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Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting Point ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Chapter 3 Basic Science Process Skills: Observe, Infer, and Classify ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Chapter 3 Topics Basic Science Process SkillsCharacteristics and Importance of ObservingInferring to Explain ObservationsClassifying Observations into GroupsStudents with Cognitive LimitationsMoving Toward Integrated Process Skills ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Benefits of Science Process Skills Supporting Scientific Sense-MakingServes as Verbs to the Nouns (Concepts)Assists with Language DevelopmentBuilding Community within the ClassroomEncourages Curiosity and Its Pursuit ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Observing: Gathering Info Via the Senses Observations as FactsPaying Attention to the WorldFacts over OpinionsObjectivity: Without BiasObserving Happens Often ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Inferring: Explaining Observations Making an Explanation for the FactsMultiple Inferences can be OfferedInferring as Making a CaseJudging Inferences: Best Explanation Inferences come from Thinking Creatively ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Write two observations and two inferences for each panel Panel 1Panel 2Panel 3 ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Classify: Organizing Observations Classifying is not about learning established classifications systems Classifying builds upon everyday efforts to organize but follows particular rules The only properties for classifying come from observations, not inferences or hunches Standard practice is to divide groups into two opposite categories ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Classifying with Tree Diagrams Dividing into Two GroupsProperties are ObservableCategories are Opposites Each Object goes into One of Two Subgroups ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Complete Tree Diagram Four properties are required to separate five objects Each junction is an either/or property, no in-betweens Dividing continues until each object is alone Reading up a tree gives a full description of each object ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
A Dichotomous Key 1aBean shape is roundGarbanzo bean 1bBean shape is not round (oblong)Go to 2 2aBean is dark in colorGo to 3 2bBean is not dark in colorGo to 4 3aBean color is solidKidney bean 3bBean color is speckledPinto bean 4aBean is entirely whiteNavy bean 4bBean has a dark spotBlack-eyed pea ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Process Skills for Those Students with Cognitive Limitations Certain students will benefit from more time, less complexity, and greater supports Teachers can predetermine possible struggles within a given science activity Provide challenges, but not too many at one time Make conscious decisions in advance about expectations from each child ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Integrated Process Skills Six Basics Process Skills as a Foundation Investigating = Activities where Students use Process Skills Integrated Process Skills Require Advanced Developmental Thinking Experimenting = Systematic use of ALL Process Skills ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Chapter 3 Summary Use of Process Skills to InvestigateObserving: Collecting Facts Using SensesInferring: Proposing Cause for ObservationsClassifying: Putting Observations into OrderAdjusting Demands so All Children do ScienceIntegrated Process Skills for Older Students ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012
Welcome to the SCE 4310 U01 Dr. O’Brien Tuesday, 11 am February 16, 2016.
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Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting Point ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Chapter 4 More Basic Science Process Skills: Measure,
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Freedom(s) – Learning activities for secondary schools on the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.
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I know of no more encouraging fact than the unquestionable ability of man to elevate his life by conscious endeavor. Henry David Thoreau.
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Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Section 1 – What is Science?
Chapter 1: Section 1 What is Science?. What Science IS and IS NOT.. The goal of Science is to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain.
What is Science?. Vocabulary from this Section Science Technology Chemistry Physics Geology Astronomy Biology.
Science Process Skills. Observe- using our senses to find out about objects, events, or living things. Classify- arranging or sorting objects, events,
Chapter 1.1 – What is Science?. State and explain the goals of science. Describe the steps used in the scientific method. Daily Objectives.
Nature of Science Section 1. You are a Scientist! Have you? Looked at the colors in a puddle of oil? Watched a fire burn? Watched lightning bolts.
What is Science? Chapter 1 Section 1. Standard S.6.7 Students will begin their study of Earth science by understanding that all scientific progress.
Also known as The Scientific Method
Developmentally Appropriate Practices. Five Guidelines For Developmentally Appropriate Practices.
I.What is Science? A.Thinking Like a Scientist 1.Scientists use the following skills to learn more about the world: Observing Inferring Predicting Classifying.
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Teaching Science to Every Child: Using Culture as a Starting Point ©Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2012 Chapter 6 Using Theory to Explain and Understand Science.
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