9REASONSThe instructions for any particular map sheet are located in the upper and lower margins of a map. All military maps are not the same, therefore, these instructions must be read each time a different map sheet is used.
10AGENDA Locate key marginal information on a military map. Identify the five different colors used on a map and state what they represent.
11SHEET NAMESheet Name is located in two places. Center of upper margin. Left side of lower margin.Usually named for its outstanding cultural or geographic feature.
12SHEET NUMBER Located in the upper right margin. Used as a reference number for that map sheet.
13SERIES NAMELocated in the upper left margin along with the scale.
14SERIES NUMBERLocated in the upper right margin and the lower left margin.
15EDITION NUMBER Located in the upper margin and the lower left margin. Represents the age of the map in relation to other editions.
16BAR SCALES Located in the center of the lower margin. They are rulers. Used to convert map distance to ground distance.
17ADJOINING SHEET DIAGRAM Location varies with scale sizes.All military maps contain a diagram which illustrates the adjoining sheets.
18INDEX TO BOUNDARIES Located in different places on different maps. Shows the boundaries which occur within the map area.
19GRID NOTE Located in the center of the lower margin. Gives information about the grid system used, the interval of grid lines, and the number of digits omitted from grid values.
20PROJECTION NOTE Located in the lower margin. This projection system is the framework of the map.
21GRID REFERENCE BOX Located in the center of the lower margin. Contains the instructions for composing a grid reference.
22VERTICAL DATUM NOTE Located in the center of the lower margin. Designates the basis for all vertical control stations, contours, and elevations.
23HORIZONTAL DATUM NOTE Located in the center of the lower margin. Indicates the basis for all horizontal control stations.
24LEGEND Located in the lower left margin. Illustrates and identifies the topographic symbols used.
25DECLINATION DIAGRAM Located in the lower margin. Indicates the angular relationships of the true, grid, and magnetic north.
26USER’S NOTE Located in the center of the lower margin. Requests cooperation in correcting errors or omissions.
27UNIT IMPRINT Located in the lower left margin. Identifies the agency that printed the map and the printing date.
28CONTOUR INTERVALLocated in the center of the lower margin.
29SPECIAL NOTES AND SCALES Various locations.Under certain conditions, special notes or scales may be added to the marginal information to aid the map reader.
30CLASSIFICATION Located in the center of the upper and lower margins. Certain maps require a note indicating the security classification.
31STOCK NUMBER IDENTIFICATION Located in the lower left margin.All military maps published by the Corps of Engineers have stock identifications.Used when requisitioning map supplies.
32a Where is the sheet name found? Top center and lower left margin. Where is the contour interval found?Center of the lower margin.Where is the declination diagram found?Lower margin.Where is the elevation guide found?Lower right.
40OBJECTIVEAction: Use marginal information to determine technical specifications about the map and to identify features on the map.Condition: Given a 1:50,000 scale military map.Standard: IAW FM 21-26
41AGENDA Locate key marginal information on a military map. Identify the five different colors used on a map and state what they represent.
42REVIEW Where is the grid reference box found? Located in the center of the lower margin.Where is the contour interval found?Where is the declination diagram found?Located in the lower margin.
43REVIEW What does black indicate? Cultural or man-made features. What does blue indicate?Water features.What does green indicate?Vegetation.What does brown indicate?Contour lines.What does red indicate?Main roads, built-up areas.
44REASONS To aid you in finding necessary information on the map sheet. To aid you in interpreting symbols and colors on a military map.
47OBJECTIVEAction: Determine an 8-digit grid coordinate within 10 meters, including the grid zone designator and 100,000 meter square.Condition: Given a 1:50,000 military scale map, protractor, pencil, and an unknown point.Standard: Within two minutes.
48REFERENCE FM 21-26 - Map Reading and Land Navigation Chapter #4 Pages 4-1 through 4-18
49REASONTo become a Special Forces Soldier, you must be able to navigate cross-country using a map, compass, and protractor, under any conditions
50AGENDA Explain Military Grid Reference System. Determine Grid Zone Designator.Determine 100,000 Square Identifier.Determine a grid coordinate.
52UNIVERSAL POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC GRID (UPS) Letters: A, B, Y, and Z used.Each polar area is divided into two zones separated by the meridian.
