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Off-grid Hybrid Renewable Energy System Hamad Jassim Rajab 200621000 Abdulrahman Kalbat 200608959 Buti Al Shamsi200440143 Ahmed Al Khazraji200620066 Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Off-grid Hybrid Renewable Energy System Hamad Jassim Rajab 200621000 Abdulrahman Kalbat 200608959 Buti Al Shamsi200440143 Ahmed Al Khazraji200620066 Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Off-grid Hybrid Renewable Energy System Hamad Jassim Rajab Abdulrahman Kalbat Buti Al Shamsi Ahmed Al Khazraji Department of Electrical Engineering Graduation Project II Course Spring 2011

2 Outline GPI Achievements Modified Block Diagram Design Constraints and Standards HOMER Cases and Comparisons Wind Turbine optimization Maximum Power Point Solar panel optimization Solar Panel Shading Distance Pyranometer Anemometer Data Acquisition Device (CompactRIO) Expected Research Areas Gantt Chart Designed Poster Achievements (WETEX 2011+ISSE)

3 GPI Achievements (1/6) Requirements, Specifications and Constraints Requirements: Continuous power supply, relatively clean energy and low operating cost Specifications: best installation location, backup availability and automatic switching Constraints: limited financial support and area and meeting standards and regulations

4 GPI Achievements (2/6) Load Profile

5 Total Load Demand = 26.1 kWh/day GPI Achievements (3/6) Load Profile

6 GPI Achievements (4/6) Subsystem Sizing 1 wind turbine 24 solar panels1 Variable Speed Diesel Generator 3 Charge Controller 1 Bi-directional Inverter24 Batteries

7 GPI Achievements (5/6) HOMER Simulation HOMER = Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables

8 GPI Achievements (6/6) HOMER Simulation Main Inputs: – Preferred load profile – Actual Climatic Conditions in Al Ain city (Wind speed and Solar radiation) – Equipments sizes Main Results: – Operation Cost (AED/Year) – Cost of Energy (AED/kWh) – CO2 Emissions (kg/year)

9 Modified Block Diagram

10 Design Constraints and Standards Budget and Temperature Limited Budget: 228,000 AED Ambient temperature: – Average = o C – Minimum = 5.3 o C ( in January ) – Maximum = 50 o C ( in June ) (From National Centre of Meteorology and Seismology in UAE )

11 Design Constraints and Standards Area (1/3) Free Area = Total area – Used area = (25m X 38m) – (14m X 15m) = (950 m 2 ) – (210 m 2 ) = 740 m 2

12 Design Constraints and Standards Area (2/3) Solar Panels Considerations: Maintenance spacing (dust removal) Panel to panel distance according to NEC (avoiding shade)

13 Design Constraints and Standards Area (3/3) Batteries Considerations: Installed in a cabinet or not Battery rackBattery cabinetBattery Bank

14 Design Constraints and Standards Noise Noise: Threshold of pain = meters Equipment noise < Threshold of pain Noise from diesel generator and wind turbine

15 Power Sources: 24 PVs, 1 Wind Turbine, 1 Diesel Generator Load Sharing: 58% PV, 1% Wind, 41% Diesel Cost of Energy: 2.9 AED/kWh Operating Cost: 15,300 AED/yr Shortage: 0% CO 2 Emissions : 6,119 kg/yr HOMER Simulation (1/8) Case 1: Hybrid System: (5 kW Solar, 0.4 kW Wind, 7 kW Diesel)

16 HOMER Simulation (2/8) Case 1: Hybrid System: (5 kW Solar, 0.4 kW Wind, 7 kW Diesel)

17 Power Sources: 24 PVs, 1 Wind Turbine Load Sharing: 98% PV and 2% Wind Cost of Energy: 3 AED/kWh Operating Cost: 9,920 AED/yr Shortage: 36% CO 2 Emissions : 0 kg/yr HOMER Simulation (3/8) Case 2: Renewable Energy System: (5 kW Solar, 0.4 kW Wind)

18 HOMER Simulation (4/8) Case 2: Renewable System: (5 kW Solar, 0.4 kW Wind)

19 HOMER Simulation (5/8) Case 3: Renewable Energy System: (17 kW Solar, 0.4 kW Wind) Power Sources: 81 PVs, 1 Wind Turbine Load Sharing: 99% PV and 1% Wind Cost of Energy: 4.4 AED/kWh Operating Cost: 13,780 AED/yr Shortage: 0% CO 2 Emissions : 0 kg/yr

