Presentation on theme: "Dr. Donna Rhodes Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development."— Presentation transcript:
1Dr. Donna RhodesEvolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development
2Dr. Donna Rhodes Senior Lecturer, Engineering Systems Principal Research Engineer, Lean Aerospace InitiativeAcademic CredentialsPh.D., Systems Science: T.J. Watson School of Engineering at SUNY Binghamton.Research Interests: Systems Engineering, Systems Management, and Enterprise Architecting.“Street” Credentials20 years of experience in the aerospace, defense systems, systems integration, and commercial product industries.Senior Management positions in the areas of systems engineering and enterprise transformationIBM Federal Systems,Loral,Lockheed Martin, andLucent Technologies.
3Donna Rhodes Web Sites: Awards and Accomplishments IBM Outstanding Innovation AwardLockheed Martin NOVA Award.Established several systems engineering graduate degree programs,Served on several university advisory boards,Past-President and Fellow of the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE),Currently INCOSE Director for Strategic Planning.Web Sites:
4Massachusetts Institute of Technology Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development SDM Alumni Conference October 2004Dr. Donna H. RhodesMassachusetts Institute of Technology
5Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development Themes What is innovation in the context of (large scale) product/systems development?How is systems engineering evolving to address complex innovation challenges?What are the implications for research & education?
6What is Systems Engineering? SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Classical)Systems engineering is the process of selecting and synthesizing the application of the appropriate scientific and technical knowledge in order to translate system requirements into system design. (Chase)SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Expanded)Systems engineering is a branch of engineering that concentrates on design and application of the whole as distinct from the parts… looking at the problem in its entirety, taking into account all the facets and variables and relating the social to the technical aspects. (Ramo)
7Critical Need for Systems Engineering for “Robustness” In a recent workshop, Dr. Marvin Sambur, Assistant Secretary of the AF for Acquisition, noted that average program is 36% overrun according to recent studies -- which disrupts the overall portfolio of programs. The primary reason cited in studies of problem programs state the number one reason for programs going off track is systems engineering.Systems Engineering needs to evolve to effectively develop systems/system-of-systems that are:Capable of adapting to changes in mission and requirementsExpandable/scalableDesigned to accommodate growth in capabilityAble to reliably function given changes in threats or environmentEffectively/affordably sustainable over their lifecycleEasily modified to leverage new technologiesFor this workshop, we are using the term robustness in a very broad wayReference: Rhodes, D., Workshop Report – Air Force/LAI Workshop on Systems Engineering for Robustness, July 2004,
8Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development What is innovation in the context of (large scale) product/systems development?How is systems engineering evolving to address complex innovation challenges?What are the implications for research & education?
9What is Innovation? Dictionary Definitions act of starting something for the first time a creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation…but what is innovation when our focus is large scale complex systems
10Innovation in the Systems Context Innovation may occur at multiple levels of the system – component level innovation may impact system behavior at broad system levelInnovation in enterprise system and product system are intimately linkedInnovation at the interfaces is just as important as component level innovations
11Innovation in the Systems Context Current decisions may be made in a manner which will set up possibility for innovation in futureInnovators need to think in multiple dimensions with sensitivity to time, context, and stakeholdersAs complexity increases, so too does the difficulty of innovation and the potential value of innovation
12How Does Innovation Occur? Margaret Wheatley ” Innovation is fostered by information gathered from new connections; from insights gained by journeys into other disciplines or places; from active, collegial network and fluid, open boundariesInnovation arises from ongoing circles of exchange, where information is not just accumulated or stored, but createdKnowledge is generated anew from connections that weren't there before”
13When is Innovation Likely to Occur? The potential for innovation in large scale complex engineering systems is greatest at the intersection of opportunities, capabilities, and strategiesSystems Engineering does its most important work at these intersections….
14Systems EngineeringSystems engineering works throughout the entire system lifecycle to transform high level needs to operational systemAs such, innovation for the system as a whole, and particularly at conceptual level, is driven by good systems engineeringMany of the current initiatives to evolve systems engineering to a broader field will serve to enable innovation
15Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems Development What is innovation in the context of (large scale) product/systems development?How is systems engineering evolving to address complex innovation challenges?What are the implications for research & education?
