Specific technique of quantitative research L 8 Ing. Jiří Šnajdar 2013
8 Specific technique of quantitative research 8.1 Ad-hoc Just for this purpose and panel Marketing researches ad-hoc and researches longitudinal (panel) – basic difference is length of contact with complex of respondents. Ad-hoc Just for this purpose researches work whenever with new complex, from which are obtaining information, the same questionnaire can be used every time. But every time is new selection of units, we ask. This process has to ensure that the information would be obtained from subject, that was not influenced by any other research.
Contrary to it the longitudinal research work for the longer time (repeatedly) with the same selective complex – for this complex, that fulfils further stated pertinence, is used term panel. Panel is complex of chosen units, from which are the information obtaining for a longer time, periodically and from the same sphere of questions. Information from panel are, comparing with ad hoc researches, cheaper. Opinions and answers of person, who is part of the panel and is asked periodically, are influenced his previous co- operation with research even if every time is used different questionnaire.
This phenomenon is called panel effect, can have different signification : from panel examinations come out better knowledge of trade-marks than in population altogether generally higher knowledge about current market, offers at panels, where respondents give information about their incomes and expenses, e.g. about structure of usage, are expenses more controlled, planned, because regularly expense recording leads to control of personal/family budget and spontaneity of expenses, typical for common consumer, is disappearing. (Classical at panels type statistic of family budgets).
Often are conceptions of questioning and research presented as synonym. It can happen that about ad hoc questioning is talked in the same level like about ad hoc research. If the contents is not distorted, there are not protests against it. But no every (marketing) research is questioning. membership in panel, repeated questioning, gives additional information to members of panel and this is that they get out from common consumers results of panel examination are also influenced further self-control : character of examination loses anonymity in households panels develops tendency of keeping back inside family
The only really profound defence against above mentioned problems of panel is changing of subjects in panel. Panel effect is distorting of information, that influence from character of this type of information – it appears in all kinds of panels in all countries, with different intensity. Kinds of panel : households, chosen households (example high school educated), individuals, chosen segments (teachers), shops, special shops (pharmacies). Information from participants of panel are obtaining : with help of questioning net (visit of supervisor at home) or sending by post, in the last time also in on-line research form.
Specific kind of panel are so called statistics of families accounts. Chosen households record their incomes and expenses. Data of this kind are called spatial or cross-sectional (in divergence from data from time sequences). Data from statistic of families accounts are used for calculations of coefficients of income elasticity (see Chosen quantitative techniques of research).
8.2 Poly and mono thematic researches Poly thematic researches Mainly as ad hoc research and exceptionally in scope of panel is performing research for more assignments, to more themes - so called omnibus. Poly thematic questioning means that in this form of questioning are collected questions of different themes from different customers. Advantage for customer – marketing worker – is, that he can order, buy only certain number of questions – also only one. Its usage is mainly in quantitative research.
Omnibus questioning makes research agency and have usually given time in advance. It is also performed at in advance given number of people (usually 1000 or more) so, that results could be generalise for population in total. Results – are worked out in standard term and in standard way. Usually examined demographic signs are : Sex, age, region, size of agglomeration, family situation, number of members if household (children under 15), character of work (manual, mental), profession, education, income of household
According to client´s assignment it is possible to enlarge or adjust the demographic signs, or to specify them according to specific needs of customer. Advantages for customer : possibility to obtain answers on lower number of questions price – usually is paid for entering into omnibus and further for single questions according to their difficulties. (Simple question with possibilities of answer yes – no is cheaper). At assignment of larger amount of questions is often offered discount, e.g. package price.
Advantages for agency : regularity ensures possibility of planning (usage of net, working out etc.) possibility to accost large spectrum of customers. Monothematic researches classics of marketing researches, classics questioning – researches for one client (mostly one thematic). Results of exclusive research cannot be given to disposal to someone else, but often the client requires on agency to work in scope of certain theme, certain commodity exclusively only for him.
8.3 Journal Classics technique of record of purchase and consumable households activities is consumable journal. Members of household or chosen member of household records all (or chosen) consumable and purchase activities in different degree of detail. The most famous are family accounts, that are organised usually by national statistics office and its methodology is consulted internationally.
Journals made for commercial reasons are significantly more detailed, respondents record not only commodity, but also purchased mark, number of purchased products, place of purchase, price we buy the product for, allow to follow repeated purchases (loyalty) etc. Respondents get reward in different ways. Specific journals are focused on certain commodity or on certain consumable or purchase activity (king of taking meals, purchases in hypermarkets etc.) Forasmuch as the journals are made usually in panels, it is necessary to calculate with panel effect.