53UPS GRID ZONE DESIGNATOR wY ZA B180SOUTH POLENORTH POLEE18 0Z YB ASOUTH POLENORTH POLEEW
54UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR (UTM) Designed to cover a part of the world between latitude 84`N and latitude 80`SConsist of 60 zonesArea coverby UTM grid system
55UTM GRID cont.Each zone is 6 degrees wide by 8 degrees high and 6 degrees wide by 12 degrees high.Zones are numbered from west to east, 1-60, starting at the 180 degree meridian.This surface is divided into 20 east-west rows in which 19 rows are 6 degrees wide, 8 degrees high, and 1 row in the extreme north is 6 degrees wide, 12 degrees high.
56UTM GRID cont.These rows are then lettered from S-N, C through X (letters O and I omitted).Any 6 degree by 8 degree, or 6 degree by 12 degree zone can be identified by giving the number and letter of the grid zone and row in which it lies.Read right then up.This combination of zone number and row letter constitutes the grid zone designation.
57UTM GRID ZONE DESIGNATION (17S) XSRUPERIGHTD4516175354555657585960C123180`174`168`162`180`162`168`174`
58100,000-METER SQUARE IDENTIFIER Between 84 degrees N and 80 degrees S, each zone is covered by 100,000-meter square that is identified by the combination of two alphabetical letters.
59UTM GRID ZONE 6 17S 8 180 174 168 162 156 100,000-METER SQUARE U R T T WIDE17SURTQT8HIGHSUPRP R SQRIGHTPOR 6 WIDE BY 12 HIGH180174168162156N
61100,000-METER SQUARE IDENTIFIER cont. First letter is the column designation.Second letter is the row designation.100,000-meter square identification letters are located in the grid reference box in marginal information on the map.
62GRID ZONE DESIGNATION AND 100,000 METER SQUARE IDENTIFICATION (17SPU)84`96`90`TUXUGNPUYPCNBNTNGT17SXNYN16WBTCTTMXMCSGSYMBSTLXLGRYLCRBRTKXKGQPKBQCQTJCPGPXJYJBP
63GRID COORDINATE SCALE Divides a grid square more accurately. Designed to plot grid coordinates.GTA (1993)
64GRID COORDINATE SCALE1:50 scale subdivides the 1,000-meter grid block into 10 major sub-divisions.Each equal to 100 meters.Each 100 meter block is divided in half, equal to 50 meters.
65GRID COORDINATE SCALE cont. 1:25,000-scale subdivides the 1,000-meter grid block into 10 major sub-divisions.Each equal to 100 meters.Each 100-meter block has five graduations, each equal to 20 meters.
66READING COORDINATE SCALE Place zero index line at lower left corner of grid square.Keep scale on lower horizontal grid line.Slide it right until the point for which the coordinates are desired, touches the edge of the scale.
68READING COORDINATE SCALE cont. Ensure that one side of the scale is horizontally aligned with the east-west grid line and that the other side of the scale is vertically parallel with the north-south grid line.Read right, then up.
69READING COORDINATE SCALE cont. The precision of a reference point is shown by the number of digits in the coordinate.4 digit – 1,000 meter square6 digit – nearest 100 meter8 digit – nearest 10 meter10 digit – nearest 1 meter
70RECORD COORDINATES IN SEQUENCE Grid Zone Designation100,000-meter square identificationComplete east and north coordinatesRead right, then up.
71RECORD COORDINATE IN SEQUENCE cont. PU100,000-MSQUAREIDENTIFICATIONEIGHT DIGIT GRIDGRID ZONE DESIGNATION17SPU
72PRACTICAL EXERCISEWhat is the 8 digit grid for the only building located in grid square 17SPU 23 78?17SPUWhat is the 8 digit grid for the church in grid 17SPU 32 84?17SPUWhat is located at 17SPU ?A school
73PRACTICAL EXERCISE cont. What is the 8 digit grid for BM in grid 17SPU 33 84?17SPUWhat is located at 17SPU ?A mineWhere are you standing if you are at grid 17SPU ?A six-way intersection
75OBJECTIVEAction: Determine an 8-digit grid coordinate within 10 meters, including the grid zone designator and 100,000 meter square.Condition: Given a 1:50,000 military scale map, protractor, pencil, and an unknown point.Standard: Within two minutes.
76AGENDA Explain Military Grid Reference System. Determine Grid Zone Designator.Determine 100,000 Square Identifier.Determine a grid coordinate.
