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Dr. Donna Rhodes Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development.

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1 Dr. Donna Rhodes Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development

2 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dr. Donna Rhodes Senior Lecturer, Engineering Systems Principal Research Engineer, Lean Aerospace Initiative Principal Research Engineer, Lean Aerospace Initiative Academic Credentials Ph.D., Systems Science: T.J. Watson School of Engineering at SUNY Binghamton. Ph.D., Systems Science: T.J. Watson School of Engineering at SUNY Binghamton. Research Interests: Systems Engineering, Systems Management, and Enterprise Architecting. Research Interests: Systems Engineering, Systems Management, and Enterprise Architecting. Street Credentials 20 years of experience in the aerospace, defense systems, systems integration, and commercial product industries. 20 years of experience in the aerospace, defense systems, systems integration, and commercial product industries. Senior Management positions in the areas of systems engineering and enterprise transformation Senior Management positions in the areas of systems engineering and enterprise transformation –IBM Federal Systems, –Loral, –Lockheed Martin, and –Lucent Technologies.

3 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Donna Rhodes Awards and Accomplishments Awards and Accomplishments –IBM Outstanding Innovation Award –Lockheed Martin NOVA Award. –Established several systems engineering graduate degree programs, –Served on several university advisory boards, –Past-President and Fellow of the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE), –Currently INCOSE Director for Strategic Planning. Web Sites:

4 Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development SDM Alumni Conference October 2004 Dr. Donna H. Rhodes Massachusetts Institute of Technology

5 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development Themes What is innovation in the context of (large scale) product/systems development? How is systems engineering evolving to address complex innovation challenges? What are the implications for research & education?

6 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology What is Systems Engineering? What is Systems Engineering? SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Classical) Systems engineering is the process of selecting and synthesizing the application of the appropriate scientific and technical knowledge in order to translate system requirements into system design. (Chase) SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Expanded) Systems engineering is a branch of engineering that concentrates on design and application of the whole as distinct from the parts… looking at the problem in its entirety, taking into account all the facets and variables and relating the social to the technical aspects. (Ramo)

7 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Critical Need for Systems Engineering for Robustness Systems Engineering needs to evolve to effectively develop systems/system-of-systems that are: Capable of adapting to changes in mission and requirements Expandable/scalable Designed to accommodate growth in capability Able to reliably function given changes in threats or environment Effectively/affordably sustainable over their lifecycle Easily modified to leverage new technologies Reference: Rhodes, D., Workshop Report – Air Force/LAI Workshop on Systems Engineering for Robustness, July 2004, In a recent workshop, Dr. Marvin Sambur, Assistant Secretary of the AF for Acquisition, noted that average program is 36% overrun according to recent studies -- which disrupts the overall portfolio of programs. The primary reason cited in studies of problem programs state the number one reason for programs going off track is systems engineering.

8 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development What is innovation in the context of (large scale) product/systems development? How is systems engineering evolving to address complex innovation challenges? What are the implications for research & education?

9 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology What is Innovation? Dictionary Definitions act of starting something for the first time actofstartingsomethingforthefirsttime a creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentationacreationanewdeviceorprocess resultingfromstudyandexperimentation …but what is innovation when our focus is large scale complex systems

10 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Innovation in the Systems Context Innovation may occur at multiple levels of the system – component level innovation may impact system behavior at broad system level Innovation in enterprise system and product system are intimately linked Innovation at the interfaces is just as important as component level innovations

11 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Innovation in the Systems Context Current decisions may be made in a manner which will set up possibility for innovation in future Innovators need to think in multiple dimensions with sensitivity to time, context, and stakeholders As complexity increases, so too does the difficulty of innovation and the potential value of innovation

12 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology How Does Innovation Occur? Margaret Wheatley Innovation is fostered by information gathered from new connections; from insights gained by journeys into other disciplines or places; from active, collegial network and fluid, open boundaries Innovation arises from ongoing circles of exchange, where information is not just accumulated or stored, but created Knowledge is generated anew from connections that weren't there before

13 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology When is Innovation Likely to Occur? The potential for innovation in large scale complex engineering systems is greatest at the intersection of opportunities, capabilities, and strategies Systems Engineering does its most important work at these intersections….

14 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Systems Engineering Systems engineering works throughout the entire system lifecycle to transform high level needs to operational system As such, innovation for the system as a whole, and particularly at conceptual level, is driven by good systems engineering Many of the current initiatives to evolve systems engineering to a broader field will serve to enable innovation

15 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development What is innovation in the context of (large scale) product/systems development? How is systems engineering evolving to address complex innovation challenges? What are the implications for research & education?

