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Presentation on theme: "TILT-UP CONSTRUCTION GUEST SPEAKER: KAREN S. HAND, P.E."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction Karen S. Hand, P.E. BSCE – University of Missouri-Rolla
May 1993 Needham & Associates, Inc. Consulting Engineers May 1998-Present TCA - Charter Member 2004 Achievement Award Winner for Innovation

3 Topics Panelizing the Building Connections
Architectural Considerations

4 Project Procurement Clients can be Architect, Engineer of Record, Subcontractor, General Contractor Design Build Specialty Engineer Engineer of Record with Additional Scope How do we as a specialty Engineer get the job? Clients are from different Avenues Typically we are the Specialty Engineer: Coordination can be tricky since the rest of the structural design and architectural design may already be done. Inevitably there are changes. Best case scenerio is to design the entire structure. Gear toward educating marketplace about the importance of coordination up front. Too often the tilt-up is thought of as a facade and not a structural system.

5 Tackling the Project PLANNING!!!!!! With the Architect
With the Engineer of Record With the Contractor Once we are awarded a project, how do we tackle the job? Planning with the Architect, Planning with the Engineer, Planning with the Contractor

6 Preliminary Design Know what your constraints are..Not the typical “design” issues…Think beyond the paper…know what assumptions have been made in the proposal by the contractor. Limited Site Crane Size Weather Preliminary Design for Tilt Up is different from any other type of design. There are more issues or constraints to consider than the typical steel frame design. A limited site can restrict panel size. May need to do stack casting where the panel sizes should remain constant. May need casting areas somewhere away from the building slab, effecting the crane capacity for reach. Crane size can effect the entire design. An experienced tilt up engineer can tackle these issues.

7 Planning Decide the approach Are there any unique issues to consider?
New Millennium used tented stack cast panels to keep an efficient heated area EPA had 16” and 32” thick panels…discussed 3 different options to determine feasibility before making a decision on how to proceed.

8 Panelizing the Building
One of the most important steps in Design What is panelizing? Determining how the walls are divided into panels, what their shapes are and where the joints between them occur

9 Panelizing the Building
Coordinate with Architect and Steel Framing Engineer and Contractor Goal for Panel Sizes: Maximum Panel Size Minimize Panel Joints

10 Panelizing the Building
Factors to Consider Crane Capacity and Reach Steel Framing Layout and Bearing Locations – Typical Embedment Pattern Opening Locations – Adequate Jambs, Lintel Panels, Vertically Stack Openings Locate Girders at Center of Panel or at Joint Footing Step Locations

11 Panelizing the Building
Takes the same time to lift and set a large panel as a small panel. Take Advantage. Efficient Panel Layout Effects the Cost of the entire project and should be considered one of the most important issues to coordinate. Cost in Formwork Cost in Embeds/Connections

12 Planning the Connections
Base Connections Corner Connections Roof Framing Connections Miscellaneous Connections

13 Types of Connections Welded Embedded Metal Embedded Inserts
Most Common Embedded Inserts Allows for Bolted Connection Eliminates Field Welding Accuracy in Locating Drilled In Anchors Post installed Cast-In-Place Concrete At Slabs

14 Base Connections What type of foundation system is being used?
Continuous Footing Reinforced Top and Bottom layer Centered Under Panel Spread Footing Panel Spans Corner to Corner Allow for Expansion and Contraction Pad Footings used to be the standard. Continuous Footings are now the starndard. Shrinkage of the panels between the bearing pads after the panels are set can cause diagonal shrinkage cracks in the lower corners of the panels. Set shim packs or grout pads

15 Base Connections Diagonal Shrinkage cracks in the corners due to restraint of bearing pads Grout under the panels as soon as possible Shim Packs or Grout Pads should be located ¼ from the end of the panel

16 Base Connections Friction – Old Days Pourback Strips and Slab Dowels
Embedded Plates or Angles To Slab Option To Footing Option Free Standing Walls Spandrel/Grade Beam Type By eliminating the panel to slab dowels, the floor slab can be cast all the way to the inside face of where the tilt up panel will be located. This also eliminates the backfilling and slab infill operations required around the panel braces to fill the closure strip.

17 Pourback Strips and Slab Dowels
Slab is poured short of the panel location with a “closure strip” of about 3’-0”. Dowels are “wet set” into the panel at the correct elevation to meet the center of the floor slab. Backfill and insert rebar between slab dowel and panel dowel. Closure strip is poured to finish off the slab.

18 Pourback Strip At Dock Wall

19 Pourback Strips and Slab Dowels
Problems with the procedure “Wet setting” the dowels is cumbersome Accurate placement Finishing Variations of Detail Backfilling becomes a safety concern Braces are still attached Access is a problem Panel layout on the slab could present access challenges to get these wet set. Epoxy the rebar to the panel and/or slab Use threaded inserts (not always accurately placed)

20 Backfilling ACI 551 Section 4.10.2
Prior to backfilling, place a strip of felt over the joint between adjacent panels below grade and pack with plastic roof cement. This prevents dirt, mud or water from leaking through the joint in the panels

21 Embedded Base Connections
Allows for the slab to be poured to inside face of where tilt-up panel will go Eliminates Backfilling on Inside of Bldg Connections can me made immediately

22 Embedded Base Connections
To Slab Angle Embedded in the Slab, Plate Embedded in the Panel - Welded Consider Expansion/Contraction in Slab and Panel To Footing Angle Embedded at Base of Panel Second Angle is welded to Embed and Bolted to Ftg Consider Additional Unbraced Length for Panel Design Consider Corrosion Consider Expansion/Contraction Adding concrete over the embeds do not protect them against corrosion!!!