77REVIEWThe Military Grid Reference System is divided into two parts, what are they?UPS and UTMWhere are the GEO coordinates taken from?Prime Meridian, Equator, and Reference LinesThe UTM is divided into how many zones?60 zonesThe UPS is divided into how many zones?4 zones
78REVIEW cont. What letters are used to identify the polar areas? A, B, Y, and Z
79REASONTo become a Special Forces Soldier, you must be able to navigate cross-country using a map, compass, and protractor, under any conditions
82OBJECTIVEAction: Express an azimuth and back azimuth, convert a grid/magnetic azimuth, state a direction as a unit of angular measurement, determine a grid azimuth, and plot directions.Condition: Given a 1:50,000 military scale map, protractor, and pencil.Standard: IAW 21-26
87DEGREES Most commonly used unit of measurement. Sub-divided into minutes and seconds.360 degrees in a complete circle.
88EXPRESSING DIRECTION Start point. Point of reference. These two points designate a base line or reference line.
89BASELINES OR REFERENCES Magnetic NorthGrid NorthTrue North
90MAGNETIC NORTH Direction to the north magnetic pole. Indicated by magnetic instrument.Symbolized by a half arrow.
91GRID NORTH Established by vertical grid lines on a map. Symbolized by the letters GN.
92TRUE NORTHLine from any position on the earth’s surface to the North Pole.All lines of Longitude are True North lines.Symbolized by a star.
93AZIMUTHSAn azimuth is a horizontal angle measured in a clock-wise manner from a north baseline.
94BACK AZIMUTHReverse direction of an azimuth and is comparable to an about-face.If the azimuth is more than 180 degrees, subtract 180.If the azimuth is less than 180 degrees, add 180.
95CONVERT TO BACK AZIMUTHS 84 degrees172 degrees263 degrees356 degrees264 degrees352 degrees83 degrees176 degrees
96DECLINATION DIAGRAM The declination diagram is located on most maps. Declination is the angular difference between True North and either Magnetic or Grid North.The two types of declinations are: Magnetic and Grid.
97GRID-MAGNETIC ANGLE (G-M ANGLE) An arc indicated by a dashed line.Connects the grid and magnetic north prongs or baselines.Labeled with size of angle and year it was prepared.Where is the G-M Angle located on your map?What is the G-M Angle on your map?
98CONVERTING AZIMUTHSLook at your Declination Diagram and read it !
99G-M ANGLE Convert the following using the G-M Angle on your map. 45 degrees MAG240 degrees MAG359 degrees GRID5 degrees Grid37 degrees GRID232 degrees GRID7 degrees MAG13 degrees MAG
101PLOTTING DIRECTIONS cont. Place Start Point on the map.Place End Point on the map.A line connecting the two points.Place the center of the protractor over the start point.Make sure the protractor is aligned correctly.Read your grid azimuth.Convert grid to magnetic.Move out !
102MOST COMMON MISTAKEThe most common cause of failure while land navigating is improper plotting.Plot once and erase it.Re-read and re-plot, two more times.When you have the same plot three times, you know you are correctly plotted.
103PRACTICAL EXERCISE Start Point: 17SPU 2146 9619 End Point: 17SPUWhat are the Grid and Magnetic azimuths?Grid – 206 degreesMagnetic – 214 degrees
104PRACTICAL EXERCISE cont. Start Point: 17SPUEnd Point: 17SPUWhat is the azimuth you are going to walk with your compass?007 degrees MAG
105PRACTICAL EXERCISE cont. Start Point: 17SPUEnd Point: 17SPUWhat is the azimuth you are going to walk with your compass?278 degrees MAG
107OBJECTIVEAction: Express an azimuth and back azimuth, convert a grid/magnetic azimuth, state a direction as a unit of angular measurement, determine a grid azimuth, and plot directions.Condition: Given a 1:50,000 military scale map, protractor, and pencil.Standard: IAW 21-26
108AGENDA Express an azimuth and back azimuth. Convert a grid and/or magnetic azimuth.State a direction as a unit of angular measurement.Determine a grid azimuth.Plot directions on a military map.
109REVIEW WHAT IS THE GM ANGLE ON YOUR MAP 8 DEGREES TO CONVERT A MAGNETIC TO A GRID AZIMUTH WHAT DO YOU DOSUBTRACT THE GM ANGLE
110REASONTo become a Special Forces Soldier, you must be able to navigate cross-country using a map, compass, and protractor, under any conditions
121MAP AND COMPASS METHOD OF INTERSECTION Once you have oriented the map…Locate and mark your position on the map.Find the magnetic azimuth to the unknown point.Convert to a grid azimuth.Place the protractor on the map.Ensure the zero degree indicator is pointed to the top of the map.
