# CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH o What are the Uses of Correlational Research?What are the Uses of Correlational Research? o What are the Requirements for Correlational.

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CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH o What are the Uses of Correlational Research?What are the Uses of Correlational Research? o What are the Requirements for Correlational Research?What are the Requirements for Correlational Research? o Why Doesnt Correlation Mean Causation?Why Doesnt Correlation Mean Causation? o What is a Cross-Lagged Panel?What is a Cross-Lagged Panel?

What Are the Uses of Correlational Research? o Test reliability o Test validity o Test hypotheses about relationships between variables o Predict scores (regression)

What Are the Requirements for Correlational Research? o Any of the descriptive methods can be used (observation, survey, archival, physical traces). o Must have independent pairs of scores.

Why Doesnt Correlation Mean Causation? o A correlation by itself does not show that one variable causes the other due to: o the third variable problem o the directionality problem o A correlation is consistent with a causal relationship but does not demonstrate causation.

Why Doesnt Correlation Mean Causation? o A correlation between X and Y could be caused by a third variable influencing both X and Y. o If Z influences both X and Y, then X and Y will be correlated only because they are both affected by Z. o Particular third variables can be measured and statistically controlled using partial correlation.

Why Doesnt Correlation Mean Causation? o A correlation between X and Y could be a result of X causing Y or Y causing X; this is the directionality problem. o Directionality can be examined using a cross- lagged panel design.

What is a Cross-Lagged Panel? o Design used to determine direction of cause o Measure both variables at two different points in time o Cause cannot work backwards in time

Time 1Time 2variable Xvariable Y

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