16 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolution of Systems Engineering Four Major Aspects 1. Contemporary Engineering Environment 2. The Nature of Future Systems 3. General Trends in the Evolution 4. Changes in Systems Engineering Practice

17 What characterizes the engineering environment of the 21 st century?

18 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Global Engineering Environment Globalization demands a deeper understanding of national and cultural policies, economies, laws, priorities, and preferences. There is a growing need to apply the systems perspectives to global challenges of sustainable development. Globalization demands a deeper understanding of national and cultural policies, economies, laws, priorities, and preferences. There is a growing need to apply the systems perspectives to global challenges of sustainable development. The International Space Station is the largest and most complex international scientific project in history. (photo credit: NASA, with permission)

19 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Selected Perspectives on… GLOBAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENT Systems efforts must increasingly consider the social and ecological impacts of decisions and actions Changing demographics influence systems and global workforce Continued growth in international cooperation of defense, IT, communication, transportation, other sectors Global terrorist threats drive the need for counter-terrorist systems and international security will be a major focus Cross investments, mergers and trans-national cooperative ventures will continue to dominate business strategies. Procurement and operations of systems will experience transitions in multiple dimensions

20 What will future systems be like and what challenges do these present?

21 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Future Systems The global engineering environment drives a new worldview – systems of systems. Evolving needs, new approaches, and advances in technology are influencing the characteristics and the capabilities of emerging and future systems. The Central Artery/Tunnel Project's Operations Control Center (OCC) in South Boston contains the most advanced electronic traffic monitoring and incident response system in the world. (photo credit: Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, with permission)

22 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Selected Perspectives on… FUTURE SYSTEMS The problems and challenges of this century are solved better by using systems approaches, rather than through application of technology alone Systems engineering focus must be broad and increasingly embracing non-technical parameters Systems become more complex in their composition, nature, and interfaces, and increasingly more software intensive There will be a significant increase in super systems, with transportation, environment, defense, and security as key areas of focus in the years ahead. This continuing aggregation of systems of systems will drive the need to network new and existing systems Many systems, including warfare systems, will be driven by the network-centric paradigm

23 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Selected Perspectives on… FUTURE SYSTEMS Systems will evolve over their lifecycle and will be designed to accommodate new technologies and emergent behaviors Focus on systems architecture to effectively integrate off-the- shelf products, legacy systems, and new technologies Complex interaction of multiple advanced technologies and embedded intelligence, with human/system interface becoming highly sophisticated and complex. Simulation, adaptive systems, sensors for condition monitoring, robotics, virtual devices, and other advanced technologies will enable new capabilities Systems opportunities include anti-terrorism/conflict resolution, environmental, resource management, healthcare, energy generation/distribution, general upgrading to new military paradigms, space (including search for natural resources), and infrastructure modernization

24 In general, how is the field of systems engineering evolving?

25 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Systems Engineering Evolution Systems engineering is evolving as a broader and more multi-faceted field, as the problems and challenges of this century are solved better by systems approaches, rather than through application of technology alone. Systems engineering is evolving as a broader and more multi-faceted field, as the problems and challenges of this century are solved better by systems approaches, rather than through application of technology alone. Systems engineering is essential to successfully design, develop, and sustain the highly complex systems of the 21st century. (photo credit: INCOSE)

26 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Selected Perspectives on….. SYSTEMS ENGINEERING EVOLUTION There is a critical need to ensure systems engineering focus is broad, increasingly embracing non-technical parameters with focus on complete life cycles, value streams, risk management, and opportunity management. Systems, more than ever, will need to effectively accommodate technology, politics, economics, people, culture, environment, geography, and other factors. Many serious problems we now confront are generic systems problems, and not uniquely and only component and materials problems. We face system-of-systems challenges that are increasingly global and overarching, involving interdisciplinary team efforts. As knowledge expands, engineering specialists will need to take a deeper and narrower focus, while the systems engineer will need to cover an even broader perspective.