122MAP AND COMPASS METHOD OF INTERSECTION cont. Place a tick mark on the azimuth from your location to the unknown point.Draw a light line on your map.Move to another known point and repeat the steps.The intersecting point of the lines is the unknown location.
123INTERSECTION MAP AND COMPASS EXAMPLE Known point A, 45 degree az. MAGKnown point B, 320 degree az. MAGUnknown point.BA17SPU
124INTERSECTION MAP AND COMPASS PE From: grid 17SPU BM 199.9142 degrees MAGFrom: grid 17SPU Belford church 208 degrees MAG17SPU
125INTERSECTION MAP AND COMPASS PE cont. Grid 17SPU degrees MAGGrid 17SPU degrees MAG17SPU
126STRAIGHTEDGE METHOD OF INTERSECTION The straightedge method is used without a compass to find an unknown point.Orient the map by terrain.Lay the straightedge on the map.Use your position as a pivot point.Rotate the straightedge until it lines up with the unknown point.Draw a line.Move to another point and repeat the steps.Find the eight-digit grid to the intersecting lines.
127RESECTION The method of locating one’s unknown position on a map. Determine the grid azimuth to at least two known points.
128RESECTION MAP AND COMPASS METHOD Orient the map.Identify at least two locations on the ground and mark them on the map.Take a magnetic azimuth to these locations.Convert them to grid azimuths.Change to a back azimuth.Using the protractor, measure from the known position back to your location.
129RESECTION MAP AND COMPASS METHOD cont. Mark this on the map.Repeat this using a second known location.The intersection is your location.Find the eight digit grid.
130MAP AND COMPASS RESECTION PE From: grid 17SPU look out tower 207 degrees MAGFrom: grid 17SPU hill top 338 degrees MAG17SPU
131STRAIGHTEDGE METHOD OF RESECTION Used to identify your location by orienting the map with terrain features, then using the straightedge to find your location.
132STRAIGHTEDGE METHOD OF RESECTION cont. Orient the map with the terrain.Locate two known points.Lay the straightedge on the map.Use the known point as a pivot point to line up with your position.Mark it on your map.Repeat these steps.The point where the lines intersect is your location.Record the eight digit grid coordinate.
133MODIFIED RESECTIONNeeds only one known location to find your unknown position.You must be located on a linear terrain feature.
134MODIFIED RESECTION cont. Orient the map.Locate a known object.Determine the magnetic azimuth to the known point.Convert to a grid azimuth.Convert to a back azimuth.Plot the azimuth on your map from the known point to your position.
135POLAR PLOT Used to locate an unknown point from your location. You must know the distance to the unknown point.
143OBJECTIVE Action: Determine the elevation of a point on a map. Condition: Given a 1:50,000 scale military map, grid coordinate scale, and protractor.Standard: IAW FM 21-26
144REASONTo become a Special Forces Soldier, you must be able to navigate cross-country using a map, compass, and protractor, under any conditions
145AGENDA Define elevation and relief. Describe the five methods of depicting relief.Identify ten terrain features.Identify four types of slopes.Measure elevation on a map.Identify bench marks and spot elevations.
146ELEVATIONTo measure elevation and relief, you need a reference point or start point.The start point is referred to as the datum plane or mean sea level.Mean sea level is the point halfway between high and low tide.Elevation is a point on the earth’s surface which is a vertical distance above or below mean sea level.
147RELIEFThe representation of the shapes of hills, valley, streams, and other terrain features on the earth’s surface.
149LAYER TINTING Shows relief by color. Legend depicts elevation. Disadvantage of not knowing the exact elevations.HighMediumLow18814216785
150FORM LINES Indicated by dashed lines. Are not measured from any datum plane.Have no standard elevation and are never labeled with elevations.
151RELIEF SHADING AND HACHURES Uses a shadow effect, a result of darkening one side of a terrain feature.The darker the shading the steeper the slope.May be used with contour lines.HachuresShort, broken lines used to show relief.May be used with contour lines.Don’t represent exact elevations.Primarily used on small scale maps.
152CONTOUR LINES Most common method of showing relief. Represents an imaginary line on the ground connecting points of equal elevation.The vertical distance between adjacent contour lines is known as?The contour interval.
