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Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting Point ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Chapter 3 Basic Science Process Skills: Observe, Infer, and Classify ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Chapter 3 Topics Basic Science Process SkillsCharacteristics and Importance of ObservingInferring to Explain ObservationsClassifying Observations into GroupsStudents with Cognitive LimitationsMoving Toward Integrated Process Skills ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Benefits of Science Process Skills Supporting Scientific Sense-MakingServes as Verbs to the Nouns (Concepts)Assists with Language DevelopmentBuilding Community within the ClassroomEncourages Curiosity and Its Pursuit ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Observing: Gathering Info Via the Senses Observations as FactsPaying Attention to the WorldFacts over OpinionsObjectivity: Without BiasObserving Happens Often ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Inferring: Explaining Observations Making an Explanation for the FactsMultiple Inferences can be OfferedInferring as Making a CaseJudging Inferences: Best Explanation Inferences come from Thinking Creatively ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Write two observations and two inferences for each panel Panel 1Panel 2Panel 3 ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Classify: Organizing Observations Classifying is not about learning established classifications systems Classifying builds upon everyday efforts to organize but follows particular rules The only properties for classifying come from observations, not inferences or hunches Standard practice is to divide groups into two opposite categories ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Classifying with Tree Diagrams Dividing into Two GroupsProperties are ObservableCategories are Opposites Each Object goes into One of Two Subgroups ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Complete Tree Diagram Four properties are required to separate five objects Each junction is an either/or property, no in-betweens Dividing continues until each object is alone Reading up a tree gives a full description of each object ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
A Dichotomous Key 1aBean shape is roundGarbanzo bean 1bBean shape is not round (oblong)Go to 2 2aBean is dark in colorGo to 3 2bBean is not dark in colorGo to 4 3aBean color is solidKidney bean 3bBean color is speckledPinto bean 4aBean is entirely whiteNavy bean 4bBean has a dark spotBlack-eyed pea ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Process Skills for Those Students with Cognitive Limitations Certain students will benefit from more time, less complexity, and greater supports Teachers can predetermine possible struggles within a given science activity Provide challenges, but not too many at one time Make conscious decisions in advance about expectations from each child ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Integrated Process Skills Six Basics Process Skills as a Foundation Investigating = Activities where Students use Process Skills Integrated Process Skills Require Advanced Developmental Thinking Experimenting = Systematic use of ALL Process Skills ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Chapter 3 Summary Use of Process Skills to InvestigateObserving: Collecting Facts Using SensesInferring: Proposing Cause for ObservationsClassifying: Putting Observations into OrderAdjusting Demands so All Children do ScienceIntegrated Process Skills for Older Students ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS
Also known as The Scientific Method
WELCOME to Kindergarten
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Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting Point ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Chapter 4 More Basic Science Process Skills: Measure,
Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting Point ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Chapter 12 Integrating Science with Other Subjects.
Science is a way of knowing.
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Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation FIFTH EDITION by Steven S. Zumdahl University of.
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Primary Process Skills Developmentally Appropriate for ages 5 & above SkillInstructional Implication Observe first step in gathering information require.
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