23 Dock High Walls Connection at Slab and at Footing Slab Connection
Resists Lateral Load Reduces Unbraced Length for Compression Footing Connection Resists Lateral Soil Pressure behind Panel Advantage - Base Fixity for Panel Design Base Fixity can become very important with the small column strips at dock doors.

24 Panel to Panel Connections
Are they needed? Not typical for tilt up Common in Precast Larger Panels and Wider Panels

25 Panel to Panel Connections
Tie panels together for Overturning Forces Re-entrant Corners with Drag Strut Forces Laterally stabilize two adjacent panels Use a Butterfly Connection Expansion and Contraction Do not restrain any more movement with the connection than structurally required.

26 Corner Connections Thermal Bowing
Caulked Joints can fail prematurely – Not a structural performance issue Expansion and Contraction Do not restrain any more movement with the connection than structurally required. Why do we make corner connections? What happens if we don’t make a corner connection?

27 Roof Framing Connections
Diaphragm – Chord Connections – Continuous Angle also acts as Deck Bearing Angle Drag Strut Connections Joist Bearing Connections Embedded Plate and Bearing Angle Joist Pocket Girder Bearing Connections Embedded Plate and Angle/Plate Beam Pocket Forming Issues with Pockets, Erection Issue with Pockets

28 Ledger Connection Diaphragm Chord – Shear Forces
Deck Bearing – Gravity Forces Lateral Restraint – Tension Forces Continuous Angle Different Thermal Coefficient of Expansion Rigid Connection for Shear at Center of Panel Sliding Connection for Gravity and Tension Forces

29 Typical Ledger Connection

30 Typical Joist Connection

31 Typical Girder Connection

32 Other Connections Mezzanine Connections Spandrels
Smaller Joist Spacing Resist Temptation to use a Continuous Angle Welded at each Joist Spandrels

33 Expansion/Contraction
Did I mention Expansion/Contraction is the most important thing to remember when designing connections? Expansion/Contraction is the most important thing to remember when designing connections. Let the panels “breathe”

34 Design Panels Once connections have been planned you can design the panels for the constraints you have provided. Eccentric Loads due to Bearing Connections Unbraced Length for Panel Buckling Base Fixity

35 Reinforcing Schedules
Once Panels have been designed, you will indicate the required reinforcing on the structural drawings.

36 Reinforcing Design Note regarding Reinforcing:
ACI 318 Section allows bar spacing up to 18 inches. Best practice is to use smaller bars not to exceed 15 inches o.c. When using a double mat of steel, you could stagger the mats to reduce the effective spacing if stretching to 18” but this requires additional chairs to support the upper and lower mat independently. Check with Contractor for cost impact.

37 Engineering Documents
Need to Transmit, with completeness and clarity, the general and specific requirements for tilt up panels. Key Plan Locate panels and indicate designation Elevations Each panel uniquely numbered Drawn from inside of building looking out Panel Dimensions and connection detail references Joint sizes

38 Engineering Documents
Connection Details Anchor sizes required Embed Plate sizes and stud spacing Reinforcement Details Typical rebar placement Clear coverages Special Tie Configurations Pilaster reinforcement if required Specifications Shop Drawings – Panel Layout

39 Detailing the Panels Biggest Source of Field Problems are results of inadequate checking and correlating between Architectural and Structural drawings. Design Engineer typically isn’t too concerned about getting all the architectural features coordinated. Elevations on the Structural Drawings and on the Panel Layout Drawings are drawn from the inside of the building looking outward.

40 Panel Layout Panel Identification Locate and Identify Embedded Items
Locate Openings Location of any recesses or reveals with details Locate Architectural Finishes Pull all dimensions from upper left corner


42 Communication Communication with the Architect is vital to the success of the project Communication with the Engineer is vital to the success of the project Communication with the Contractor is vital to the success of the project

43 Architectural Considerations
Accent Panels Applied Treatment Surface Treatment Reveals (Rustication) Protrusions

44 Reveals (Rustication)
Most basic Architectural influence

45 Architectural Sandblasting Exposed Aggregate Painting Applied

46 Surface Treatments Formliners with Brick or CMU Pattern

47 Thinset Brick Installation

48 Architectural Features

49 Thinset Brick Patterns with Thinset Brick

50 CMU Facade Chameleon Wall Placed in Sand Casting Bed
Concrete Poured over the CMU Face

51 Curved Panels Target – Lee’s Summit

52 Protrusions Platforming
Form up the recesses to allow for panel surfaces to protude from the face

53 Architectural Accent Panels
2004 Award Winning Project

54 EPA Panel Forming Forming required unusual techniques

55 EPA Panel Forming Reveals on each side of the panel required innovation to achieve

56 EPA Panel Forming Penetrations in the panel for ductwork

57 EPA Reinforcing Forced Column and Beam Strips into the Panel to allow for Insulated Voids

58 EPA Panels Lifting 32 inch thick panel weighing 186,000 pounds



61 Questions If you have questions in the future please feel free to contact me!!!


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