153TYPES OF CONTOUR LINES Index Every 5th line, heavier, and numbered. IntermediateFall between index lines, not numbered.SupplementaryDashed lines used for sudden elevation changes 1/2 the contour interval.
177OBJECTIVE Action: Determine the elevation of a point on a map. Condition: Given a 1:50,000 scale military map, grid coordinate scale, and protractor.Standard: IAW FM
178AGENDA Define elevation and relief. Describe the five methods of depicting relief.Identify ten terrain features.Identify four types of slopes.Measure elevation on a map.Identify bench marks and spot elevations
183OBJECTIVE Action: Measure distance on a map Condition: In a classroom environment, measure straight and curved lined distance from two known pointsStandards: Measure straight and curved line distance from two known points within 50 meter accuracy
188MEASURING STRAIGHT LINE DISTANCE Lay a straight-edged piece of paper on the map so that the edge of the paper touches both points and extends past them.Make a tick mark on the edge of the paper at each point.Measure the distance between the points using the correct unit of measure on the bar scale
190DETERMING STRAIGHT LINE DISTANCE WITH GRAPHIC (BAR) SCALE
191MEASURING CURVED DISTANCE An 8 digit grid should be used for start and finish pointPlace a tick mark on the paper and map at the beginning pointAlign the edge of the paper along a straight portion and make a tick mark on both map and paperContinue to follow the road with the edge of the paper insuring to make tick marks on the map and paper.
199MEASURING DISTANCE PEWhat is the straight line distance in meters from BM in grid 17SPU 2180 to BM in grid 17SPU 24792950 metersWhat is the distance from BM 97.3 in grid 17SPU 2883 to the intersection located at 17SPU4110 meters
201OBJECTIVES Action: Measure distance on a map Condition: In a classroom environment, measure straight and curved lined distance from two known pointsStandards: Measure straight and curved line distance from two known points within 50 meter accuracy
202AGENDA Graphic (Bar) Scale Measure Straight Line Distance Measure Curved Line DistanceDetermine Exact DistanceRead Extension Scale
203REVIEW Which way do you read the extension scale Right to Left What size increments is the extension scale broken down into10 meter incrementsWho is the best Land Navigation instructor in SFQC PH 1ASFC Lewis
204REASONTo become a Special Forces Soldier, you must be able to navigate cross-country using a map, compass, and protractor, under any conditions
207PACE The pace course is broken down by 200, 100, and 50 meters. The course is over wooded terrain.Will be conducted during daylight and evening hours.
208PACE COURSE EXPLAINEDA pace is considered two steps, usually starting with the left foot.If you start with the left foot (and you will), the pace is counted each time the right foot hits the ground.Starting at Point # 1, you will go out to the 200 meter mark (striped stake with 200 meters marked on it), turn and go back to the start point, keeping the TOTAL number of paces.The total number will then be divided by four to give you your pace count for 100 meters.The 100 and 50 meter markers are only there as reference points. (they are marked in the same manner as the 200 meter stake)
209DRIFT Every soldier drifts left or right moving through the woods. It is important to know if you drift left or right.By knowing which way you drift you know that you will almost always be to the left or to the right of your point.
211PACE AND DRIFT COURSE EXPLAINED When you get to your assigned start point, read the plaque.The plaque will give you a distance in meters, and an azimuth which is a GRID azimuth (convert it).Follow the azimuth using your pace count to go the correct distance.When moving on azimuth, make sure you alternate right and left when going around obstacles.
212PACE AND DRIFT COURSE EXPLAINED cont. Continue on azimuth until you get to the end of your pace count and stop.If you have not reached a stake, continue ON AZIMUTH until you get to a stake.If you have passed a row of stakes, take a back azimuth, back to the passed row and stop when you get to a stake.Write down the color and number of the stake, and again, read the plaque and follow the direction.
213PACE AND DRIFT COURSE EXPLAINED cont. Once you get to your fourth point (not counting your start point), go back to Point #1 in the lane.
215WHITE LANE EXPLAINED KNOW the color lane you left from. The white lane has blue and red plaques.If you just came from the red lane, follow the instructions on the RED plaque.If you came from the blue lane follow the instructions on the BLUE plaque.Any questions?
216Distance and Azimuth Walked DRIFTDistance and Azimuth WalkedCorrect Distanceand Azimuth
217Distance and Azimuth Walked DRIFTCorrect Distanceand AzimuthDistance and Azimuth Walked