16Evolution of Systems Engineering Four Major Aspects Contemporary Engineering EnvironmentThe Nature of Future SystemsGeneral Trends in the EvolutionChanges in Systems Engineering Practice
17What characterizes the engineering environment of the 21st century?
18Global Engineering Environment Globalization demands a deeper understanding of national and cultural policies, economies, laws, priorities, and preferences. There is a growing need to apply the systems perspectives to global challenges of sustainable development.The International Space Station is the largest and most complex international scientific project in history.(photo credit: NASA, with permission)
19Selected Perspectives on… GLOBAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENT Systems efforts must increasingly consider the social and ecological impacts of decisions and actionsChanging demographics influence systems and global workforceContinued growth in international cooperation of defense, IT, communication, transportation, other sectorsGlobal terrorist threats drive the need for counter-terrorist systems and international security will be a major focusCross investments, mergers and trans-national cooperative ventures will continue to dominate business strategies.Procurement and operations of systems will experience transitions in multiple dimensions
20What will future systems be like and what challenges do these present?
21Future SystemsThe global engineering environment drives a new worldview – systems of systems. Evolving needs, new approaches, and advances in technology are influencing the characteristics and the capabilities of emerging and future systems.The Central Artery/Tunnel Project's Operations Control Center (OCC) in South Boston contains the most advanced electronic traffic monitoring and incident response system in the world. (photo credit: Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, with permission)
22Selected Perspectives on… FUTURE SYSTEMS The problems and challenges of this century are solved better by using systems approaches, rather than through application of technology aloneSystems engineering focus must be broad and increasingly embracing “non-technical” parametersSystems become more complex in their composition, nature, and interfaces, and increasingly more software intensiveThere will be a significant increase in “super systems”, with transportation, environment, defense, and security as key areas of focus in the years ahead.This continuing aggregation of systems of systems will drive the need to network new and existing systemsMany systems, including warfare systems, will be driven by the network-centric paradigm
23Selected Perspectives on… FUTURE SYSTEMS Systems will evolve over their lifecycle and will be designed to accommodate new technologies and emergent behaviorsFocus on systems architecture to effectively integrate off-the-shelf products, legacy systems, and new technologiesComplex interaction of multiple advanced technologies and embedded intelligence, with human/system interface becoming highly sophisticated and complex.Simulation, adaptive systems, sensors for condition monitoring, robotics, virtual devices, and other advanced technologies will enable new capabilitiesSystems opportunities include anti-terrorism/conflict resolution, environmental, resource management, healthcare, energy generation/distribution, general upgrading to new military paradigms, space (including search for natural resources), and infrastructure modernization
24In general, how is the field of systems engineering evolving?
25Systems Engineering Evolution Systems engineering is evolving as a broader and more multi-faceted field, as the problems and challenges of this century are solved better by systems approaches, rather than through application of technology alone.Systems engineering is essential to successfully design, develop, and sustain the highly complex systems of the 21st century. (photo credit: INCOSE)
26Selected Perspectives on….. SYSTEMS ENGINEERING EVOLUTION There is a critical need to ensure systems engineering focus is broad, increasingly embracing “non-technical” parameters with focus on complete life cycles, value streams, risk management, and opportunity management.Systems, more than ever, will need to effectively accommodate technology, politics, economics, people, culture, environment, geography, and other factors.Many serious problems we now confront are generic systems problems, and not uniquely and only component and materials problems. We face system-of-systems challenges that are increasingly global and overarching, involving interdisciplinary team efforts.As knowledge expands, engineering specialists will need to take a deeper and narrower focus, while the systems engineer will need to cover an even broader perspective.
27How does the practice of systems engineering need to evolve to address these 21st century system challenges?
