wind, Go large!! Photovoltaic Cells Insufficient money without FiT or roof on high density development - beware dust Biomass/Waste Central rather than small plant for better audit/control of emissions, should it be for transport anyway?

8 What a bed flat would have needed excluding wind if the UK definition of zero carbon construction had not evolved beware EU EPBD2 ! 48 m2 polycrystalline PV panel or 38 m2 polycrystalline PV panel + 3m2 evacuated tube or 4m2 flat plate solar thermal panel or 30 m2 polycrystalline PV panel + ground source heat pump for space heating and hot water or 26 m2 polycrystalline PV panel + ground source heat pump for space heating only + 3m2 evacuated tube or 4m2 flat plate solar thermal panel or 23 m2 polycrystalline PV panel + biomass boiler

ENERGY HIERARCHY APPROACH TO OPTIMISE CO2 SAVING Energy use and CO2 reductions to be achieved through the waste minimisation cost/benefit hierarchy defined as: Demand reduction (Lean) Efficient provision of services (Clean) Application of 20% renewable energy (Green) Green roofs for adaptation response

10 Copyright of Fulcrum Consulting
HOUSING SCENARIOS Best fit solution depends on density Independent Hybrid Hub Independent Approach Independent/ Community Approach Community Approach Energy Centre Energy Centre Copyright of Fulcrum Consulting Biomass Boiler Ground Storage System All buildings treated separately – meeting CO2 targets via integrated systems A hybrid approach with energy centres and standalone building systems in combination Buildings linked to energy centres via community - scale infrastructure

11 Hierarchical Approach
CONSULTATION: DEFINITION OF ZERO CARBON HOMES AND NON DOMESTIC BUILDINGS Allowable solutions Hierarchical Approach Carbon compliance beyond the minimum standards up to 100% of total energy Energy efficient appliances or advanced controls systems Exporting LZC heat/cooling to existing properties Section 106 Planning Obligations Retrofitting EE measures to existing stock Investment in LZC energy infrastructure (within UK and with ‘benefits of ownership’ passed to purchaser) Off-site renewable electricity via ‘direct physical connection’ Any other measures that Government might announce as eligible i.e. CARBON FUNDS Energy efficiency ‘Carbon compliance’ ‘Allowable solutions’

12 Past, present and future
RENEWABLE ENERGY Past, present and future UK Renewables Obligation target (20% in the grid by 2020) 5.6% now, should have been about 9% For the EU 2020 RE Directive the grid will need to be at least 30% renewable, more if EU Biofuels Directive rescinded! The UK now has to import gas i.e. making our own future energy is a strategic concern Built environment has a sector delivery target driven through both Building Regulations and Planning

13 CHP Can also generate cooling via tri-generation
LOW CARBON ENERGY , COMBINED HEAT AND POWER (CHP) Local electricity generation that makes use of the waste heat CHP Can also generate cooling via tri-generation Combined heat and power is the generation of thermal and electrical energy in a single process. In this way, optimum use can be made of the energy available from the fuel. CHP installations can convert up to 90% of the energy in the fuel into electrical power and useful heat. This compares very favourably with conventional power generation which has a delivered energy efficiency of around 30-45%.

… Copenhagen and virtually everywhere else in developed Europe/Scandinavia with modern exemplary sustainable communities (Malmo, Freiburg etc) One of largest retrofitted communal energy systems in the World Heating 50 million M2 of built area Connects four CHP plants, four waste incinerators and more than 50 peak load boiler plants to more than 20 distribution companies in one pool-operated system Total heat production of around 30,000 TJ.

RE Strategy projection for 2020 RAB Projection for 2020 238 TWh renewables 111 TWh bioenergy (46%) 250 TWh renewables 126 TWh bioenergy (50%) Electricity Transport Transport Electricity 11% 20% 18% 19% Offshore wind Heat 19% Offshore wind 15% 13% 22% Heat 14% 11% 15% Onshore wind 13% 6% Other 4% Other Onshore wind Other Other

16 Data are the energy content
FUEL TO MEET 2020 SUSTAINABLY:- WASTE WHILE EU DERIVES STANDARDS Data are the energy content of the fuels Waste wood Garden / plant waste 2% Requirement = 575 PJ UK biowaste = ~270 PJ (32 million tonnes) 17% 4% Paper and card Cereal straw 53% 8% Imports and Energy Crops Forestry residues, sawmill wastes etc 6% 3% Poultry manure 17 million tonnes 1% Sewage sludge 5% Wet wastes

17 Waste to Energy Technologies
Incineration based- has to have good quality emissions under the EU Waste Incineration Directive: no known health problem from compliant W2E plant Gasification- partial combustion at aprox 650oC with limited air availability to drive off volatile gasses: difficult to control and can therefore be wasteful and innefficient Pyrolysis- heating in the absence of air at aprox 950oC can reform hydrocarbons (plastics) or carbohydrates (biomass) into methane or hydrogen Lignocellulosic hydrolysis- an old technology known as 2nd generation biofuel production capable of capturing waste heat and converting waste fibrous biomass into bioethanol for transport use (1 tonne of waste fibre can be converted to 300L of bioethanol

Maximum use of waste materials in the biomass supply; AD, gasification and pyrolysis open new uses for waste Maximum use of indigenous biomass supply; 2nd and 3rd generation technologies, leading to increased use in aviation biofuel, biocomposites and renewable chemicals RO banding Review, RHI, Revised RTFO Energy from Waste Policy, Revised Planning Guidance, RED sustainability implementation, Biomass sustainability criteria, Bioenergy in Transport Strategy, Fuel Quality accreditation Taken from DECC Presentation for the Renewables Advisory Board 25 January 2010

Many cities demonstrate simultaneous heat demand from some buildings and heat excess in others


21 Urban heat efficiency, don’t make climate change even more dangerous

22 Integrated Water and Waste Management must consider:-
Reduction of water consumption Re-use options, with different scales & issues Rainwater Harvesting Greywater Harvesting Groundwater abstraction Sewage treatment is organic waste treatment, use anaerobic digestion for energy advantage before converting to CO2 and cleaner water by composting Wet landscaping Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS)

23 Reduction of water consumption
In UK 165L/person now- future target of 125 In UK Code for Sustainable Homes requires Levels 1&2 :125L, 3&4 :105L, 5&6 80L 105L/person achievable with use minimisation techniques, 80L/person requires greywater recycling or rainwater harvesting No government appetite for regional water use targets, Wales at 2.0 m/yr rainfall and low development has the same target as London with 0.75 m/yr and major growth

24 Greywater Recycling Indevidual recycling units require constant maintenance or filters block, unit reverts to mains use and no water is saved Users often do not alert the need for maintenance as they prefer the “look” of non recycled water Individual units use bromine for disinfection – is this good for municipal biological treatment of waste water in the long term when we have only just worked out that chlorine is bad? Needs spoil excavated and disposed of for the underground receiver tank, a new pipework system, pumps, controls etc- is this good if lack of water is not a regional sustainability concern? In Greece water stress is a much more prevailing issue than in the UK but a communal non potable water supply would be a better answer, similarly indevidual rainwater storage would suffer problems with water quality deterioration due to higher mean temperatures during the low rainfall seasons and a centralised approach (as probably already exists) may well be best

25 Wet landscaping is the best Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS)
Return the rivers to their original function, controlling flooding, enabling wetland ecosystems, nutrient and fresh water recycling before rivers pollute and damage the sea- Marine Dead Zones!!

26 The End Brian Mark, Technical Director Mott MacDonald Fulcrum

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