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THE LAND GOVERNANCE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK (LGAF) AN APPROACH FOR PARTICIPATORY BENCHMARKING, MONITORING, AND DIALOGUE Thea Hilhorst –December 10 th 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "THE LAND GOVERNANCE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK (LGAF) AN APPROACH FOR PARTICIPATORY BENCHMARKING, MONITORING, AND DIALOGUE Thea Hilhorst –December 10 th 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE LAND GOVERNANCE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK (LGAF) AN APPROACH FOR PARTICIPATORY BENCHMARKING, MONITORING, AND DIALOGUE Thea Hilhorst –December 10 th

2 Overview presentation Aim and approach LGAF Structure of the framework Some findings Using data for improving land governance 2

3 Why LGAF instrument was developed (2008) Land sector reforms to be driven by country level, evidence-based assessment Should be based on broad, participatory policy dialogue between/ within government and other stakeholders Comprehensive assessment – across silos & strategic priority setting Need for land governance baseline to track progress both for in-country policy reform and for regional/global initiatives (VGGT, LPI ) 3

4 Aim and Structure LGAF Framework Set baseline (country scorecard) - for tracking progress Consistent with the VGGT principles, and other (emerging) principles (responsible agro-investment) Pre-coded framework based on global experience Rankings assigned by panels of local experts (gov, CSO, academia, private sector), justified by evidence Goal is to arrive at consensus scoring- Aim for consensus: on strong points; what to improve and where to start (priority recommendations) Results validated in national technical workshop, translation into policy recommendation Conclusion presented to policy makers for concrete follow- up 4

5 LGAF approach: Substance and process Substance: Comprehensive analysis of land sector; Assessment guided by framework of indicators, based on global experience of good land governance Evidence-based (administrative data, studies, tacit knowledge) Process: Fast, low-cost assessment - Use available information – no new primary research (gaps can be identified) Driven by national experts - Participatory - multiple sectors and stakeholders Led by a country coordinator, working with national specialists to prepare background analysis; Scoring in 9 thematic panels 5

6 Voluntary Guidelines (VG) Topics Covered by the LGAF VG Topics # of Corresponding LGAF Dimensions Tenure Rights and Responsibilities 16 Policy, Legal and Organizational Frameworks 17 Delivery of Services15 Safeguards8 Public Land, Fisheries and Forests 12 Indigenous Peoples, Communities with Customary Tenure Systems 3 Informal Tenure6 Markets6 Investments13 Redistributive Reforms5 Expropriation and Compensation 5 Records of Tenure Rights16 Contd.# Valuation2 Taxation5 Regulated Spatial Planning12 Resolution of Disputes Over Tenure Rights 4 Land Consolidation and Other Readjustment Approaches 1 Restitution0 Transboundary Matters0 Climate Change1 Natural Disasters1 Conflicts in Respect to Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests 19 6

7 Process and Steps: 4-6 months Inception Phase Background Report based on existing information 9 Panels of Experts Draft Report Technical Validation Workshop & Policy Dialogue Follow Up Final report & Score card Dialogue Platform/ observatory monitoring 7

8 Framework 8

9 5 thematic governance areas Recognition and respect for existing rights Land Use Planning, Management, and Taxation Management of Public Land Public Provision of Land Information Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management 9

10 9 Panels Panel 1 Land Tenure Recognition Panel 2 Rights to Forest and Common Lands; Rural Land Use Regulations Panel 3 Urban Land Use, Planning, and Development Panel 4 Public Land Management Panel 5 Transfer of Public Land to Private Use Follows a Clear, Transparent, and Competitive Process Panel 6 Public Provision of Land Information: Registry and Cadastre Panel 7 Land Valuation and Taxation Panel 8 Dispute Resolution Panel 9 Review of Institutional Arrangements and Policies 10

11 Panel – Indicator, dimensions and scores Panel 1 Indicator 1 Dimension 1Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel Dimension 2Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel Dimension 3Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel Dimension 4Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel Indicator 2 Dimension 1Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel Dimension 2Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel Dimension 3Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel Dimension 4Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel Dimension 5Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel Dimension 6Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel Dimension 7Ranked on a scale from A to D by the panel 11

