4 Here Maus offers a page-wide horizontal panel packed with signs of the past and present, jammed together in a frame only about one inch high. In a space that the book suggests was once Art’s bedroom (a flag proclaiming “Harpur,” Spiegelman’s college, is still pinned to the wall, we see in the page’s second panel), Vladek, his camp tattoo visible for the first time, pushes ahead on an Exercycle. Vladek does not actually move forward -- his is a kind of movement in suspension, a literal “spinning his wheels”. (This paradoxical stillness is also indicated by the fact that we may trace and align a full view of his body, locked into position, across frames on the page: his head in panel 4, his torso in panel 5, his foot in panel 7). The wide berth of his arms frames and encompasses the seated, smoking Art, who looks remarkably small compared to his father. A framed photo -- of the dead Anja Spiegelman, we will later find out -- is conspicuously propped on a desk to the right of both men, representing both an object of desire and a rebuke (and just four pages later -- in the same right hand corner, facing the characters from the same angle — a photo of Anja acts as a profound rebuke to Vladek’s then-girlfriend Lucia). Vladek’s speech balloon on the far left-hand side of the panel echoes the right-side photograph and tattoo: “It would take many books, my life, and no one wants anyway to hear such stories”. It is if the past — articulated (spoken), inscribed (tattooed), documented (photographed) — literally flanks both men, closing in on them. Throughout Maus, and most remarkably in this early scene, Spiegelman crams his panels with both markers of the past (the camp tattoo, pre-War photographs) and the ultimate marker of the “present”: Art himself, framed by his father’s body, his parents’ post-War child, born in Sweden after the couple lost their first son to the Nazis. And the horizontally elongated panel on the page, while its size implies a stillness, registers Vladek’s first moments in the text of dipping into a narrative of the past. While Vladek verbally refuses to offer “such stories”, a dramatically round, thickly lined panel below, showcasing his dapper young self in the early 1930s, pushes up into the rectangular panel of the present, its curve hitting in between the handlebars of Vladek’s Exercycle -- and his own grasping hands. (As such, this protruding circular frame [performs] and figures movement, and can be thematically and visually figured as the wheel to Vladek’s Exercycle: as Spiegelman points out, “You enter into the past for the first time through that wheel”.) On this page we see one of the first significant examples of how panels narrativizing the past physically intrude into panels from the present, ignoring borders, nudging into the book’s weave of enunciation.
5 American cultural values? (Purpose for reading MAUS and is on the concept test.)A culture's values are its ideas about what is good, right, fair, and just.A culture, though, may harbor conflicting values.Real culture refers to the values and norms that a society actually follows, while ideal culture refers to the values and norms that a society professes to believe.American cultural values?
6 Judaism 101 Judaism is both a cultural and religious identity: You are part of the Jewish people, whether because you were born into a Jewish home and culturally identify as Jewish or because you practice the Jewish religion (or both).Cultural Judaism includes things such as Jewish foods, customs and rituals. For instance, many people are born into Jewish homes and are raised eating blintzes and lighting shabbat candles, but never step foot inside a synagogue.
7 Jewish beliefs Monotheistic Humankind Was Created In the Divine Image One God, but several namesHumankind Was Created In the Divine ImagePeople have the freewill to make choices in their lives and each of us is responsible for the consequences of those choices.CommunityJudaism believes that Jews are uniquely connected with each otherTorahTheir most important text. (The Old Testament)The Ten CommandmentsThe Land of IsraelMessiahJudaism teaches that one day a Messiah (a person from God) will unite the world and bring peace to humanity.
8 Language Hebrew vs. Yiddish: The language often referred to as the Jewish “holy language” because it is used in worship. Modern Hebrew is the official language in Israel.Linguistically, Yiddish is a “fusion” language, which means that it is a conglomeration of several different languages: biblical Hebrew, German, Aramaic, and various other languages.
9 Jewish culture: HumorJewish humor is the long tradition of humor in Judaism dating back to the Torah and the Midrash, but generally refers to the more recent stream of verbal, frequently self-deprecating and often anecdotal humor originating in Eastern Europe.Jewish humor took root in the United States over the last hundred years, beginning with vaudeville, and continuing through radio, stand-up, film, and television. A significant number of American comedians have been or are Jewish.
10 “The Road of No Return”Use context clues for the italicized Hebrew or Yiddish words.Highlight examples that reveal Jewish culture or cultural values during World War II.Highlight examples that indicate a specific Jewish belief.