27 How does the practice of systems engineering need to evolve to address these 21 st century system challenges?

28 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Systems Engineering Practice There will be growing recognition that the organization, its programs, and the underlying infrastructure are all systems, with focus on lean extended enterprises. New methods and tools will enable effectively addressing complex systems challenges. There will be growing recognition that the organization, its programs, and the underlying infrastructure are all systems, with focus on lean extended enterprises. New methods and tools will enable effectively addressing complex systems challenges. The engineering development environment will provide the capability for increased prototyping, modeling, simulation, and experimentation. As an example, Draper Laboratory's Rapid Prototyping Center allows engineers to create and evaluate concept models and functional prototypes early in the design process. (photo credit: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., with permission)

29 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Selected Perspectives on… SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PRACTICE Means of collaboration will evolve with increased global teamwork, distance collaboration, and telecommuting Harmonization of standards will be essential for interdisciplinary collaboration in complex systems Computerization of the development process will continue to evolve, enabled by advances in methodologies and tools Computerization of the development process will continue to evolve, enabled by advances in methodologies and tools Capability models serve as an enabler for integration of an enterprise from a process perspective

30 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Selected Perspectives on… SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PRACTICE Increased use of model-based techniques and experimentation, modeling and simulation, and seamless cradle to grave databanks Greater attention to representing and analyzing emergent and adaptive behavior Methods to better explore alternative architectures and assess constraints/impacts within a system-of- systems context will become increasingly important

31 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology What is Good Systems Engineering?Classical view Effective transformation of customer requirements to design Requirements clearly specified and frozen early in lifecycle Emphasis on minimizing changes and verifying requirements System designed to meet well specified set of requirements and performance objectives specified at project start Focus on reliability, maintainability, and availability of the system

32 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology What is Good Systems Engineering?Expanded view Effective transformation of stakeholder needs to fielded (and sustainable) system Focuses on capabilities of system/systems-of-systems, with recognition of complex interdependencies of system and enterprise Emphasizes an expanded set of ilities and continuous validation of stakeholder needs Systems architecting grows in importance, supported by a model-based approach to development -- formal methods and executable requirements Spiral development approach for designing system to accommodate changes in mission, requirements, threats, new technologies

33 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering Systems Architecting Systems architecting as science Interrelationship of architecting system and enterprise Architecture views and frameworks Systems architect as a certified professional role Critical Questions Can systems be predicatively architected? How should we evaluate alternative architectures? How can models/visualization environments be used? Can systems be rigorously architected with a specific goal of flexibility, extensibility, sustainability, or agility?

34 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering Model-based SE Model-based approaches Executable requirements Systems Modeling Language (SysML) Rapid prototyping and simulation Critical Questions When/how should model-based approaches be used? Do formal modeling languages result in better systems? Do model-based approaches contribute to evaluating and implementing changes and innovations?

35 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering Spiral Approach/New ilities Spiral approach to development with stakeholder validation as continuous activity Emphasis on flexibility, agility, scalability, robustness... Significant challenges in planning and coordinating spirals in complex system-of-systems Critical Questions How should processes be adapted for spiral approach? Can systems optimize for selected ilities? Can the ilities be mathematically defined? What are the relationships between them?

36 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering Uncertainty Management Uncertainty drives risk… but also opportunity Retaining some level of uncertainty during development may be desirable Uncertainty can be managed in quantitative manner Critical Questions What are methods for multi-attribute trade analysis? How can engineers use real-options approach effectively? How can we mature, validate, and automate methods for uncertainty management? How do we apply uncertainty management to system-of- systems, family-of-systems, and product families

37 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering Value-based SE SE processes recognized as sound, but not always applied effectively Lean provides an approach to maximize value while minimizing wasted effort Synergies of lean practices and SE practices are being explored … Critical Questions Do the synergies of lean practices and SE practices result in new concepts? Does a value-based approach result in increased potential for innovation? + Systems Engineering

38 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering New Collaborative Venues Concept Design Centers as a venue for collaboration in concept phase Rapid prototyping and Visualization Labs as a means for early interaction between designers and other stakeholders Incentivized competitive projects such as Grand Challenges and Design Competitions Critical Questions How are the new collaborative venues best used to foster innovation in the development process? Do initiatives such as Grand Challenges and Design Competitions accelerate systems engineering innovation?

39 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development What is innovation in the context of (large scale) product/systems development? How is systems engineering evolving to address complex innovation challenges? What are the implications for research & education?

40 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Education and Research As systems engineering and related disciplines evolve to meet the challenges of this new century, there will be associated enabling changes in engineering education. As systems engineering and related disciplines evolve to meet the challenges of this new century, there will be associated enabling changes in engineering education. Design competitions provide an excellent educational experience for student teams. Shown in the photo above is a view of the RoboCup 2003 International Robotics Competition (photo credit: Patrick Riley, with permission).