28Systems Engineering Practice There will be growing recognition that the organization, its programs, and the underlying infrastructure are all systems, with focus on lean extended enterprises. New methods and tools will enable effectively addressing complex systems challenges.The engineering development environment will provide the capability for increased prototyping, modeling, simulation, and experimentation. As an example, Draper Laboratory's Rapid Prototyping Center allows engineers to create and evaluate concept models and functional prototypes early in the design process. (photo credit: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., with permission)
29Selected Perspectives on… SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PRACTICE Means of collaboration will evolve with increased global teamwork, distance collaboration, and telecommutingHarmonization of standards will be essential for interdisciplinary collaboration in complex systemsComputerization of the development process will continue to evolve, enabled by advances in methodologies and tools Capability models serve as an enabler for integration of an enterprise from a process perspective
30Selected Perspectives on… SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PRACTICE Increased use of model-based techniques and experimentation, modeling and simulation, and seamless “cradle to grave” databanksGreater attention to representing and analyzing emergent and adaptive behaviorMethods to better explore alternative architectures and assess constraints/impacts within a system-of- systems context will become increasingly important
31What is Good Systems Engineering? “Classical” view Effective transformation of customer requirements to designRequirements clearly specified and frozen early in lifecycleEmphasis on minimizing changes and verifying requirementsSystem designed to meet well specified set of requirements and performance objectives specified at project startFocus on reliability, maintainability, and availability of the system
32What is Good Systems Engineering? “Expanded” view Effective transformation of stakeholder needs to fielded (and sustainable) systemFocuses on capabilities of system/systems-of-systems, with recognition of complex interdependencies of system and enterpriseEmphasizes an expanded set of “ilities” and continuous validation of stakeholder needsSystems architecting grows in importance, supported by a model-based approach to development -- formal methods and executable requirementsSpiral development approach for designing system to accommodate changes in mission, requirements, threats, new technologies
33Evolving Systems Engineering Systems Architecting Systems architecting as scienceInterrelationship of architecting system and enterpriseArchitecture views and frameworksSystems architect as a certified professional roleCritical QuestionsCan systems be predicatively architected?How should we evaluate alternative architectures?How can models/visualization environments be used?Can systems be rigorously architected with a specific goal of flexibility, extensibility, sustainability, or agility?
34Evolving Systems Engineering Model-based SE Model-based approachesExecutable requirementsSystems Modeling Language™ (SysML™)Rapid prototyping and simulationCritical QuestionsWhen/how should model-based approaches be used?Do formal modeling languages result in better systems?Do model-based approaches contribute to evaluating and implementing changes and innovations?
35Evolving Systems Engineering Spiral Approach/New “ilities” Spiral approach to development with stakeholder validation as continuous activityEmphasis on flexibility, agility, scalability, robustness...Significant challenges in planning and coordinating spirals in complex system-of-systemsCritical QuestionsHow should processes be adapted for spiral approach?Can systems “optimize” for selected “ilities”?Can the “ilities” be mathematically defined? What are the relationships between them?
36Evolving Systems Engineering Uncertainty Management Uncertainty drives risk… but also opportunityRetaining some level of uncertainty during development may be desirableUncertainty can be managed in quantitative mannerCritical QuestionsWhat are methods for multi-attribute trade analysis?How can engineers use real-options approach effectively?How can we mature, validate, and automate methods for uncertainty management?How do we apply uncertainty management to system-of-systems, family-of-systems, and product families
37Evolving Systems Engineering Value-based SE SE processes recognized as sound, but not always applied effectively“Lean” provides an approach to maximize value while minimizing wasted effortSynergies of lean practices and SE practices are being explored …Critical QuestionsDo the synergies of lean practices and SE practices result in new concepts?Does a value-based approach result in increased potential for innovation?
38Evolving Systems Engineering New Collaborative Venues Concept Design Centers as a venue for collaboration in concept phaseRapid prototyping and Visualization Labs as a means for early interaction between designers and other stakeholdersIncentivized competitive projects such as Grand Challenges and Design CompetitionsCritical QuestionsHow are the new collaborative venues best used to foster innovation in the development process?Do initiatives such as Grand Challenges and Design Competitions accelerate systems engineering innovation?
39What are the implications for research & education? Evolving Systems Engineering for Innovative Product and Systems DevelopmentWhat is innovation in the context of (large scale) product/systems development?How is systems engineering evolving to address complex innovation challenges?What are the implications for research & education?
40Education and Research As systems engineering and related disciplines evolve to meet the challenges of this new century, there will be associated enabling changes in engineering education.Design competitions provide an excellent educational experience for student teams. Shown in the photo above is a view of the RoboCup 2003 International Robotics Competition (photo credit: Patrick Riley, with permission).
