Presentation on theme: "FOOD LABELING 1124 Steven C Seideman"— Presentation transcript:
1 FOOD LABELING 1124 Steven C Seideman Extension Food Processing SpecialistCooperative Extension ServiceUniversity of Arkansas
2 INTRODUCTION A FOOD LABEL has 2 important functions; It tells the customer about the product in a positive manner.It must comply with federal or state regulations to add uniformity to food labeling and prevent consumer deception.
3 Display PanelsFood packaging has three types of display panels as defined by the regulations;1)The Principle Display Panel (PDP) is the package panel that faces the purchaser and communicates what is in the box, can or jar.2) The Alternative Principle Panel is the same as the PDP but allows more than one way to position the package on the shelf.3) The Information Panel (IP) is directly to the right of the PDP or on the back of the package.
4 What Goes Where on a Label LocationPDPPDP or IPInformationIdentity of ContentsIngredient ListingName and address of manufacturer, packer or distributorQuantity of ContentsNutritional Label
5 RAZORBACK BRAND Information Panel (On side or back) CUPCAKES Net wt. 9 oz (310 g)Primary Display Panel
6 RAZORBACK BRAND CUPCAKES Nutritional Facts ………………... ……………….. INGREDIENTS: Wheat flour, eggs …..Nutritional Facts………………...………………..Distributed by RazorBack Foods; 315 Young Ave; Fayetteville AR 72704Information Panel on back(can also be on right side)
7 Parts of a Food LabelThere are basically 4 to 5 parts to an acceptable food label:1) Name of the Product – On PDP2) Quantity of Product- On PDP3) Name of the Manufacturer or Distributor4) List of Ingredients5) If USDA inspected, must have inspection seal.
8 Front of Package RAZORBACK BRAND Identity of Contents CUPCAKESNet wt. 9 oz (310 g)Quantity of Contents
9 Name and address of manufacturer, packer or distributor. Back of PackageRAZORBACK BRANDCUPCAKESNutritional LabelINGREDIENTS: Wheat flour, eggs …..Nutritional Facts………………...………………..Distributed by RazorBack Foods; 315 Young Ave; Fayetteville AR 72704Name and address of manufacturer, packer or distributor.Ingredient Listing
10 Other Label PartsDepending on the product and situation, labels may also be required to contain the following;1) Nutritional Labeling2) Code Dates and Handling instructions3) Number of Servings4) Sulfites Declaration5) Percentage Juice6) Allergens Statement7) Although not required, a food label usually contains a UPC code.
11 Let’s now go through each of these parts individually discussing each with more detail
12 Federal RequirementsFood labeling requirements fall into one of two categories depending on the amount of meat;1)Food products containing 5% or more meat or poultry fall under USDA inspection and the regulations can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 7.2)All other foods are under Food & Drug Administration (FDA) jurisdiction, and their regulations are contained in CFR Title 21.
13 Basic RequirementsA food label gives a written declaration of information for the consumer. Certain items of interest to the consuming public MUST be on all labels.Identity-Quantity- Responsibility –Ingredients*Name of the product*Amount of product*Manufacturer or distributor*What is in the product
14 Food LabelingBig concept is that the consumer has the right to know about the product they are purchasing.Food labeling also protects the manufacturer1)Quality problems- code dates2)Lawsuits concerning allergens
15 NAME OF THE PRODUCTThe name of the product is the common or usual name of the product shown in bold letters and is a statement of identity.Some foods are specifically defined in the regulations through “standards of identity” and must be identified by a standard name.The name of the product must appear on the principle display panel.Foods not covered under the standards of identity or a common and usual name are called non-standardized foods. A descriptive name should be used for a non-standardized product to accurately identify or describe the product
16 Standards of IdentifyAll food regulations, whether USDA or FDA-controlled can be found at the following website:
17 USDA RegulationsWithin the website, all Title 9 listings cover meat and poultry products;Part 317 covers labelingParts covers all the regulationsPart 319 covers Standards of Identity of various meat and poultry products.
18 FDA RegulationsWithin the website, Title 21 covers all non-meat , FDA-controlled products.Part 101 covers food labelingPart 102 covers the common or usual name of non-standardized foods.Parts 114 to 169 covers various products for which standards of identity have been established.
19 Product Name ExamplesBarbecue - Has a standard of identity. The meat must be smoked over the coals of hardwood and must have a 30% weight loss during cooking. For meat to be called “Barbecue”, it must have the 2 requirements or it is not barbecue.You can call it “Beef with BBQ sauce” which means the meat portion is not BBQ.