12 Example Area Panel 5: Transfer of large tracts of land to investors Indicators Transfer of public land to private use follows a clear, transparent, and competitive process; payments are collected and audited Private Investment Strategy Policy implementation is effective, consistent and transparent and involves local stakeholders Contracts involving public land are public with agreements monitored and enforced Public land transactions are conducted in an open transparent manner. Dimensions Payments for public leases are collected. Public land is transacted at market prices unless guided by equity objectives. The public captures benefits arising from changes in permitted land use. Score Policy to improve equity in asset access and use by the poor exists, is implemented effectively and monitored. ABCD Area 3: Management of Public land 12

13 The scoring/ ranking: based on global experience Dimension Assessment Brief description of dimension A – Best option towards a good land governance scenario. B – Second best set of options for making progress towards good land governance. C – Generally struggles to meet the criteria for good land governance however some attempts are being made. D – No attempts in this area towards good land governance. 13

14 Example of coded answers Dimension Public land transactions are conducted in an open transparent manner. (with the exception of transfers to improve asset equity such as land distribution and land for social housing). 14

15 11 Indicators important for large-scale land acquisitions Panel 1: Land Rights Recognition Recognition of a continuum of rights Respect for and enforcement of rights Panel 2: Rights to Forest and Common Lands & Rural Land Use Regulations Rights to forest and common lands Effectiveness and equity of rural land use regulations Panel 4: Public Land Management Identification of public land and clear management Justification and time-efficiency of acquisition processes Transparency and fairness of acquisition procedures Panel 5: Transfer of large tracts of public/communal land to investors Transfer of public land to private use follows a clear, transparent, and competitive process and payments are collected and audited Private Investment Strategy Policy implementation is effective, consistent and transparent and involves local stakeholders. Contracts involving public land are public with agreements monitored and enforced. 15

16 Results 16

17 Countries with LGAF (33) pilot completed OngoingStarting 2014 Benin **Brazil*Bangladesh Burkina faso Ethiopia DR Congo ColombiaCameroonBurundi IndonesiaGambiaDRC- Kinshasa* Mozambique KyrgyzstanGeorgia *GuineaKalimantan-Indonesia* Peru **Ghana HondurasTimor Leste TanzaniaMadagascar*India -7 States* Malawi * Mali Mauritania MoldovaRwanda ***-monitoring PhilippinesSudan ** 2 nd round South Africa South Sudan Uganda *=+sub-nationalUkraine Vanuatu Vietnam 17

18 Scorecards 18

19 Recognition and Respect for Existing Rights: Legal and Institutional Environment 19

20 Management of Public Land 20

21 Public Provision of Land Information 21

22 Transfer of Public Land to Private Use Follows a Clear, Transparent, and Competitive Process 22

23 Conclusions 23

24 Process LGAF proven to be a good diagnostic tool Comprehensive analysis across stakeholder much appreciated; Breaking down traditional silos in country = panels are important Creates baseline for tracking progress – regular monitoring key quantitative indicators Helps to focus efforts in land sector and encourage collaboration, basis for building platforms for stakeholder dialogue Helped to start taking sometimes controversial issues forward / create space for dialogue Tool for expressing & communicating country demand Provides justification for investments/ interventions in land sector reforms move up land issues on broad policy agenda; 24

25 Contribution to transparency & change Information land sector pulled together, brings tacit knowledge on actual practice in the public domain Brings (potential) change agents together; podium for potential champions Building block for Implementation (can agreement on strong and weak points (evidence) lead to change?) – allign… Innovation? (pilot, sharing practice, capacity etc.) Institutionalize dialogues and monitoring – allign.. VGGT Demand for data from administrative system => transparency & performance? More monitoring (timely check) & impact 25

26 Presenting data in accessible format LGAF Framework Structures analysis Structures assessment : comparable over time and between countries Produces scorecards: strong & weak points Baseline; also helps to identify opportunities for sharing good practice 26

27 LGAF prepares the ground for regular –reporting on land governance Produces baseline & national platform demanding data & ability to use these data Uses data from administrative systems: government responsibility to supply data (accountability) and has incentive to Improve ability of systems to produce data Undertake actions that will show progress) Work towards regular reporting on short list of global land indicators (see also) –incl. Post land indicators (land in name of women; mapping communal land; transactions recorded; expropriation, conflict, taxation) 27

28 More Information on LGAF instrument and findings 28


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