41Selected Perspectives on….. ENGINEERING EDUCATION All engineers will be educated as problem solvers with broader knowledge of systems, human behavior, geo-political constraints, legal and regulatory lawsEngineers will be educated to design for change and for the “promises of technology”Increasingly, universities will have capstone projects with a significant amount of complexity involved There will be a growing number of international design competitions from airplanes to race cars to robotics and othersSystems engineering will experience a convergence in curricula, while retaining unique value of each university
42Selected Perspectives on….. ENGINEERING RESEARCH Collaboration in education and research between government, industry and academia will increaseThere will be a better understanding of what constitutes systems research, and funds available from companies and governmentOutstanding universities will couple practice-oriented and theoretical research to achieve research project synergiesDesign laboratories will advance research and provide enriched educational opportunities
43Common Criticisms of Systems Engineering Inhibitors to Innovation Too focused on process execution and not enough on system/system propertiesFocuses too quickly specifying requirements without adequately exploring desired system behaviorOften applied at the subsystem and sometimes at the systems level – but rarely at the system-of-systems/enterprise levelAssumes the system context as a constraint rather than variable
44Contemporary Systems Engineering Systems of systemsExtended enterprisesNetwork-centric paradigmDelivering value to societySustainability of systemsDesign for flexibilityManaging uncertaintyPredictability of systemsSpiral capable processesModel-based engineering… and moreThis requires a broader field of study for future systems leaders and the enabling changes in the educational system…
45MIT Engineering Systems Division New Education Model ENGINEERING SYSTEMS is a field of study taking an integrative holistic view of large-scale, complex, technologically-enabled systems with significant enterprise level interactions and socio-technical interfaces.MIT Engineering Systems Division New Education ModelCTL- Center for Transportation & LogisticsCIPD - Center for Innovation in Product DevelopmentCTPID - Center for Technology, Policy,& Industrial DevelopmentIPC - Industrial Performance CenterTPP - Technology & Policy ProgramMLOG - Logistics & Supply ChainsESD Doctoral ProgramESD SM ProgramSDM - Systems Design& ManagementLFM - Leaders for ManufacturingENGINEERING SYSTEMSPolitical EconomyEconomics,StatisticsSystems TheoryOrganizational TheoryOperations Research/Systems AnalysisSystem Architecture& Eng /Product DevelopmentEngineering ManagementTechnology & PolicyTPPESDSDMLFMMLOG
46Engineering Systems Broadens the Innovation Playing Field Systems Engineering PerspectiveEngineering Systems PerspectivePolicyViewed as fixed and constraining system solutionViewed as variables --can be created or adapted to optimize overall solutionSocio-technicalViewed as consideration in engineeringViewed as primary in an overall system solutionStakeholdersPrimary focus on customer and end-users with secondary focus on other stakeholdersBalanced focus on all stakeholders impacted by engineering system -- product, enterprise, environmentFocusApplied to product systemApplied to both product system and enterprise systemPractitionersSystem architects, systems engineers, related specialists performing systems engineering processSystem architects, enterprise architects, engineers, operations analysis, project managers, policy makers, social scientists, and many others involved in total engineering systemFuture VisionPredictably develop systems with optimized performance for value to satisfy primary stakeholdersPredictably develop sustainable engineering systems with optimized value to society as a whole
47Complexity of 21st century is changing how we engineer systems… Systems are more complex and collaborative than ever before, and must adapt to changes in mission and environmentSystems need to be expandable, scalable, and designed to accommodate new capabilitiesAdvances in computing technology, new infrastructure, and advanced methods provide engineers with ability to do things not previously possibleWe face new challenges in effectively defining, trading-off, and converging on the extended enterprise stakeholder needsComplexity of 21st century is changing how we engineer systems…System-of-Systems * Family of Systems * Product Families * Network Centric Systems
48Innovation in the Systems Context Innovation may occur at multiple levels of the system – component level innovation may impact system behavior at broad system levelInnovation in enterprise system and product system are intimately linkedInnovation at the interfaces is just as important as component level innovationsCurrent decisions may be made in a manner which will set up possibility for innovation in futureInnovators need to think in multiple dimensions with sensitivity to time, context, and stakeholdersAs complexity increases, so too does the difficulty of innovation and the potential value of innovation
49SummaryInnovative products and systems of the 21st century, particularly for large scale engineering systems, will be enabled by the evolution of systems engineeringAdvancements in systems education and research are key to effectively address the complex innovation scenarios we face