20 HOMER Simulation (6/8) Case 3: Renewable Energy System: (17 kW Solar, 0.4 kW Wind)

21 HOMER Simulation (7/8) Case 3: Diesel Generator: (7 kW Diesel Generator) Power Sources: Diesel Generator ONLY Load Sharing: 100% Generator Cost of Energy: 3.8 AED/kWh Shortage: 0% Operating Cost: 34,000 AED/yr CO 2 Emissions : 25,433 kg/yr

22 HOMER Simulation (8/8) Results PVs Cost of Energy (AED/kWh) Operating Cost (AED/yr) CO 2 Emissions (kg/yr) Diesel (Liter) Hybrid ,3006,1192,324 Renewable (36% Shortage) 2439,90000 Renewable (0% Shortage) ,78000 Diesel Generator ,00025,4339,658

23 Wind Turbine (1/2) Wind Turbine: Average wind direction range = 339 o to 6 o Angles measured clock-wise from North

24 Wind Turbine (2/2) Wind angle range: 27 o Wind turbine blades should head towards the indicated range.

25 Solar panel (1/11) Installation site coordinates Latitude: 24.2 N Longitude: 55.7 E

26 Maximum Power Point (1/4) Definition The point on the current-voltage (I-V) curve of a solar module under illumination, where the product of current and voltage is maximum (Pmax, measured in watts).

27 Maximum Power Point (2/4) Circuit and Equation Model

28 Maximum Power Point (3/4) Matlab Simulation

29 Maximum Power Point (4/4) I-V characteristic and PV Power I-V characteristic PV Power

30 Maximum Power Point (1/7) Definition The point on the current-voltage (I-V) curve of a solar module under illumination, where the product of current and voltage is maximum (Pmax, measured in watts).

31 Maximum Power Point (2/7) Ideal Model

32 Maximum Power Point (3/7) Matlab Simulation for Ideal Model

33 Maximum Power Point (4/7) Real Model

34 Maximum Power Point (5/7) Matlab Simulation for Real Model

35 Maximum Power Point (6/7) I-V characteristic Ideal Model Real Model

36 Maximum Power Point (7/7) PV Power Ideal Model Real Model

37 Solar panel (2/11) Seasons and suns locations 1 st day of spring/autumn = 90 – 24.2 = 65.8 o above southern horizon 1 st day of winter = 65.8 – 23.5 = 42.3 o above southern horizon 1 st day of summer = = 89.3 o above southern horizon

38 Solar panel (3/11) Seasons and suns locations Summer (21 June - 23 September) = 89.3 o to 65.8 o Autumn (23 September – 22 December) = 65.8 o to 42.3 o Winter (22 December – 21 March) = 42.3 o to 65.8 o Spring (21 March – 21 June) = 65.8 o to 89.3 o

39 Solar panel (4/11) Expected solar panel tilt angles Solar panel tilt (heading south) = 90 – sun location Summer (21 June - 23 September) = 0.7 o to 24.2 o Winter (22 December – 21 March) = 47.7 o to 24.2 o Yearly yield = 24.2 o

40 Solar panel (5/11) Solar panel tilt angles using PVSYST Software Summer optimum tilt = 0 o to 6 o

41 Solar panel (6/11) Solar panel tilt angles using PVSYST Software Winter optimum tilt = 43 o to 46 o

42 Solar panel (7/11) Solar panel tilt angles using PVSYST Software Yearly yield optimum tilt = 21 o to 24 o

43 Solar panel (8/11) Solar panel tilt angles using case study Solar radiation Vs months of the year for different angles in Al Ain WinterSpringSummerAutumn

44 Solar panel (9/11) Solar panel tilt angles using case study Solar variation (10 o ) = 0.76 – 0.54 = 0.22 kW/m 2 Solar variation (20 o ) = 0.77 – 0.6 = 0.17 kW/m 2 Solar variation (30 o ) = 0.76 – 0.55 = 0.21 kW/m 2 Optimum angle: around 20 o (maximum and stable solar radiation)

45 Solar panel (10/11) Factors affecting solar radiation 1) Angle of solar incident: Best when perpendicular on the tilted plane Maximum in 1 st day of Spring and Autumn WinterSpringSummerAutumn Maximum points

46 Solar panel (11/11) Factors affecting solar radiation 2) Length of the day: In polar regions, 6 months of daylight. Highest solar radiation in the first day of summer (24 hours daylight) Drop during summer ?

