# Series/Parallel Circuits Section 3.1-3.4. Concepts Studied So Far Ohms Law: Victory Is Rare Power: P=IV KCL KVL.

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Series/Parallel Circuits Section 3.1-3.4

Concepts Studied So Far Ohms Law: Victory Is Rare Power: P=IV KCL KVL

Outline Resistors in Series Req Resistors in Parallel Req Voltage Divider Circuits Voltage divider formula Current Divider Circuits Current divider formula

Resistors Connected in Series Series-connected circuit elements carry the same current

Equivalent Resistor R eq =R 1 +R 2 +R 3 ….

Exercise Identify the resistors connected in series

Resistors in Parallel Parallel-connected circuit elements have the same voltage across their terminals

Equivalent Parallel Resistor 1/R eq =1/R 1 +1/R 2 +1/R 3 +1/R 4

Series Parallel Simplification

P3.5 Find R ab

P3.7 Find R ab

The Voltage-Divider Circuit Function: to develop more than one voltage level from a single voltage supply

A Voltage Divider Connected to a Load

The Current Divider Circuit

Example 3.3 Calculate power dissipated in the 6 Ohm resistor

Problem 3.14 v o (no load)=4 V v o (load)=3 V Find R L

3.15 Assume that only 0.5 W resistors are available The no-load voltage is to be the same as in the schematic. Specify the smallest values of R 1 and R 2

Application: Photovoltaic System Solar Cell – I-V Characteristics Equation – Series construction – Parallel construction

I-V Characteristics of a Solar Cell Open Circuit Voltage (V oc ) Short Circuit Current I(I sc ) I-V Characteristics shows all the possible operating point for the solar panel

Open Circuit Voltage Measurement Observation: there is no current at V oc.

Short Circuit Current Measurement

Why is OK to short circuit a solar cell? It is possible to produce short circuit a solar panel because The current comes from the electrons produced by the solar cell. Only some of the photons striking the solar cell are converted into current. The current produced by the solar cell is finite.

Power Produced by Solar Cell P=IV Observation: No power is produced at V oc and I sc. Why?

Example If Vmp is 15 V and Imp is 3A, what resistance is required in order to operate the solar cell at its maximum power? Answer: A 5 Ohm load.

Rule of Thumb Solar cells are generally connected in series to achieve a desired voltage. The serial connected solar cells are connected in parallel to build current and power. Cells are connected to form modules and modules are connected to form array.

Connect Cells/Modules in Series Individual cells are connected in series by soldering the metal strip from top surface (- terminal) of one cell to the back surface (+ terminal) of the next

Use Series Connection to Increase Voltage You want to use cells of matching current capacity!

Use Parallel Construction to Increase Current (Acquire proper voltage)

Increase Current Capacity by Connecting Cells in Paralell

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