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S ELF -I NSTRUCTION Wilmington University Trina Forney RN, BSN Diana Givens RN, BSN.

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Presentation on theme: "S ELF -I NSTRUCTION Wilmington University Trina Forney RN, BSN Diana Givens RN, BSN."— Presentation transcript:

1 S ELF -I NSTRUCTION Wilmington University Trina Forney RN, BSN Diana Givens RN, BSN

2 S ELF -I NSTRUCTION A CTIVITIES Self-instruction is a method utilized by the educator to provide instructional activities that assist the learner in independently achieving the learning objectives of a skill or course These self-study activities are effective in the psychomotor and cognitive domains, where mastery of the information is vital It is an independent activity that allows the learner to go at his or her own pace The educator usually plays the role of the facilitator, providing motivation and reinforcement This method is also referred to as individualized learning activities, mini-courses, and programmed instruction (Bastable, 2008)

3 N ECESSARY ELEMENTS FOR A SELF - INSTRUCTION ACTIVITY Introduction and purpose Table of contents Objectives Intent Directions for use Prerequisite skills to complete assigned module List of behavioral objectives A pretest Resources and learning activities identified Periodic self-assessments A posttest (Bastable, 2008)

4 T HEORETICAL FRAMEWORK THAT SUPPORTS SELF - INSTRUCTION STRATEGIES Theory of Adult Learning --Malcolm Knowles Knowles believed that as people mature, their self-concept shifts, so that their personality develops from a state of dependence to one of self-direction; learning is affected by each persons individual experiences, social role, unique problems, and other internal rather than external forces. (Arky, 2006) Characteristics of Learners in the Adult Learning Theory: Independent Self-directed Motivated Bring life experiences to learning Readiness to learn is associated with the need to know Immediate problem-solvers Appreciate clear objectives and goals Task-persistent Interested in immediate application of knowledge Self-instruction activities are suitable for autonomous, self-directed, & motivated learners. These traits are similar to Knowles educational theory!

5 A PPLICATION OF STRATEGY TO T EACHING SITUATION Assistance with patient education Videotapes – management of a wound vac Diagrams – positioning for breastfeeding Step-by-step instructions – managing peritoneal dialysis catheter Student instruction Distance learning ( and Wiki discussions !! ) Self-learning packets Home-study courses Use as an educational component prior to the practicum requirement for nurses Annual training updates (CPR, ACLS, PALS) NRP (Neonatal Resuscitation) FNE (Forensic nurse examiner) Internet modules, study guides, workshops, and webcams can be utilized for self-instruction. Learner autonomy can be full or partial.

6 A PPROPRIATE SETTINGS TO USE SELF - INSTRUCTION Home or office Health care settings Educational environment Library Computer lab Schools Businesses, industries Military Wow…I can go at my own pace!

7 S ELF -I NSTRUCTION Self-paced Stimulates learning Provides time to reflect and review Continuous feedback Can be easily mastered in a specific time frame Learners may skip ahead to more advanced material Cost-effective and consistent Not suitable for learners with visual and hearing deficits or low literacy skills Requires motivation Not beneficial for procrastinators Can induce boredom if used repeatedly Low teacher-student interaction AdvantagesLimitations

8 W AYS TO ADAPT THE STRATEGY Computer-assisted self-instruction is being utilized for students, medical staff, and patients: Allows feedback on progress as learners respond to software program Teaches patients pre-operative and post-operative care (joint replacement care, wound care, pain management) Mandatory competencies for staff Allow learners to repeat lessons as necessary Computer learning can target broader audiences Provides flexibility in learning You are actually self-instructing right now! Great job!!

9 A RE YOU MOTIVATED ENOUGH TO SELF - INSTRUCT ? self- instruction educational modules can provide similar learning outcomes as a traditional classroom Oh yeah!! I can finish studying these skills after I pick the kids up from school!

10 H OW TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF - INSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES 1. A cognitive post-test can be utilized to evaluate if learners have achieved the stated objectives. Content evaluation allows the educator to determine if learning has occurred. 2. Self-instruction modules are easily accessible to the learners working at their own pace. Only information regarding physical location and/or website to acquire educational material is needed. 3. There can be an infinite number of learners targeted without any time constraints. Internet access makes it possible to acquire sufficient resources for thousands of learners. 4. Accommodating the learners needs depends on the level of autonomy the educational activity provides. Fully autonomous self-learning activities require less assistance from instructor than partial autonomous activities. (Jones, 2003) 5. Self-instruction is one of the most cost-effective instructional methods. Lecturer and location fees, staff compensation, and resource materials are rarely used. Cost of printed educational materials are the only necessary resources required.

11 SUMMARY Overall, self-instruction is an effective instructional method that identifies learner autonomy as a key factor in academic success. It has the potential to target large audiences and it assists independent learners to achieve their learning objectives. Allowing learners to progress at their own pace, stimulating active learning, and providing time to review and reflect on educational materials are just a few advantages of this method. Malcolm Knowles theory of adult learning supports this method because Knowles believed that learners are motivated, self-directed individuals who are willing to learn information that will benefit them. The greatest characteristic of self-instruction is that it can be utilized anywhere! The learner just needs access to the materials and/or internet website. This cost-effective and flexible method of learning is becoming a widespread approach to educating patients, students, and medical staff.

12 S ELF -I NSTRUCTION IS NOT AN EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR ALL LEARNERS ….. How did I get so far behind? What was I thinking?? UGH!!


14 REFERENCES Arky, R. (2006, May 4). The family business: To educate. The New England Journal of Medicine, 354(18), 1922-1926. Bastable, S. B. (2008). Nurse as educator: Principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice (3 rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Carich, G. M., & Rafti, K. R. (2007, Sep-Oct). Experienced registered nurses satisfaction with using self-learning modules versus traditional lecture/discussion to achieve competency goals during hospital orientation. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 23(5), 214-222. Retrieved from CINAHL Chou, M., Lin, M., Hsu, M., Wang, Y., & Hu, H. (2004, Dec). Exploring the self- learning experiences of patients with depression participating in a multimedia education program. Journal of Nursing Research, 12(4), 297-305. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Davies, N., & Gould, D. (2000, May). Updating cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills: A study to examine the efficacy of self-instruction on nurses competence. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 9(3), 400-410. Jones, F. R. (2003). Self-instructed foreign language learning: An annotated bibliography. Retrieved from McMillan, D. E., Bell, S., Benson, E., Mandzuk, L., Matias, D. M., McIvor, M. J., Robertson, J., & Wilkins, K. L. (2007, February). From anxiety to enthusiasm: Facilitating graduate nursing students knowledge development in science and theory. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(2), 88-91. Sung, K. T. (2006, April-June). Literature review on self-regulated learning. Singapore Nursing Journal, 33(2), 38-45.

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