20 Qualifying StatementSome food products, mainly USDA inspected products, may contain a “Qualifying Statement” immediately below the name of the product to explain how the product differs from the standard of identity.For Example Smoked SausageMade with TurkeyIn this case, the product name is “Smoked Sausage” but smoked sausage is traditionally made with beef and pork, so a qualifying statement is added (Made with Turkey)..
21 Quantity or Contents Statement This is an accurate statement of how much is inside the package or container.This declaration must appear on the principle display panel and, if applicable, the alternate principle display panel.It is generally stated as “ Net Contents”.Contents should be in the traditional manner (e.g. lbs, oz, etc.) followed by the metric unit (grams, liters, kilograms).Net Wt 1 lb (454 g)
22 Name of the Manufacturer The name of the manufacturer, packer or a statement indicating “Distributed by_____” is the declaration of responsibility.The business address must accompany the name of the responsible firm and include city, state and zip code and must appear on the primary display panel or the information panel.
23 List of IngredientsThe list of ingredients in the product appears in descending order of predominance by weight.The ingredient statement may be on either the principle display panel or an information panel.Foods using other standardized foods such as ketchup, mustard, mayonnaise, etc. as an ingredient must disclose the contents of the standardized food in the ingredient statement (see within parenthesis).
24 Standardized Product within an Ingredient Statement For example;BARBECUE SAUCEIngredients; water, tomatoes, ketchup(tomato concentrate, high fructose cornsyrup, distilled vinegar, garlic powder),salt, sugar.
26 Ingredient Declarations There are many regulations governing how and what is declared in the ingredient list that is beyond the scope of this module.It is best to review the regulations for each ingredient used in your product.
27 Some General Ingredient Declaration Rules With the exception of onions, garlic and celery, the term “spices” can be used in the ingredient statement without listing all the spices used.Flavorings and colorings should distinguish between those which are natural versus artificial.Certified colors and protein hydrolysates must be declared by their common or usual name.Food characterized by a particular flavor may require a qualifying name along with the product name ( i.e. “Artificially Flavored”).
30 Ingredient Declaration When chemical preservatives are used, a declaration of the chemical by its common or usual name and its function can be required.Typical functional qualifications include “preservative”, “to retard spoilage”, “a mold inhibitor”, “to help protect flavor”, and “to promote color retention”.
32 NUTRITIONAL LABELINGThe Nutritional Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) of 1990 provided for a mandate for the food industry to provide food nutrient data on food packages.Detailed information on the NLEA regulations can be found in ”A Food Labeling Guide” at
34 Parts of a Nutritional Label Serving Size- Serving size is based on a reference amount which is defined in the regulations. In most cases, if a retail unit’s contents are less than 200% of the reference amount, the container would be labeled as 1 serving. There are many other rules and exemptions in the calculation of a serving size.
35 Parts of the Nutritional Label Required nutrients- There are fourteen (14) nutrients or nutrient facts that must be specified on all nutritional labels.
37 Nutritional LabelThe nutritional label may be located on either the principle display panel or on the information panel of the package.
38 HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS Perishable products must give handling instructions such as “Keep Refrigerated” or Keep Frozen”.Meat, meat products and poultry or poultry products that are not further processed according to USDA-FSIS time/temperature requirements for a ready-to-eat products must carry “Safe Handling Instructions” as shown in the following slide.
40 Statement of “Imitation” If the product is an imitation of the real thing, it must be stated on the label.An example would be cottage cheese-like food made from soybeans or other imitation dairy products where milk is absent or is used only as a minor ingredient.
41 SulfitesSulfides used in foods and beverages such as wines, if permitted to contain sulfites, must declare the presence of this additive if the level is greater than 10ppm.The declaration must be on the principle display panel “Contains sulfites”.
42 Percentage JuiceAny fruit or vegetable beverage or one purporting to be a fruit or vegetable beverage must declare the percentage juice content on the information panel or principle display panel.Examples are;“Contains 10% Apple Juice”“Contains no Apple Juice”
44 Grades and InspectionThe two names (grades and inspection) are totally different.An “ Inspection Logo” like on meat and poultry products means that the product was processed and packaged under continuous inspection by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Animals and carcasses are inspected to guarantee the customer that the final food product is safe and wholesome.A “Grade” is a designate for quality such as the beef grades of Prime, Choice, Select, etc.