47 Solar Panel Shading distance (1/10)

48 Solar Panel Shading distance (2/10)

49 Solar Panel Shading distance (3/10) Solar Panel Dimensions Length = m Width = m mm

50 Solar Panel Shading distance (4/10) Sun path in Al Ain

51 Solar Panel Shading distance (5/10) Useful solar radiation hours = 6 hours (9 AM to 3 PM) Longest shade: – Season: first day of winter – Time: just after sunrise just before sunset Shortest shade: – Season: first day of summer – Time: noon (12 PM)

52 Solar Panel Shading distance (6/10) Longest shade (portrait scheme H= m) – Season: first day of winter – Time: just after sunrise just before AM

53 Solar Panel Shading distance (7/10) Shortest shade (portrait scheme H= m) – Season: first day of summer – Time: noon (12 AM

54 Solar Panel Shading distance (8/10) Longest shade (landscape scheme H= m) – Season: first day of winter – Time: just after sunrise just before AM

55 Solar Panel Shading distance (9/10) Shortest shade (landscape scheme H= m) – Season: first day of summer – Time: noon (12 AM

56 Solar Panel Shading distance(10/10) AM Shortest: m Longest: m Area for 24 panels: m 2 Usage: limited field width Shortest: m Longest: m Area for 24 panels: m 2 Usage: limited field length

57 Pyranometer (1/4) Pyranometer: is an instrument used to measure the solar radiation (in watts per meter square) from a field of view of 180 degrees Types: – Thermopile: is an electronic device that converts thermal energy into either voltage or current. – Photodiode (silicon): is an electronic device that converts light into either voltage or current.

58 Pyranometer (2/4) Thermopile Spectral range: 285 – 2,800 nm Response time: 5 sec Expensive (9,500 AED) Photodiode Spectral range: 400 – 1,100 nm Response time: 0.5 micro sec Cheap (1,500 AED)

59 Pyranometer (3/4) Polycrystalline PV cell spectral response: 400 to 1,200 nm

60 Pyranometer (4/4) Solar Radiation: 300 to 2,800 nm PV Cell: 400 to 1,300 nm Thermopile Pyranometer: ,000 Photodiode Pyranometer: ,100

61 Anemometer (1/4) Anemometer: is a device for measuring wind speed Speed range: 1 to 100 m/s Cup type Windmill type Ultrasonic type

62 Data Acquisition Device (CompactRIO) CompactRIO: Compact Reconfigurable Input / Output It is a programmable automation controller

63 Data Acquisition Device (CompactRIO) It consists of: Chassis Main Controller Analog Output Analog Input Analog Input Digital Input Digital Output

64 LabVIEW LabVIEW: Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench A graphical programming environment Develop control systems Using graphical blocks and wires

65 CompactRIO (I/O) CompactRIO: Compact Reconfigurable Input / Output It is a programmable automation controller

66 CompactRIO (I/O) It consists of: Chassis Main Controller Analog Output Analog Input Analog Input Digital Input Digital Output

67 CompactRIO (I/O) Calibrate Analog Input Value Input Engineering Unit: Calibrated value Binary Value: returned un-calibrated value from Analog Input Module LSB Weight: Typical Input Range / 2 ADC Resolution DC Offset: vertical shift

68 CompactRIO (I/O) Block Diagram

69 CompactRIO (I/O) Front Panel Binary Number

70 Data Acquisition Device (CompactRIO) Problem: Measurements were always in integer format (NOT Floating Point) Solution: NI was contacted and the problem was solved. A program was developed to export the obtained measurements to excel sheet.

71 Expetced Research Areas Solar Panels: – Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) – Dust effect on the efficiency – Temperature effect on the efficiency – Meteorological data for Al Ain (solar radiation)

72 Expetced Research Areas Wind Turbine: – Dust effect on the turbine – Wind speed variation with elevation – Effect of the surrounding obstacles on the performance – Threshold speed (mechanical)

73 Expetced Research Areas Diesel Generator: – CO 2 emissions – Fuel consumption – Vibration – Power quality – Synchronization with other power sources

74 Expetced Research Areas Battery Bank: – Temperature effect – Life time – Overcharging and depth of discharge effect

75 GPII Gantt Chart

76 Designed Poster

77

78 WETEX 2011 Water, Energy Technology and Environment Exhibitions (WETEX) 8 th – 10 th March 2011 Dubai Convention and Exhibition Centre Organized by:

79 ISSE (1/4) The International Conference on Sustainable Systems and the Environment 23 rd – 24 th March 2011

80 ISSE(2/4) Graduation Project group members

81 ISSE (3/4) Explaining to one of the judging panels member

82 ISSE (4/4) 3rd place in the Conferences Student Poster Competition 3

83 Thank you for listening! Any questions?


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