Presentation on theme: "NITROX PRODUCTION WITHIN A DIVE OPERATION"— Presentation transcript:
1 NITROX PRODUCTION WITHIN A DIVE OPERATION Presented by:Cesare Benelli,Coltri Sub & Glenn Huebner, Nuvair
2 WHAT IS “NITROX”?N2O2Also referred to as EAN, EaNX, Enriched air, & Enriched air nitroxA gas mixture containing nitrogen & oxygen with a higher % of oxygen than normal breathing airOEA - Oxygen enriched air
3 WHY DO RECREATIONAL DIVERS USE NITROX? Less N2 absorption in body tissue.Lessens risk of decompression sickness.Provides longer bottom times.Increases safety margins.Popular with Dive masters & instructors.
4 WHEN CAN RECREATIONAL DIVERS USE NITROX? On all recreational dives.Leading training agencies have introduced optional nitrox training within entry level courses.Leading training agencies have also introduced introductory programs to initiate divers to nitrox prior qualification
5 WHAT % OF REC DIVERS ARE USING NITROX? Exact figures not known, but tens of 1000’s of divers train each year with NitroxMany dive resorts & liveaboard/charter vessels are already providing nitrox
6 TRAINING REQUIRED FOR THE USE OF NITROX Courses are available from allmajor DSAT agenciesBasic Nitrox training allows divingwith up to 40% mixTechnical Nitrox training is required for mixes over 40%
7 WHY OFFER NITROX ? To increases potential revenue Provides more & diverse diving opportunities for clients.Provides additional training opportunities & revenueAttracts more customers to your dive centre / vesselExtra equipment sales
8 ADDITIONAL REASONS TO OFFER NITROX. Reduction of DCS exposure to divers on multi-day dive tripsReduces operator, Dive master & Instructor liabilityProvides a marketing edge over competitors.Adoption of Nitrox by all major training agenciesEmergence of ‘tech’ diving within the mainstream.
9 WHO ELSE USES NITROX? Recreational dive professionals Public safety diversScientific diversCommercial diversNASA astronauts
10 HOW IS NITROX DELIVERED TO THE DIVER? Specially marked cylindersDiver must have proof of nitrox certificationDiver must analyze gasDiver must sign gas logFor ‘Nitrox Experience’ programs Certified DM/Instructors to comply with above procedures.
11 NITROX PRODUCTION OPTIONS: PARTIAL PRESSURE BLENDINGCONTINUOUS FLOW BLENDINGMEMBRANE SYSTEM
12 PARTIAL PRESSURE BLENDING Decant 100% pure O2 to dive cylinder **2. Top off with O2 J grade compatible air **** Amounts vary according to required mix and cylinder contents & must be calculated.
13 ADVANTAGES OF PARTIAL PRESSURE BLENDING Lowest start up costs of blending methods.Popular with technical divers
14 DISADVANTAGES OF PARTIAL PRESSURE BLENDING Requires transport and handling of 100% pure high pressure O2Requires error free mathematical calculationsRequires special filtration & expensive consumables to reach J grade quality air.Requires trained/certified gas blending technician.
15 ADDITIONAL DISADVANTAGES OF P/P BLENDING Mix may not be exact +/-P/P blending should be very slow100% O2 availabilityPurchase & transport costs of100% O2High levels of liability for operators
16 CONTINUOUS FLOW BLENDING Gas is pre-mixed using O2 & breathing air with a blending panel2. Normal high pressurecompressor is used to fill cylinder
17 ADVANTAGES OF CONTINUOUS FLOW BLENDING Relatively inexpensiveMore practical & faster than partial pressure blendingIf using an automated blending panel its is an easy to use & precise method. The panel achieves reduction of associated O2 handing risks with the use of auto O2 cut - off valves
18 DISADVANTAGES OF CONTINUOUS FLOW BLENDING 100% O2 availabilityPurchase & transport costs of 100% O2High levels of liability for operators
19 MEMBRANE SYSTEM NITROX PRODUCTION Normal Air filtered to Grade E standard & pumped into low pressureO2 permeates thru membrane more than N2 . N2 rich mix vented, O2 rich mix pumped into high pressure compressor **Normal high pressure compressor used to fill cylinder.** N2O2 mix controlled via air flow rate into membrane.
20 POSSIBLE MEMBRANE SYSTEMS LP compressor - LP filtration - Membrane - HP compressor - cylinder
21 POSSIBLE MEMBRANE SYSTEMS Air bank - LP pressure reducer - LP filtration - Membrane - HP compressor - Cylinder
22 ADVANTAGES OF A MEMBRANE SYSTEM Simple operationNo need to store or mix high-pressure O2Virtually eliminates hazards associated with handling 100% O2Highly accurate method of blending
23 ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES OF MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FAST: Fill nitrox tanks at same speed you fill with airLOW: Maintenance & operating costs.SIMPLE: Training & use.Note: Membrane systems have the lowest levels ofOperator risk exposure when filling Nitrox cylinders.
24 RELIABILITY OF THE COLTRI /NUVAIR MEMBRANE Systems reliable as a normal air compressor systems20-30 year life spanCompressor are covered by 1 year warrantyMembrane systems are covered by 5 year warranty.Note: It is Important stated maintenance procedures are followed
25 DISADVANTAGES OF A MEMBRANE SYSTEM? Higher initial capital investmentMay require additional electrical power
26 IS A NEW HP COMPRESSOR NEEDED FOR NITROX? Can usually use your existing compressor .A well maintained ‘used’ compressor may need a mild overhaul and internal cleanup if previously used with mineral oil.**** Any HP Compressor used to compress Nitrox must be lubricated by a synthetic oil rated for use with nitrox
27 IS USING NITROX WITH A HP COMPRESSOR SAFE? There are attendant risks with compressing any gasCompressing N2O2 containing 40% or less O2 poses no more risk than pumping normal breathing air at higher pressures
28 WHEN USING MEMBRANE OR CONTINUOUS BLENDING… Considerations:Slightly more conservative than compressing airCompressor oilCompressor operating temp.Filtration
29 WHAT IF I NEED TO PRODUCE 40%+ NITROX MIX? Recreational Divers will not use more than 40% NitroxThe most popular mix currently used within dive centers/vessels is 32%If a deco mix exceeding 40% is required by tech divers a P/P system can be used.Note: Recommended depth limit for recreational divers is 30m, best suited to a 32% Nitrox mix
30 TRAINING STAFF TO FILL NITROX TANKS Most people can learn to operate a membrane nitrox system in less than one hour.We will be conducting a live demonstration at the end of this session