41 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Selected Perspectives on ….. ENGINEERING EDUCATION All engineers will be educated as problem solvers with broader knowledge of systems, human behavior, geo- political constraints, legal and regulatory laws Engineers will be educated to design for change and for the promises of technology Increasingly, universities will have capstone projects with a significant amount of complexity involved Increasingly, universities will have capstone projects with a significant amount of complexity involved There will be a growing number of international design competitions from airplanes to race cars to robotics and others Systems engineering will experience a convergence in curricula, while retaining unique value of each university

42 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Selected Perspectives on ….. ENGINEERING RESEARCH Collaboration in education and research between government, industry and academia will increase There will be a better understanding of what constitutes systems research, and funds available from companies and government Outstanding universities will couple practice-oriented and theoretical research to achieve research project synergies Design laboratories will advance research and provide enriched educational opportunities

43 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Common Criticisms of Systems Engineering Inhibitors to Innovation Too focused on process execution and not enough on system/system properties Focuses too quickly specifying requirements without adequately exploring desired system behavior Often applied at the subsystem and sometimes at the systems level – but rarely at the system-of- systems/enterprise level Assumes the system context as a constraint rather than variable

44 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Contemporary Systems Engineering Systems of systems Extended enterprises Network-centric paradigm Delivering value to society Sustainability of systems Design for flexibility Managing uncertainty Predictability of systems Spiral capable processes Model-based engineering … and more This requires a broader field of study for future systems leaders and the enabling changes in the educational system…

45 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Engineering Systems Division New Education Model MLOG TPP LFM ESD SDM ENGINEERING SYSTEMS Political Economy Economics, Statistics Systems Theory Organizational Theory Operations Research /Systems Analysis System Architecture & Eng /Product Development Engineering Management Technology & Policy CTL- Center for Transportation & Logistics CIPD - Center for Innovation in Product Development CTPID - Center for Technology, Policy, & Industrial Development IPC - Industrial Performance Center TPP - Technology & Policy Program MLOG - Logistics & Supply Chains ESD Doctoral Program ESD SM Program SDM - Systems Design & Management LFM - Leaders for Manufacturing ENGINEERING SYSTEMS is a field of study taking an integrative holistic view of large- scale, complex, technologically-enabled systems with significant enterprise level interactions and socio-technical interfaces.

46 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Systems Engineering PerspectiveEngineering Systems Perspective PolicyViewed as fixed and constraining system solution Viewed as variables --can be created or adapted to optimize overall solution Socio- technical Viewed as consideration in engineering Viewed as primary in an overall system solution StakeholdersPrimary focus on customer and end-users with secondary focus on other stakeholders Balanced focus on all stakeholders impacted by engineering system -- product, enterprise, environment FocusApplied to product systemApplied to both product system and enterprise system PractitionersSystem architects, systems engineers, related specialists performing systems engineering process System architects, enterprise architects, engineers, operations analysis, project managers, policy makers, social scientists, and many others involved in total engineering system Future VisionPredictably develop systems with optimized performance for value to satisfy primary stakeholders Predictably develop sustainable engineering systems with optimized value to society as a whole Engineering Systems Broadens the Innovation Playing Field

47 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Complexity of 21 st century is changing how we engineer systems… Complexity of 21 st century is changing how we engineer systems… Systems are more complex and collaborative than ever before, and must adapt to changes in mission and environment Systems need to be expandable, scalable, and designed to accommodate new capabilities Advances in computing technology, new infrastructure, and advanced methods provide engineers with ability to do things not previously possible We face new challenges in effectively defining, trading-off, and converging on the extended enterprise stakeholder needs System-of-Systems * Family of Systems * Product Families * Network Centric Systems

48 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Innovation in the Systems Context Innovation may occur at multiple levels of the system – component level innovation may impact system behavior at broad system level Innovation in enterprise system and product system are intimately linked Innovation at the interfaces is just as important as component level innovations Current decisions may be made in a manner which will set up possibility for innovation in future Innovators need to think in multiple dimensions with sensitivity to time, context, and stakeholders As complexity increases, so too does the difficulty of innovation and the potential value of innovation

49 © D. Rhodes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Summary Innovative products and systems of the 21 st century, particularly for large scale engineering systems, will be enabled by the evolution of systems engineering Advancements in systems education and research are key to effectively address the complex innovation scenarios we face


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