45 Grades and InspectionGrades can be company grades such as Fancy Grade, Grade A or whatever is known as house grades.A company may voluntarily have the USDA grade their product using USDA standards. If this is done, the grades will have a “U.S.” in front of them. For example “U.S. Grade1 or USDA Grade A.As a rule of thumb, the lower the letter grade or number, the more nearly perfect is a product
46 Grades and Inspection Lets talk about eggs as an example; Grade A Jumbo eggsThe Grade A means that the eggs will contain fewer spots, be less dirty or have less stained shells and be more uniform in shape than Grade B eggs.Jumbo refers to the size of the eggs.
49 UPC Code UPC stands for Universal Product Code. It is a bar code and number that distinguishes one product from another.The UPC code consists of 10 digits and vertical lines. The first five digits name the manufacturer and the last five digits name the product (peas, ketchup, etc.).It is not a government requirement to have a UPC code, but most retailers demand them for use in pricing a product and for inventory control purposes.
51 Generic FoodsFoods without fancy labels (no pictures, no recipes and usually black lettering on a white background) are termed “generic foods”.As a general rule, these products are overruns and are a way for the manufacturer to turn overstock merchandise into cash.Sometimes as much as 50% savings can be realized by purchasing these products since they have no “marketing” funds involved.
52 Irradiated FoodsFood products that are irradiated, must bear the irradiation logo and the term “ Treated with radiation” or similar statement.Foods are irradiated to improve shelf-life.Irradiation controls sprouting in potatoes as well as microorganisms, particularly pathogens.Spices that are irradiated do not have to bear the label. Most spices are either irradiated or treated with ethylene dioxide to reduce the bacterial load.
54 Descriptive Terminology and Health Claims The terminology of nutrition and health claims is specifically defined under the NLEA (Nutritional Labeling Education Act) of 1990.The words “lite”, ”lean”, “No cholesterol”, “low sodium” , “fresh” or ”reduced salt” all have descriptions specifically spelled out for them by the USDA or FDA.
55 Health ClaimsHealth claims can sometimes be very desirable on a label.Foods having a scientifically proven and regulatory approved relationship to cancer, heart disease, hypertension or other health condition can be labeled as such.Most people have opinions about how foods can benefit them, however, nutritional claims must be substantiated on hard scientific facts.
56 Labeling for Allergens True food allergies are the body’s rejection of a foreign protein.There almost has to be a protein involved.Hay fever in humans is a true allergy caused by protein-containing pollen and animal hair and feathers.Read the slide
57 Typical Symptoms of Food Allergies Gastrointestinal*Nausea*Vomiting*Abdominal pain*DiarrheaSystemic*Anaphylactic shockCutaneous*Urticaria*Angioderma*Atropic dermatitisRespiratory*Rhinitis*Laryngeal edema*AsthmaRead the slide
59 Ingredients Derived from Commonly Allergic Sources Edible oilsHydrolyzed proteinsLecithinFlavorsLactoseStarchGelatinLysozymeLactoferrinSoy SauceWorchester SauceFermented ingredientsRead the slide
60 LABELINGBest solution for people with food allergies is knowledge via labeling.Major challenge to food industry is to label products with increased emphasis on source of additives.*Old method “hydrolyzed protein”*New method “hydrolyzed protein derivedfrom wheat”.Read the slide
61 Approaches to Precautionary Labeling “may contain….”“may contain the occasional nut”“may contain nut traces”“not suitable for nut allergy sufferers”“contains ….traces”Approaches to preliminary labeling include the following phrases on the ingredient statement- Read them
62 See bottom of ingredient statement; CONTAINS WHEAT< SOY AND MILK ingredients
63 See bottom of ingredient statement “Contains wheat, soy milk and egg ingredientsa. A hamburger Extender
64 Bottom of ingreident dec; May be topped with seseme seeds Hamburger Buns
65 A packaged of Glazed Walnuts Bottom of ingredient statement; Produced ina facility that also handles peanuts.A packaged of Glazed Walnuts
66 LABELING CHALLENGES Industry concern over increase in lawsuits. Hard to pin down where trace amounts can come from. They can come from other processed ingredients or contact surfaces in a plant. This is a major challenge to the food industry since the tolerance levels are so small.
67 DATESThere are codes used on perishable foods that explain their shelf-life.PACK DATE- Date the product was packagedSELL BY DATE- Last day the product should be soldUSE BY DATE- Last day the product is expected to maintain top qualityEXPIRATION DATE- Last day the product should be consumedProduct codes can be very useful to food manufacturers if a recall is necessary.
68 CONCLUSIONSThis module has presented some of the key information on food labels.The regulations are very long and detailed but require a deeper understanding than that presented if one is interested in developing a label.